A price index is a normalized average of price relatives for a given class of goods or services in a given region, during a given interval of time. It is a statistic designed to help to compare how these price relatives, taken as a whole, differ between time periods or geographical locations. Price indices have several potential uses. For broad indices, the index can be said to measure the economy's general price level or a cost of living. More narrow price indices can help producers with pricing. Sometimes, they can be useful in helping to guide investment; some notable price indices include: Consumer price index Producer price index Employment cost index Export price index Import price index GDP deflator No clear consensus has emerged on who created the first price index. The earliest reported research in this area came from Welshman Rice Vaughan, who examined price level change in his 1675 book A Discourse of Coin and Coinage. Vaughan wanted to separate the inflationary impact of the influx of precious metals brought by Spain from the New World from the effect due to currency debasement.
Vaughan compared labor statutes from his own time to similar statutes dating back to Edward III. These statutes provided a good record of the change in wage levels. Vaughan reasoned that the market for basic labor did not fluctuate much with time and that a basic laborer's salary would buy the same amount of goods in different time periods, so that a laborer's salary acted as a basket of goods. Vaughan's analysis indicated that price levels in England had risen six- to eight-fold over the preceding century. While Vaughan can be considered a forerunner of price index research, his analysis did not involve calculating an index. In 1707, Englishman William Fleetwood created the first true price index. An Oxford student asked Fleetwood to help show; the student stood to lose his fellowship since a 15th-century stipulation barred students with annual incomes over five pounds from receiving a fellowship. Fleetwood, who had an interest in price change, had collected a large amount of price data going back hundreds of years.
Fleetwood proposed an index consisting of averaged price relatives and used his methods to show that the value of five pounds had changed over the course of 260 years. He argued on behalf of the Oxford students and published his findings anonymously in a volume entitled Chronicon Preciosum. Given a set C of goods and services, the total market value of transactions in C in some period t would be ∑ c ∈ C where p c, t represents the prevailing price of c in period t q c, t represents the quantity of c sold in period t If, across two periods t 0 and t n, the same quantities of each good or service were sold, but under different prices q c, t n = q c = q c, t 0 ∀ c and P = ∑ ∑ would be a reasonable measure of the price of the set in one period relative to that in the other, would provide an index measuring relative prices overall, weighted by quantities sold. Of course, for any practical purpose, quantities purchased are if identical across any two periods; as such, this is not a practical index formula.
One might be tempted to modify the formula to P = ∑ ∑ This new index, does not do anything to distinguish growth or reduction in quantities sold from price changes. To see that this is so, consider what happens if all the prices double between t 0 and t n, while quantities stay the same: P
Leon Trotsky was a Russian revolutionary, Marxist theorist, Soviet politician whose particular strain of Marxist thought is known as Trotskyism. Supporting the Menshevik-Internationalists faction within the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, he joined the Bolsheviks just before the 1917 October Revolution becoming a leader within the Communist Party, he would go on to become one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 to manage the Bolshevik Revolution. During the early days of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and as the founder and commander of the Red Army, with the title of People's Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs, he became a major figure in the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War. After leading a failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and against the increasing role of bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, Trotsky was removed as Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, removed from the Politburo, removed from the Central Committee, expelled from the Communist Party, exiled to Alma–Ata, exiled from the Soviet Union.
As the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union while in exile. Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico City by a Spanish-born NKVD agent. On 20 August 1940, Mercader attacked Trotsky with an ice axe and Trotsky died the next day in a hospital. Mercader acted upon instruction from Stalin and was nearly beaten to death by Trotsky's bodyguards, spent the next 20 years in a Mexican prison for the murder. Stalin presented Mercader with an Order of Lenin in absentia. Trotsky's ideas formed the basis of Trotskyism, a major school of Marxist thought that opposes the theories of Stalinism, he was written out of the history books under Stalin, was one of the few Soviet political figures, not rehabilitated by the government under Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950s. Leon Trotsky was born Lev Davidovich Bronstein on 7 November 1879, the fifth child of a Ukrainian-Jewish family of wealthy farmers in Yanovka or Yanivka, in the Kherson governorate of the Russian Empire, a small village 24 kilometres from the nearest post office.
His parents were his wife Anna Lvovna. Trotsky's father was born in Poltava, moved to Bereslavka, as it had a large Jewish community; the language spoken at home was a mixture of Ukrainian. Trotsky's younger sister, who grew up to be a Bolshevik and a Soviet politician, married the prominent Bolshevik Lev Kamenev; some authors, notably Robert Service, have claimed that Trotsky's childhood first name was the Yiddish Leiba. The American Trotskyist David North said that this was an assumption based on Trotsky's Jewish birth, contrary to Service's claims, there is no documentary evidence to support his using a Yiddish name, when that language was not spoken by his family. Both North and Walter Laqueur in their books say that Trotsky's childhood name was Lyova, a standard Russian diminutive of the name Lev. North has compared the speculation on Trotsky's given name to the undue emphasis given to his having a Jewish surname; when Trotsky was eight, his father sent him to Odessa to be educated. He was enrolled in a German-language school, which became Russified during his years in Odessa as a result of the Imperial government's policy of Russification.
As Isaac Deutscher notes in his biography of Trotsky, Odessa was a bustling cosmopolitan port city unlike the typical Russian city of the time. This environment contributed to the development of the young man's international outlook. Although Trotsky spoke French and German to a good standard, he said in his autobiography My Life that he was never fluent in any language but Russian and Ukrainian. Raymond Molinier wrote. Trotsky became involved in revolutionary activities in 1896 after moving to the harbor town of Nikolayev on the Ukrainian coast of the Black Sea. At first a narodnik, he opposed Marxism but was won over to Marxism that year by his future first wife, Aleksandra Sokolovskaya. Instead of pursuing a mathematics degree, Trotsky helped organize the South Russian Workers' Union in Nikolayev in early 1897. Using the name'Lvov,' he wrote and printed leaflets and proclamations, distributed revolutionary pamphlets, popularized socialist ideas among industrial workers and revolutionary students.
In January 1898, more than 200 members of the union, including Trotsky, were arrested. He was held for the next two years in prison awaiting trial, first in Nikolayev Kherson Odessa, in Moscow. In the Moscow prison he came into contact with other revolutionaries and heard about Lenin and read Lenin's book, The Development of Capitalism in Russia. Two months into his imprisonment, on 1–3 March 1898, the first Congress of the newly formed Russian Social Democratic Labor Party was held. From on Trotsky identified as a member of the party. While in the prison in Moscow, in the summer of 1899, Trotsky married Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, a fellow Marxist; the wedding ceremony was performed by a Jewish chaplain. In 1900, he was sentenced to four years in exile in Siberia; because of their marriage and his wife were allowed to be exiled to the same location
Consumers' co-operatives are enterprises owned by consumers and managed democratically which aim at fulfilling the needs and aspirations of their members. They operate within the market system, independently of the state, as a form of mutual aid, oriented toward service rather than pecuniary profit. Consumers' cooperatives take the form of retail outlets owned and operated by their consumers, such as food co-ops. However, there are many types of consumers' cooperatives, operating in areas such as health care, housing and personal finance. In some countries, consumers' cooperatives are known as cooperative retail societies or retail co-ops, though they should not be confused with retailers' cooperatives, whose members are retailers rather than consumers. Consumers' cooperatives may, in turn, form cooperative federations; these may come in the form of cooperative wholesale societies, through which consumers' cooperatives collectively purchase goods at wholesale prices and, in some cases, own factories.
Alternatively, they may be members of cooperative unions. Consumer cooperation has been a focus of study in the field of cooperative economics. Consumer cooperatives rose to prominence during the industrial revolution as part of the labour movement; as employment moved to industrial areas and job sectors declined, workers began organizing and controlling businesses for themselves. Workers cooperative were sparked by "critical reaction to industrial capitalism and the excesses of the industrial revolution." The formation of some workers cooperatives were designed to "cope with the evils of unbridled capitalism and the insecurities of wage labor". The first documented consumer cooperative was founded in 1769, in a furnished cottage in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, when local weavers manhandled a sack of oatmeal into John Walker's whitewashed front room and began selling the contents at a discount, forming the Fenwick Weavers' Society. In the decades that followed, several cooperatives or cooperative societies formed including Lennoxtown Friendly Victualling Society, founded in 1812.
The philosophy that underpinned the cooperative movement stemmed from the socialist writings of thinkers including Robert Owen and Charles Fourier. Robert Owen, considered by many as the father of the cooperative movement, made his fortune in the cotton trade, but believed in putting his workers in a good environment with access to education for themselves and their children; these ideas were put into effect in the cotton mills of New Lanark, Scotland. It was here. Spurred on by the success of this, he had the idea of forming "villages of co-operation" where workers would drag themselves out of poverty by growing their own food, making their own clothes and becoming self-governing, he tried to form such communities in Orbiston in Scotland and in New Harmony, Indiana in the United States of America, but both communities failed. Similar early experiments were made in the early 19th century and by 1830 there were several hundred co-operatives. Dr William King made Owen's ideas more practical, he believed in starting small, realized that the working classes would need to set up co-operatives for themselves, so he saw his role as one of instruction.
He founded a monthly periodical called The Co-operator, the first edition of which appeared on 1 May 1828. This gave a mixture of co-operative philosophy and practical advice about running a shop using cooperative principles; the first successful organization was the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, established in England in 1844. The Rochdale Pioneers established the ` Rochdale Principles'; this became the basis for the growth of the modern cooperative movement. As the mechanization of the Industrial Revolution was forcing more and more skilled workers into poverty, these tradesmen decided to band together to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford. With lessons from prior failed attempts at co-operation in mind, they designed the now famous Rochdale Principles, over a period of four months they struggled to pool one pound sterling per person for a total of 28 pounds of capital. On December 21, 1844, they opened their store with a meagre selection of butter, flour, oatmeal and a few candles.
Within three months, they expanded their selection to include tea and tobacco, they were soon known for providing high quality, unadulterated goods. The Co-operative Group formed over 140 years from the merger of many independent retail societies, their wholesale societies and federations. In 1863, twenty years after the Rochdale Pioneers opened their co-operative, the North of England Co-operative Society was launched by 300 individual co-ops across Yorkshire and Lancashire. By 1872, it had become known as the Co-operative Wholesale Society. Through the 20th century, smaller societies merged with CWS, such as the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society and the South Suburban Co-operative Society. Consumer cooperatives utilize the cooperative principle of democratic member control, or one member/one vote. Most consumer cooperatives have a board of directors elected from the membership; the board is responsible for hiring management and ensuring that the cooperative meets its goals, both financial and otherwise.
Democratic functions, such as petitioning or recall of board members, may be codified in the bylaws or organizing document of the cooperative. Most consumer cooperatives hold regular membership meetings; as mutually owned businesses, each member of a society has a shareholding equal to the sum they paid in when they joined. Large consumers' co-ops are r
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Rye is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe and is related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, animal fodder, it can be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats. Rye is a cereal grain and should not be confused with ryegrass, used for lawns and hay for livestock. Rye is one of a number of species that grow wild in central and eastern Turkey and in adjacent areas. Domesticated rye occurs in small quantities at a number of Neolithic sites in Turkey, such as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Can Hasan III near Çatalhöyük, but is otherwise absent from the archaeological record until the Bronze Age of central Europe, c. 1800–1500 BCE. It is possible that rye traveled west from Turkey as a minor admixture in wheat, was only cultivated in its own right. Although archeological evidence of this grain has been found in Roman contexts along the Rhine, in Ireland and Britain, Pliny the Elder was dismissive of rye, writing that it "is a poor food and only serves to avert starvation" and spelt is mixed into it "to mitigate its bitter taste, then is most unpleasant to the stomach".
Since the Middle Ages people have cultivated rye in Central and Eastern Europe. It serves as the main bread cereal in most areas east of the French-German border and north of Hungary. In Southern Europe, it was cultivated on marginal lands. Claims of much earlier cultivation of rye, at the Epipalaeolithic site of Tell Abu Hureyra in the Euphrates valley of northern Syria remain controversial. Critics point to inconsistencies in the radiocarbon dates, identifications based on grain, rather than on chaff. Winter rye is any breed of rye planted in the fall to provide ground cover for the winter, it grows during warmer days of the winter when sunlight temporarily warms the plant above freezing while there is general snow cover. It can be used to prevent the growth of winter-hardy weeds, can either be harvested as a bonus crop or tilled directly into the ground in spring to provide more organic matter for the next summer's crop, it is a common nurse crop. The nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci, leaf beetle, fruit fly, gout fly, cereal chafer, dart moth, cereal bug, Hessian fly, rustic shoulder knot are among insects which can affect rye health.
Rye is grown in Eastern and Northern Europe. The main rye belt stretches from northern Germany through Poland, Belarus and Latvia into central and northern Russia. Rye is grown in North America, in South America, in Oceania, in Turkey, in Kazakhstan and in northern China. Production levels of rye have fallen in most of the producing nations, as of 2012. For instance, production of rye in Russia fell from 13.9 million metric tons in 1992 to 2.1 t in 2012. Corresponding figures for other countries are as follows: Poland – falling from 5.9 t in 1992 to 2.9 t in 2005. Most rye is consumed locally or exported only to neighboring countries, rather than being shipped worldwide. World trade of rye is low compared with other grains such as wheat; the total export of rye for 2016 was $186M compared with $30.1B for wheat. Poland consumes the most rye per person at 32.4 kg/capita. Nordic and Baltic countries are very high; the EU in general is around 5.6 kg/capita. The entire world only consumes 0.9 kg/capita.
Rye is susceptible to the ergot fungus. Consumption of ergot-infected rye by humans and animals results in a serious medical condition known as ergotism. Ergotism can cause both physical and mental harm, including convulsions, necrosis of digits and death. Damp northern countries that have depended on rye as a staple crop were subject to periodic epidemics of this condition; such epidemics have been found to correlate with periods of frequent witch trials, such as the Salem witch trials in Massachusetts in 1692. Modern grain-cleaning and milling methods have eliminated the disease, but contaminated flour may end up in bread and other food products if the ergot is not removed before milling. Rye grain is refined into a flour. Rye flour is low in glutenin, it therefore has a lower gluten content than wheat flour. It contains a higher proportion of soluble fiber. Alkylresorcinols are phenolic lipids present in high amounts in the bran layer of rye. Rye bread, including pumpernickel, is made using rye flour and is a eaten food in Northern and Eastern Europe.
Rye is used to make crisp bread. Rye grain is used to make like rye whiskey and rye beer. Other uses of rye grain include an herbal medicine known as rye extract. Rye straw is used as livestock bedding, as a cover crop and green manure for soil amendment, to make crafts such as corn dollies. Physical properties of rye affect attributes of the final food product such as seed size and surface area, porosity; the surface area of the seed directly correlates to the heat transfer time. Smaller seeds have increased heat transfer. Seeds with lower amounts of porosity have lower tendencies to lose water during the process of drying. Rye grows well in much poorer soils than those necessary for most cereal grains. Thus, it is an especially
Subsistence agriculture occurs when farmers grow food crops to feed themselves and their families. In subsistence agriculture, farm output is targeted to survival and is for local requirements with little or no surplus trade; the typical subsistence farm has a range of crops and animals needed by the family to feed and clothe themselves during the year. Planting decisions are made principally with an eye toward what the family will need during the coming year, secondarily toward market prices. Tony Waters writes: "Subsistence peasants are people who grow what they eat, build their own houses, live without making purchases in the marketplace." Despite the primacy of self-sufficiency in subsistence farming, today most subsistence farmers participate in trade to some degree, though it is for goods that are not necessary for survival, may include sugar, iron roofing sheets, used clothing, so forth. Most subsistence farmers today reside in developing countries, although their amount of trade as measured in cash is less than that of consumers in countries with modern complex markets, many have important trade contacts and trade items that they can produce because of their special skills or special access to resources valued in the marketplace.
Subsistence agriculture emerged in various areas including Mexico where it was based on maize and in the Andes where it was based on the domestication of the potato. Subsistence agriculture was the dominant mode of production in the world until when market-based capitalism became widespread. Subsistence horticulture may have developed independently in Papua New Guinea. Subsistence agriculture had disappeared in Europe by the beginning of World War I, in North America with the movement of sharecroppers and tenant farmers out of the American South and Midwest during the 1930s and 1940s; as as the 1950s, it was still common on family farms in North America and Europe to grow much of a family's own food and make much of its own clothing, although sales of some of the farm's production earned enough currency to buy certain staples including sugar. Many of the preceding items, as well as occasional services from physicians, veterinarians and others, were bought with barter rather than currency. In Central and Eastern Europe subsistence and semi-subsistence agriculture reappeared within the transition economy since about 1990.
Subsistence farming continues today in large parts of rural Africa, parts of Asia and Latin America. In 2015, about 2 billion people in 500 million households living in rural areas of developing nations survive as "smallholder" farmers, working less than 2 hectares of land. In this type of agriculture, a patch of forest land is cleared by a combination of felling and burning, crops are grown. After 2-3 years the fertility of the soil begins to decline, the land is abandoned and the farmer moves to clear a fresh piece of land elsewhere in the forest as the process continues. While the land is left fallow the forest regrows in the cleared area and soil fertility and biomass is restored. After a decade or more, the farmer may return to the first piece of land; this form of agriculture is sustainable at low population densities, but higher population loads require more frequent clearing which prevents soil fertility from recovering, opens up more of the forest canopy, encourages scrub at the expense of large trees resulting in deforestation and land erosion.
Shifting cultivation is called Dredd in India, Ladang in Indonesia, Milpa in Central America and Mexico and Jhumming in North East India. While this'slash-and-burn' technique may describe the method for opening new land the farmers in question have in existence at the same time smaller fields, sometimes gardens, near the homestead there they practice intensive'non-shifting" techniques until shortage of fields where they can employ "slash and burn" to clear land and provide fertilizer; such gardens nearer the homestead regularly receive household refuse, the manure of any household chickens or goats, compost piles where refuse is thrown just to get it out of the way. However, such farmers recognize the value of such compost and apply it to their smaller fields, they may irrigate part of such fields if they are near a source of water. In some areas of tropical Africa, at least, such smaller fields may be ones in which crops are grown on raised beds, thus farmers practicing'slash and burn' agriculture are much more sophisticated agriculturalists than the term "slash and burn" subsistence farmers suggests.
In this type of farming people migrate along with their animals from one place to another in search of fodder for their animals. They rear cattle, goats, camels and/or yaks for milk, skin and wool; this way of life is common in parts of central and western Asia, India and south-west Africa and northern Eurasia. Examples are the nomadic Gujjars of the Himalayas, they carry their belongings, such as tents, etc.. on the backs of donkeys and camels. In mountainous regions, like Tibet and The Andes and Llama are reared. Reindeer are the livestock in sub-arctic areas. Sheep and camels are common animals, cattle and horses are important.. In intensive subsistence agriculture, the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labor. Climat