Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a sideways curve. The curve is "S"- or "C"-shaped over three dimensions. In some, the degree of curve is stable. Mild scoliosis does not cause problems, but severe cases can interfere with breathing. No pain is present; the cause of most cases is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include other affected family members, it can occur due to another condition such as muscle spasms, cerebral palsy, Marfan syndrome, tumors such as neurofibromatosis. Diagnosis is confirmed with X-rays. Scoliosis is classified as either structural in which the curve is fixed, or functional in which the underlying spine is normal. Treatment depends on the degree of curve and cause. Minor curves may be watched periodically. Treatments may include bracing, specific exercises, surgery; the brace must be used daily until growing stops. Specific exercises may be used to try to decrease the risk of worsening.

They may be done along with other treatments such as bracing. Evidence that chiropractic manipulation, dietary supplements, or exercises can prevent the condition from worsening is weak. However, exercise is still recommended due to its other health benefits. Scoliosis occurs in about 3% of people, it most occurs between the ages of 10 and 20. Females are more affected than males; the term is from Ancient Greek: σκολίωσις, romanized: skoliosis which means "a bending". Symptoms associated with scoliosis can include: Pain in the back, shoulders and buttock pain nearest the bottom of the back Respiratory or cardiac problems in severe cases Constipation due to curvature causing "tightening" of stomach, etc. Limited mobility secondary to pain or functional limitation in adults Painful menstruationThe signs of scoliosis can include: Uneven musculature on one side of the spine Rib prominence or a prominent shoulder blade, caused by rotation of the rib cage in thoracic scoliosis Uneven hips, arms, or leg lengths Slow nerve action Heart and lung problems in severe cases Calcium deposits in the cartilage endplate and sometimes in the disc itself People who have reached skeletal maturity are less to have a worsening case.

Some severe cases of scoliosis can lead to diminishing lung capacity, pressure exerted on the heart, restricted physical activities. Recent longitudinal studies reveal that the most common form of the condition, late-onset idiopathic scoliosis, causes little physical impairment other than back pain and cosmetic concerns when untreated, with mortality rates similar to the general population. Older beliefs that untreated idiopathic scoliosis progresses into severe disability by old age have been refuted by studies; the many causes of scoliosis include neuromuscular problems, inherited diseases or conditions caused by the environment. An estimated 65% of scoliosis cases are idiopathic, about 15% are congenital, about 10% are secondary to a neuromuscular disease. About 38% of variance in scoliosis risk is due to genetic factors, 62% is due to the environment; the genetics are complex, given the inconsistent inheritance and discordance among monozygotic twins. The specific genes that contribute to development of scoliosis have not been conclusively identified.

At least one gene, CHD7, has been associated with the idiopathic form of scoliosis. Several candidate gene studies have found associations between idiopathic scoliosis and genes mediating bone formation, bone metabolism, connective tissue structure. Several genome-wide studies have identified a number of loci as linked to idiopathic scoliosis. In 2006, idiopathic scoliosis was linked with three microsatellite polymorphisms in the MATN1 gene. Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphism markers in the DNA that are associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were identified through a genome-wide association study. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has no clear causal agent, is believed to be multifactorial; the prevalence of scoliosis is 1% to 2% among adolescents, but the likelihood of progression among adolescents with a Cobb angle less than 20° is about 10% to 20%. Congenital scoliosis can be attributed to a malformation of the spine during weeks three to six in utero due to a failure of formation, a failure of segmentation, or a combination of stimuli.

Incomplete and abnormal segmentation results in an abnormally shaped vertebra, at times fused to a normal vertebra or unilaterally fused vertebrae, leading to the abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. Secondary scoliosis due to neuropathic and myopathic conditions can lead to a loss of muscular support for the spinal column so that the spinal column is pulled in abnormal directions; some conditions which may cause secondary scoliosis include muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, cerebral palsy, spinal cord trauma, myotonia. Scoliosis presents itself, or worsens, during an adolescent's growth spurt and is more diagnosed in females than males. Scoliosis associated with known syndromes is subclassified as "syndromic scoliosis". Scoliosis can be associated with amniotic band syndrome, Arnold–Chiari malformation, Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, cerebral palsy, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, connective tissue disorders, muscular dystrophy, familial dysautonomia, CHARGE syndrome, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Friedreich's ataxia, Loeys–Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, nail–

Bristol Township, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania

Bristol Township is a defunct township, located in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. The township ceased to exist and was incorporated into the City of Philadelphia following the passage of the Act of Consolidation, 1854, it is the modern day Olney-Oak Lane Planning Analysis Section, though with a slight difference in the southern border. It is in present-day North Philadelphia, although Olney-Oak Lane is sometimes considered to be separate from North Philadelphia because of their unique architecture and differing patterns of development. Bristol Township was located at the north end of Philadelphia County, at the intersection of the angle which runs down from the extreme point between Philadelphia and Montgomery counties, it was of irregular form, was bounded on the northwest by a portion of Springfield Township, Montgomery County. It extended along the latter to Oxford Township, but was bounded on the east by Tacony Creek, on the south by the Wingohocking and the Northern Liberties Township, on the west and southwest by Germantown Borough and Germantown Township.

The Old York Road ran through it to Branchtown and Milestown, thence to Bucks County. Greatest length, 5½ miles; the name is derived from the city of Bristol in England. East Oak Lane Feltonville Fern Rock Koreatown Logan Melrose Park Ogontz Olney West Oak Lane Chronology of the Political Subdivisions of the County of Philadelphia, 1683–1854 Information courtesy of Incorporated District and Townships in the County of Philadelphia, 1854 By Rudolph J. Walther - excerpted from the book at the website Ellet, Charles, Jr. Map of the County of Philadelphia from Actual Survey, 1843

Bob Gaddy

Bob Gaddy was an American East Coast blues and rhythm-and-blues pianist and songwriter. He is best remembered for his recordings of "Operator" and "Rip and Run," and musical work he undertook with Larry Dale, Wild Jimmy Spruill, Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee. Gaddy was born in Vivian, West Virginia, a small town based on coal mining, he learned to play the piano at an early age and singing in his local church. In 1943 he was served in the Navy, being stationed in California, he progressed from learning the blues and, using his gospel background, graduated towards the boogie-woogie playing style. He played in blues clubs in Oakland and San Francisco, but after World War II ended he relocated to New York, in 1946. Gaddy commented, "I came to New York just to visit, because I was on my way to the West Coast. Somehow or other, I just got hooked on it. New York got into my system and I've been stuck here since."He found work as a blues pianist, in the late 1940s provided accompaniment to both Brownie McGhee and Sonny Terry.

He backed Larry Dale, befriended Champion Jack Dupree. Dupree wrote "Operator" for one of his best-selling numbers. Gaddy first record for Jackson Records, he Recorded for the Jax and Harlem record labels, before joining Hy Weiss's Old Town Records in 1956. It was here that Gaddy had his most commercially successful period with "I Love My Baby", "Paper Lady", "Rip and Run". For Gaddy's early recordings, McGhee was in the recording studio with him. Gaddy stopped recording around 1960. However, along with his longtime friend Larry Dale, he remained a mainstay of the ongoing New York blues scene. In April 1988, Gaddy and Spruill reunited to play at the Tramps nightclub in New York. Gaddy died of lung cancer at the age of 73, in the Bronx, New York. "I" / "Bicycle Boogie", Bob Gaddy & His Alley Cats, Jackson Records "No Help Wanted" / "Little Girl's Boogie", Bob Gaddy & His Alley Cats, Jax Records "Evil Man Blues" / "Doctor Gaddy's Blues", Doctor Gaddy & His Orchestra, Dot Records "Blues Has Walked in My Room" / "Slow Down Baby" - Harlem Records - "Operator" / "I Love My Baby", Doctor Gaddy & His Keys, Old Town Records "Paper Lady" / "Out of My Name", Doctor Gaddy & His Keys, Old Town Records "Woe Woe Is Me" / "Rip and Run", Doctor Gaddy & His Keys, Old Town Records "Take My Advice" / "You Are the One", Old Town Records "Till the Day I Die"/ "I'll Go My Way", Old Town Records Rip and Run, Ace Bob Gaddy & Friends: Bicycle Boogie 1947–1960, Moonshine Harlem Blues Operator, Ace List of East Coast blues musicians Illustrated Bob Gaddy discography