Marion Township, Marion County, Ohio
Marion Township is one of the fifteen townships of Marion County, United States. The 2010 census found 44,749 people in the township. Located in the center of the county, it borders the following townships: Grand Prairie Township - north Scott Township - northeast corner Claridon Township - east Richland Township - southeast corner Pleasant Township - south Green Camp Township - southwest Big Island Township - west Salt Rock Township - northwest cornerMost of the city of Marion, the county seat of Marion County, is located in central Marion Township, it is one of twelve Marion Townships statewide. The township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election.
Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. County website
A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition, expelled from the gun barrel during shooting. The term is from Middle French and originated as the diminutive of the word boulle, which means "small ball". Bullets are made of a variety of materials such as copper, steel, polymer and wax, they are available either singly as in muzzleloading and cap and ball firearms or as a component of paper cartridges, but much more in the form of metallic cartridges. Bullets are made in a large number of shapes and constructions depending on the intended applications, including specialized functions such as hunting, target shooting and combat. Though the word "bullet" is used incorrectly in colloquial language to refer to a cartridge round, a bullet is not a cartridge but rather a component of one. A round of ammunition cartridge is a combination package of the bullet, the case, the propellant and the primer; this use of the term "bullet" when intending to describe a cartridge leads to confusion when the components of a cartridge are referred to.
Bullet sizes are expressed by their weights and diameters in both imperial and metric measurement systems. For example: 55 grain.223 caliber bullets are of the same weight and caliber as 3.56 gram 5.56mm caliber bullets. The bullets used in many cartridges are fired at muzzle velocities faster than the speed of sound — about 343 metres per second in dry air at 20 °C — and thus can travel a substantial distance to a target before a nearby observer hears the sound of the shot; the sound of gunfire is accompanied with a loud bullwhip-like crack as the supersonic bullet pierces through the air creating a sonic boom. Bullet speeds at various stages of flight depend on intrinsic factors such as its sectional density, aerodynamic profile and ballistic coefficient, extrinsic factors such as barometric pressure, air temperature and wind speed. Subsonic cartridges fire bullets slower than the speed of sound; this means that a subsonic cartridge, such as.45 ACP, can be quieter than a supersonic cartridge such as the.223 Remington without the use of a suppressor.
Bullets do not contain explosives, but damage the intended target by transferring kinetic energy upon impact and penetration. The first use of gunpowder in Europe was recorded in 1247, it had been used in China for hundreds of years. The cannon appeared in 1327. In 1364, the hand cannon appeared. Early projectiles were made of stone. Stone was used in hand cannon. In cannon it was found that stone would not penetrate stone fortifications which gave rise to the use of heavier metals for the round projectiles. Hand cannon projectiles developed in a similar fashion following the failure of stone from siege cannon; the first recorded instance of a metal ball from a hand cannon penetrating armor occurred in 1425. In this photograph of shot retrieved from the wreck of the Mary Rose, sunk in 1545 and raised in 1982; the round shot are of different sizes and some are stone while others are cast iron. The development of the hand culverin and matchlock arquebus brought about the use of cast lead balls as projectiles.
"Bullet" is derived from the French word boulette, which means "little ball". The original round musket ball was smaller than the bore of the barrel, it was loaded into the barrel first, just resting upon the powder, using some sort of material as a wadding, between the ball and the powder as well as over the ball to keep it in place, it held the bullet in the barrel and against the powder. The loading of muskets was, easy with the old smooth-bore Brown Bess and similar military muskets; the original muzzle-loading rifle, was loaded with a piece of leather or cloth wrapped around the ball, to allow the ball to engage the grooves in the barrel. Loading was a bit more difficult when the bore of the barrel was fouled from previous firings. For this reason, because rifles were not fitted for a bayonet, early rifles were not used for military purposes; the first half of the nineteenth century saw a distinct change in the shape and function of the bullet. In 1826, Henri-Gustave Delvigne, a French infantry officer, invented a breech with abrupt shoulders on which a spherical bullet was rammed down until it caught the rifling grooves.
Delvigne's method, deformed the bullet and was inaccurate. Square bullets have origins that pre-date civilization and were used by slingers in slings, they were made out of copper or lead. The most notable use of square bullet designs was done by, James Puckle and Kyle Tunis who patented them, where they were used in one version of the Puckle gun; the early use of these in the black-powder era was soon discontinued due to irregular and unpredictable flight patterns. Delvigne continued to develop bullet design and by 1830 had started to develop cylindro-conical bullets, his bullet designs were improved by Francois Tamisier with the addition of "ball grooves" which are known as "cannelures", these moved the resistance of air behind the center of gravity of the bullet. Tamisier developed progressive rifling; the rifle grooves were deeper toward the breech, becoming shallower as they progressed toward the muzzle. This causes the bullet to be progressively molded into the grooves which incre
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all isotopes of uranium are unstable, with half-lives varying between 159,200 years and 4.5 billion years. The most common isotopes in natural uranium are uranium-238 and uranium-235. Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements, its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, lower than that of gold or tungsten. It occurs in low concentrations of a few parts per million in soil and water, is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite. In nature, uranium is found as uranium-238, uranium-235, a small amount of uranium-234. Uranium decays by emitting an alpha particle; the half-life of uranium-238 is about 4.47 billion years and that of uranium-235 is 704 million years, making them useful in dating the age of the Earth.
Many contemporary uses of uranium exploit its unique nuclear properties. Uranium-235 is the only occurring fissile isotope, which makes it used in nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons. However, because of the tiny amounts found in nature, uranium needs to undergo enrichment so that enough uranium-235 is present. Uranium-238 is fissionable by fast neutrons, is fertile, meaning it can be transmuted to fissile plutonium-239 in a nuclear reactor. Another fissile isotope, uranium-233, can be produced from natural thorium and is important in nuclear technology. Uranium-238 has a small probability for spontaneous fission or induced fission with fast neutrons. In sufficient concentration, these isotopes maintain a sustained nuclear chain reaction; this generates the heat in nuclear power reactors, produces the fissile material for nuclear weapons. Depleted uranium is used in kinetic energy penetrators and armor plating. Uranium is used as a colorant in uranium glass. Uranium glass fluoresces green in ultraviolet light.
It was used for tinting and shading in early photography. The 1789 discovery of uranium in the mineral pitchblende is credited to Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who named the new element after the discovered planet Uranus. Eugène-Melchior Péligot was the first person to isolate the metal and its radioactive properties were discovered in 1896 by Henri Becquerel. Research by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, Enrico Fermi and others, such as J. Robert Oppenheimer starting in 1934 led to its use as a fuel in the nuclear power industry and in Little Boy, the first nuclear weapon used in war. An ensuing arms race during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons that used uranium metal and uranium-derived plutonium-239; the security of those weapons and their fissile material following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 is an ongoing concern for public health and safety. See Nuclear proliferation; when refined, uranium is a weakly radioactive metal.
It has a Mohs hardness of 6, sufficient to scratch glass and equal to that of titanium, rhodium and niobium. It is malleable, ductile paramagnetic electropositive and a poor electrical conductor. Uranium metal has a high density of 19.1 g/cm3, denser than lead, but less dense than tungsten and gold. Uranium metal reacts with all non-metal elements and their compounds, with reactivity increasing with temperature. Hydrochloric and nitric acids dissolve uranium, but non-oxidizing acids other than hydrochloric acid attack the element slowly; when finely divided, it can react with cold water. Uranium in ores is extracted chemically and converted into uranium dioxide or other chemical forms usable in industry. Uranium-235 was the first isotope, found to be fissile. Other occurring isotopes are fissionable, but not fissile. On bombardment with slow neutrons, its uranium-235 isotope will most of the time divide into two smaller nuclei, releasing nuclear binding energy and more neutrons. If too many of these neutrons are absorbed by other uranium-235 nuclei, a nuclear chain reaction occurs that results in a burst of heat or an explosion.
In a nuclear reactor, such a chain reaction is slowed and controlled by a neutron poison, absorbing some of the free neutrons. Such neutron absorbent materials are part of reactor control rods; as little as 15 lb of uranium-235 can be used to make an atomic bomb. The first nuclear bomb used in war, Little Boy, relied on uranium fission, but the first nuclear explosive and the bomb that destroyed Nagasaki were both plutonium bombs. Uranium metal has three allotropic forms: α stable up to 668 °C. Orthorhombic, space group No. 63, lattice parameters a = 285.4 pm, b = 587 pm, c = 495.5 pm. Β stable from 668 °C to 775 °C. Tetragonal, space group P42/mnm, P42nm, or P4n2, lattice parameters a = 565.6 pm, b = c = 1075.9 pm. Γ from 775 °C to melting point—this is the most malleable and ductile state. Body-centered cubic, lattice parameter a = 352.4 pm. The major application of uranium in the military sector is
Grand Prairie Township, Marion County, Ohio
Grand Prairie Township is one of the fifteen townships of Marion County, United States. The 2010 census found 1,590 people in the township. Located in the northern part of the county, it borders the following townships: Antrim Township, Wyandot County - north Dallas Township, Crawford County - northeast Scott Township - east Claridon Township - southeast corner Marion Township - south Big Island Township - southwest corner Salt Rock Township - west Pitt Township, Wyandot County - northwest cornerNo municipalities are located in Grand Prairie Township, it is the only Grand Prairie Township statewide. The only settlement in Grand Prairie Township is that of the unincorporated community of Brush Ridge; the township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election.
Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. County website
United States Rubber Company
The United States Rubber Company is an American manufacturer of tires and other synthetic rubber-related products, as well as variety of items for military use, such as ammunition and operations and maintenance activities at the government-owned contractor-operated facilities. It was founded in Naugatuck, Connecticut, in 1892, it was one of the original 12 stocks in the Dow Jones Industrial Average, became Uniroyal, Inc. as part of creating a unified brand for its products and subsidiaries in 1961. In 1990, Uniroyal was acquired by French tire maker Michelin and ceased to exist as a separate business. Today around 1,000 workers in the U. S. remain employed by Michelin to make its Uniroyal brand products. The company's long-lived advertisement slogan was "United States Tires are Good Tires."One of Uniroyal's best known tires is the Tiger Paw introduced in the 1960s and included as original equipment for that decade's muscle cars such as the Pontiac GTO, which itself was promoted as The Tiger during its early years.
Today, Uniroyal still uses the Tiger Paw brand name in its tire line. In North America and Peru, the Uniroyal brand has been owned by Michelin since 1990, outside those regions, the Uniroyal brand has been owned by Continental AG since 1979 following their acquisition of Uniroyal Europe known as Englebert. By 1892, there were many rubber manufacturing companies in Naugatuck, Connecticut, as well as elsewhere in Connecticut. Nine companies consolidated their operations in Naugatuck to become the United States Rubber Company, it should be noted that one of the nine, Goodyear's India Rubber Glove Mfg. Co. – which manufactured rubber gloves for telegraph linemen – was the only company in which Charles Goodyear, inventor of the rubber vulcanization process, is known to have owned stock. From 1892 to 1913, the rubber footwear divisions of U. S. Rubber manufactured their products under 30 different brand names, including the Wales-Goodyear Shoe Co; the company consolidated these footwear brands under one name, Keds, in 1916, were mass-marketed as the first flexible rubber-sole with canvas-top "sneakers" in 1917.
On May 26, 1896, Charles Dow created the Dow Industrial average of twelve industrial manufacturing stocks, which included among them U. S. Rubber Company; when the average expanded to a list of 20 stocks in 1916, U. S. Rubber remained, however the listing expanded to 30 stocks in 1928 and U. S. Rubber was dropped. In an effort to increase its share of the automobile tire market in 1931, U. S. Rubber Company bought a substantial portion of the Gillette Safety Tire Company; the company was founded in 1916 by Raymond B. Gillette and its primary manufacturing plant was located in Wisconsin; the Gillette plant held large contracts with the General Motors Corporation and with the addition of U. S. Rubber products, became one of the world's largest suppliers of original equipment tires. U. S. Rubber produced tires under the Gillette, Atlas, U. S. Rubber and U. S. Royal brands. In 1940, U. S. Rubber purchased the remainder of the Gillette Safety Tire Company, began to expand and modernize the Eau Claire factory increasing production.
During World War II, U. S. Rubber factories were devoted to production of war goods, produced military truck and airplane tires, as well as the canvas-top, rubber-soled Jungle boot for soldiers and marines serving in tropical and jungle environments. U. S. Rubber ranked 37th among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. In 1942, the United States government restricted the sale of scarce rubber products for civilian use and production at the plant dwindled; the company sold the Eau Claire plant to the government, which converted it for the manufacture of small caliber ammunition and renamed it the Eau Claire Ordnance plant. By December 31, 1943, the need for tires outweighed the need for ammunition. U. S. Rubber repurchased the plant from the government for more than US$1 million, converted it back to synthetic rubber tire production; the company began an expansion and modernization program at the plant that lasted through 1951. When it ended, the Eau Claire plant was the fifth largest tire facility in the United States.
The company again expanded the plant in 1965 to produce tires for construction machinery, for many years it was the largest private employer in Eau Claire and the second largest in neighboring Chippewa Falls before it was closed in 1991. In late 1943, U. S. Rubber engineer Dr. Louis Marick developed a propeller de-icing system in which a rubber boot was fitted onto the leading edge of a propeller; the boot contained wires that conducted electricity to heat the break-up ice. In 1958, Uniroyal entered into a partnership with the Englebert tire company of Liège, which became known as Uniroyal Englebert Deutschland AG. In 1963, the name was shortened to Uniroyal-Englebert, in 1967 it became Uniroyal along with all company divisions. Uniroyal sold this division with its four factories in Belgium, Germany and Scotland to Continental AG in 1979. Continental continues to market tires under the Uniroyal brand outside Colombia and Peru. Uniroyal operations in Canada were carried out under the name Dominion Rubber Company for a number of decades.
Dominion started operations as Brown and Bourne, established in 1854. In 1866, the company registered as the Canadian Rubber Company of Montreal Limited and became prosperous manufacturing waterproof cloth, rubber footwear and machinery belts, it began to produce auto tires in 1906 in its Montreal factory and through a series of mergers with other companies in Ontario and Quebec became the Canadian Consolidated Rubber Company Limited. After another series of mergers, the company became the Domini
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well