The Latin noun līmes had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any distinction or difference. The term was commonly used after the 3rd century AD to denote a military district under the command of a dux limitis. Limes has sometimes been adopted in modern times for a border defence or delimiting system of Ancient Rome marking the boundaries and provinces of the Roman Empire, but it was not used by the Romans for the imperial frontier, fortified or not; some experts suggested that the so-called limes may have been called Munimentum Traiani, Trajan's Bulwark, referring to a passage by Ammianus Marcellinus, according to which emperor Julian had reoccupied this fortification in 360 AD. The limites represented the border line of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the 2nd century AD, it stretched more than 5,000 km from the Atlantic coast of northern Britain, through Europe to the Black Sea, from there to the Red Sea and across North Africa to the Atlantic coast.
The remains of the limites today consist of vestiges of walls, forts and civilian settlements. Certain elements of the line have been excavated, some reconstructed, a few destroyed; the two sections of the limes in Germany cover a length of 550 km from the north-west of the country to the Danube in the south-east. The 118 km long Hadrian's Wall was built on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian c. AD 122 at the northernmost limits of the Roman province of Britannia, it is a striking example of the organization of a military zone and illustrates the defensive techniques and geopolitical strategies of ancient Rome. The Antonine Wall, a 60 km-long fortification in Scotland, was started by Emperor Antoninus Pius in AD 142 as a defense against the "Barbarians" of the north, it constitutes the northwestern-most portion of the Roman Limes. The most notable examples of Roman limites are: Hadrian's Wall – Limes Britannicus Antonine Wall – in Scotland Saxon Shore, late Roman limes in South-East England Limes Germanicus, with the Upper Germanic & Rhaetian Limes Limes Arabicus, the frontier of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea facing the desert Limes Tripolitanus, the frontier in modern Libya facing the Sahara Limes Alutanus, the eastern border of the Roman province of Dacia Limes Transalutanus, the frontier in the lower Danube Limes Moesiae, the frontier of the Roman province Moesia, from Singidunum Serbia along the Danube to Moldavia.
Limes Norici, the frontier of the Roman province Noricum, from the River Inn along the Danube to Cannabiaca in Austria. Limes Pannonicus, the frontier of the Roman province Pannonia, along the Danube from Klosterneuburg Austria to Taurunum in Serbia. Fossatum Africae, the southern frontier of the Roman Empire, extending south of the Roman province of Africa in North-Africa. A mediaeval limes is the Limes Saxoniae in Holstein; the stem of limes, limit-, which can be seen in the genitive case, marks it as the ancestor of an entire group of important words in many languages, for example, English limit. Modern languages have multiplied its abstract formulations. For example, from limit comes the abbreviation lim, used in mathematics to designate the limit of a sequence or a function: see limit. In metaphysics, material objects are limited by matter and therefore are delimited from each other. In ethics, men are wise if they do. An etymology was given in some detail by Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch.
According to him, it comes from Indo-European el-, elei-, lei-, "to bow", "to bend", "elbow". The Latin meaning was discussed in detail by W. Gebert; the sense is. The limes was a cross-path or a cross-wall, which the Romans meant to throw across the path of invaders to hinder them, it is a defensive strategy. The Romans never built limites; as the emperor had ordered the army to stay within the limites, except for punitive expeditions, these were as much a mental barrier as material. The groups of Germanic warriors harrying the limes during summer used the concept to full advantage, knowing that they could concentrate and supply themselves outside the limes without fear of preemptive strikes. In a few cases, they were wrong; the limit concept engendered a sentiment among the soldiers that they were being provoked by the Germanic raiders and were held back from just retaliation by a weak and incompetent administration: they were being sold out. So they mutinied; the best remedy for a mutiny was an expedition across the limes against the enemy.
Toward the empire, the soldiers assassinated emperors who preferred diplomacy and put their own most popular officers into the vacant office. Roman writers and subsequent authors who depended on them presented the limes as some sort of sacred border beyond which human beings did not transgress, if they did, it was evidence that they had passed the bounds of reason and civilization. To cross the border was the mark of a savage, they wrote of the Alemanni failing to respect the limes as if they had passed the final limitation of character and had committed themselves to perdition. The Alemanni, on the other hand, never regarded the border as legitimate in the first place, they viewed the Romans as foreigners, who changed native place names and intruded on native homes and families. They were only to be tolerated because they were willing to pay cash for the privilege and offered the blandishments of civilized life. According to Pokorny, Latin limen, "threshold"
Wolf's Lair was Adolf Hitler's first Eastern Front military headquarters in World War II. The complex, which became one of several Führerhauptquartiere in various parts of Eastern Europe, was built for the start of Operation Barbarossa – the invasion of the Soviet Union – in 1941, it was constructed by Organisation Todt. The top secret, high security site was in the Masurian woods about 8 km east of the small East Prussian town of Rastenburg. Three security zones surrounded the central complex; these were guarded by personnel from the SS Reichssicherheitsdienst and the Wehrmacht's armoured Führerbegleitbrigade. Despite the security, the most notable assassination attempt against Hitler was made at the Wolf's Lair on 20 July 1944. Hitler first arrived at the headquarters on 23 June 1941. In total, he spent more than 800 days at the Wolfsschanze during a 3½-year period until his final departure on 20 November 1944. In mid-1944, work began to reinforce many of the Wolf's Lair original buildings; the work was never completed because of the rapid advance of the Red Army during the Baltic Offensive in late 1944.
On 25 January 1945, the complex was blown up and abandoned 48 hours before the arrival of Soviet forces. Wolfsschanze is derived from "Wolf", he began using the nickname in the early 1930s and it was how he was addressed by those in his intimate circle. "Wolf" was used in several titles of Hitler's headquarters throughout occupied Europe, such as Wolfsschlucht I and II in Belgium and France and Werwolf in Ukraine. Although the standard translation in English is "Wolf's Lair," a Schanze in German denotes a sconce, redoubt or temporary fieldwork; the decision was made in late 1940 to build the Wolf's Lair in the middle of a forest, far from major roads and urban areas. The 6.5 km2 complex was consisted of three concentric security zones. About two thousand people lived and worked at the Wolf's Lair at its peak, among them twenty women, some of whom were required to eat Hitler's food to test for poison; the installations were served by railway lines. Buildings within the complex were camouflaged with bushes and artificial trees on the flat roofs.
Sperrkreis 1 was located at the heart of the Wolf's Lair, ringed by steel fencing and guarded by the Reichssicherheitsdienst. It contained the Führer Bunker and ten other camouflaged bunkers built from 2 metres thick steel-reinforced concrete; these shelters protected members of Hitler's inner circle such as Martin Bormann, Hermann Göring, Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Jodl. Hitler's accommodation was on the northern side of Führer Bunker. Both Hitler's and Keitel's bunkers had additional rooms. Sperrkreis 2 surrounded the inner zone; this area housed the quarters of several Reich Ministers such as Fritz Todt, Albert Speer, Joachim von Ribbentrop. It housed the quarters of the personnel who worked in the Wolf's Lair and the military barracks for the RSD. Sperrkreis 3 was the fortified outer security area which surrounded the two inner zones, it was defended by land mines and the Führer Begleit Brigade, a special armoured security unit from Wehrmacht which manned guard houses and checkpoints. A facility for Army headquarters was located near the Wolf's lair complex.
The RSD had overall responsibility for Hitler's personal security, although external protection of the complex was provided by the FBB, which had become a regiment by July 1944. The FBB was equipped with tanks, anti-aircraft guns, other heavy weapons. Any approaching aircraft could be detected up to 100 kilometres from the Wolf's Lair. Additional troops were stationed about 75 kilometres away. Hitler's secretary Traudl Junge recalled that Hitler spoke in late 1943 or early 1944 of a possible bomber attack on the Wolfsschanze by the Western Allies, she quoted Hitler as saying, "They know where we are, sometime they’re going to destroy everything here with aimed bombs. I expect them to attack any day." According to Speer, between 28 July 1941 and 20 March 1942, Hitler left Rastenburg only four times for a total of 57 days. Afterwards, Hitler spent the next three months in Obersalzberg before returning to Rastenburg for the next nine months. Hitler’s entourage returned to the Wolfsschanze from an extended summer stay at the Berghof in July 1944.
The previous small bunkers had been replaced by the Organisation Todt with "heavy, colossal structures" of reinforced concrete as defense against the feared air attack. According to Armaments Minister Albert Speer, "some 36,000,000 marks were spent for bunkers in Rastenburg." Hitler’s bunker had become the largest, "a positive fortress" containing "a maze of passages and halls." Junge wrote, "We had air-raid warnings every day" in the period between the 20 July assassination attempt and Hitler's final departure from the Wolfsschanze in November 1944, "but there was never more than a single aircraft circling over the forest, no bombs were dropped. All the same, Hitler took the danger seriously, thought all these reconnaissance flights were in preparation for the big raid he was expecting."No air attack came. It has never been revealed whether the Western Allies knew of the Wolfsschanze's location and importance; the Soviet Union was unaware of both the
A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is a fence or wall made from iron or wooden stakes, or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure. Palisade derives from pale, from the Latin word pālus, meaning stake a stake used to support a fence. A palisade gangs these side by side to create a fence made of pales. Typical construction consisted of small or mid-sized tree trunks aligned vertically, with no free space in between; the trunks were sharpened or pointed at the top, were driven into the ground and sometimes reinforced with additional construction. The height of a palisade ranged from around a metre to as high as 3-4 m; as a defensive structure, palisades were used in conjunction with earthworks. Palisades were an excellent option for small forts or other hastily constructed fortifications. Since they were made of wood, they could be and built from available materials, they proved to be effective protection for short-term conflicts and were an effective deterrent against small forces.
However, because they were wooden constructions they were vulnerable to fire and siege weapons. A palisade would be constructed around a castle as a temporary wall until a permanent stone wall could be erected. Both the Greeks and Romans created palisades to protect their military camps; the Roman historian Livy describes the Greek method as being inferior to that of the Romans during the Second Macedonian War. The Greek stakes were too large to be carried and were spaced too far apart; this made it easy for enemies to create a large enough gap in which to enter. In contrast, the Romans used smaller and easier to carry stakes which were placed closer together, making them more difficult to uproot. Many settlements of the native Mississippian culture of the Midwestern United States made use of palisades. A prominent example is the Cahokia Mounds site in Illinois. A wooden stockade with a series of watchtowers or bastions at regular intervals formed a 2-mile-long enclosure around Monk's Mound and the Grand Plaza.
Archaeologists found evidence of the stockade during excavation of the area and indications that it was rebuilt several times, in different locations. The stockade seems to have separated Cahokia's main ceremonial precinct from other parts of the city, as well as being a defensive structure. Other examples include the Angel Mounds Site in southern Indiana, Aztalan State Park in Wisconsin, the Kincaid Site in Illinois, the Parkin Site and the Nodena Sites in southeastern Arkansas and the Etowah Site in Georgia. Palisaded settlements were common in Colonial America, for protection against indigenous peoples and wild animals; the English settlements in Jamestown and Plymouth, were fortified towns surrounded by palisades. They were frequently used in New France. In the late nineteenth century, when milled lumber was not available or practical, many Adirondack buildings were built using a palisade architecture; the walls were made of vertical half timbers. The cracks between the vertical logs were filled with moss and sometimes covered with small sticks.
Inside, the cracks were covered with narrow wooden battens. This palisade style was much more efficient to build than the traditional horizontal log cabin since two half logs provided more surface area than one whole log and the vertical alignment meant a stronger structure for supporting loads like upper stories and roofs, it presented a more finished look inside. Examples of this architectural style can still be found in the Adirondacks, such as around Big Moose Lake. In South Africa as well as other countries, a common means to prevent crime is for residential houses to have perimeter defences such as brick walls, steel palisade fences, wooden palisade fences and electrified palisade fences; the City of Johannesburg promotes the use of palisade fencing over opaque brick, walls as criminals cannot hide as behind the fence. In its manual on safety includes guidance such as not growing vegetation alongside as this allows criminals to make an unseen breach. Palisado crown Media related to Palisade at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of palisade at Wiktionary
Ringforts, ring forts or ring fortresses are circular fortified settlements that were built during the Bronze age up to about the year 1000. They are found in Northern Europe in Ireland. There are many in South Wales and in Cornwall, where they are called rounds. Ringforts may be made of stone or earth. Earthen ringforts would have been marked by a circular rampart with a stakewall. Both stone and earthen ringforts would have had at least one building inside. In Irish language sources they are known by a number of names: ráth, caiseal, cathair and dún; the ráth and lios was an earthen ringfort. The caiseal and cathair was a stone ringfort; the term dún was used for any stronghold of importance, which may or may not be ring-shaped. In Ireland, over 40,000 sites have been identified as ringforts and it is thought that at least 50,000 ringforts existed on the island, they are common throughout the country, with a mean density of just over one ringfort within any area of 2 km2. It is that many have been destroyed by farming and urbanisation.
However, many hitherto unknown ringforts have been found thanks to early Ordnance Survey maps, aerial photography, the archaeological work that has accompanied road-building. In Cornwall and south Wales, enclosed settlements share many characteristics with their Irish counterparts, including the circular shape and souterrains, their continuing occupation into the early medieval period. Few Cornish examples have been archaeologically excavated, with the exception of Trethurgy Rounds. Hillforts are known from Scandinavia, of which nineteen can be found on the Swedish island of Öland alone; these hillforts are not to be confused with Viking ring fortresses, of which seven are known from Denmark and southern Sweden, all from around 980 in the Viking Age. The Viking forts all share a strikingly similar design and are collectively referred to as Trelleborgs, after the first excavated fortress of that type in 1936. All the Viking ring fortresses are believed to have been built within a short timeframe, during the reign of Harold Bluetooth, but for yet unknown military purposes.
They might have served as boot camps for Sweyn Forkbeard's men before his invasion of England in 1013. The debate on chronology is a result of the huge number of ringforts and the failure of any other form of settlement site to survive to modern times in any great quantity from the period before the Early Christian period or from Gaelic Ireland after the Anglo-Norman arrival. Three general theories mark the debate on the chronology of Irish ringforts. According to the authoritative New History of Ireland, "archaeologists are agreed that the vast bulk of them are the farm enclosures of the well-to-do of early medieval Ireland"; the theories that the ringfort either pre- or post-dates the Early Middle Ages in Ireland, are both based on the same premise, as is highlighted here by Tadhg O'Keefe in relation to the latter argument. The a priori case for attributing some ringforts to the Later Middle Ages... is based on the absence of any other settlement form of appropriate date in those landscapes.
In other words, if the Gaelic-Irish did not live in ringforts, where did they live? The conjecture that ringforts can be seen to have evolved from and be part of an Iron Age tradition has been expanded by Darren Limbert; this hypothesis is based on a number of re-interpretations of the available evidence, as well as concern over the available evidence. As only a small portion of ringforts have undergone total excavation, the fact that these excavations have not taken place on anything like a national level, the evidence is insufficient to place all ringforts and the origins of them within the Early Christian period. Limbert argues instead, that the ringfort should be seen in the context of a variety of similar developments in Britain and the European Continent in Iberia and Gaul. While conceding that most ringforts were built in the Early Christian period, he suggests a link between the arrival of Eóganachta dynasty in Munster c. 400 AD, the introduction of ringforts. In support of this he notes that: "The other major Eoganachta ringforts of Ballycatten and Garryduff, despite limited stratigraphic discernment, have produced artefacts of ambiguously early origins.
Their defensive nature... supports an intrusion of a Celtic warrior caste..." The similarity with South Welsh'raths' and Cornish'rounds' suggests a degree of cultural interaction between Western British and Irish populations, however differences in dates of occupation mean this cannot be confirmed. On the island of Öland, nineteen ringforts have been identified, including Eketorp, a site, excavated and that one may visit. Excavations are ongoing at Sandby borg, the site of a massacre in the 5th century A. D, it is possible that the Hill
Skansen is the first open-air museum and zoo in Sweden and is located on the island Djurgården in Stockholm, Sweden. It was opened on 11 October 1891 by Artur Hazelius to show the way of life in the different parts of Sweden before the industrial era; the name "Skansen" has been used as a noun to refer to other open-air museums and collections of historic structures in Central and Eastern Europe, but in the United States, e.g. Old World Wisconsin and Fairplay, Colorado; the 19th century was a period of great change throughout Europe, Sweden was no exception. Its rural way of life was giving way to an industrialised society and many feared that the country's many traditional customs and occupations might be lost to history. Artur Hazelius, who had founded the Nordic Museum on the island of Djurgården near the centre of Stockholm, was inspired by the open-air museum, founded by King Oscar II in Kristiania in 1881, when he created his open-air museum on the hill that dominates the island. Skansen became the model for other early open-air museums in Scandinavia and ones elsewhere.
Skansen was a part of the Nordic Museum, but became an independent organisation in 1963. The objects within the Skansen buildings are still the property of the Nordic Museum. After extensive travelling, Hazelius bought around 150 houses from all over the country and had them shipped piece by piece to the museum, where they were rebuilt to provide a unique picture of traditional Sweden. Only three of the buildings in the museum are not original, were painstakingly copied from examples he had found. All of the buildings are open to visitors and show the full range of Swedish life from the Skogaholm Manor house built in 1680, to the 16th century Älvros farmhouses. Skansen attracts more than 1.3 million visitors each year. The many exhibits over the 75 acre site include a full replica of an average 19th-century town, in which craftsmen in traditional dress such as tanners, silversmiths and glass-blowers demonstrate their skills in period surroundings. There is a small patch growing tobacco used for the making of cigarettes.
There is an open-air zoo containing a wide range of Scandinavian animals including the bison, brown bear, grey seal, otter, red fox, reindeer and wolverine. There are farmsteads where rare breeds of farm animals can be seen. In early December the site's central Bollnäs square is host to a popular Christmas market, held since 1903, attracting around 25,000 visitors each weekend. In the summer there are displays of folk dancing and concerts. Since 1897, Skansen has been served by the Skansens Bergbana, a funicular railway on the northwest side of the Skansen hill; the funicular is 196.4 meters long, with a total rise of 34.57 meters. Skansen is served by modern and vintage trams on line 7. Culture in Stockholm Royal National City Park Official website Andy Carvin's Skansen Gallery Skansen-akvariet Panoramic virtual tour of brown bear enclosure at Skansen The Skansen Funicular Railway
An abatis, abattis, or abbattis is a field fortification consisting of an obstacle formed of the branches of trees laid in a row, with the sharpened tops directed outwards, towards the enemy. The trees are interlaced or tied with wire. Abatis are used alone or in combination with other obstacles. There is evidence it was used as early as the Roman Imperial period, as as the American Civil War. A classic use of an abatis was at the Battle of Carillon during the Seven Years' War; the 3,600 French troops defeated a massive army of 16,000 British and Colonial troops by fronting their defensive positions with an dense abatis. The British found the defences impossible to breach and were forced to withdraw with some 2,600 casualties. Other uses of an abatis can be found at the Battle of the Chateauguay, 26 October 1813, when 1,300 Canadian voltigeurs, under the command of Charles-Michel de Salaberry, defeated an American corps of 4,000 men, or at the Battle of Plattsburgh. An important weakness of abatis, in contrast to barbed wire, is.
If laced together with rope instead of wire, the rope can be quickly destroyed by such fires, after which the abatis can be pulled apart by grappling hooks thrown from a safe distance. An important advantage is that an improvised abatis can be formed in forested areas; this can be done by cutting down a row of trees so that they fall with their tops toward the enemy. An alternative is to place explosives so as to blow the trees down. Abatis are seen nowadays, having been replaced by wire obstacles. However, it may supplement when barbed wire is in short supply. A form of giant abatis, using whole trees instead of branches, can be used as an improvised anti-tank obstacle. Though used by modern conventional military units, abatises are still maintained in United States Army and Marine Corps training. Current US training instructs engineers or other constructors of such obstacles to fell trees, leaving a 1 or 2 yards stump, in such a manner as the trees fall interlocked pointing at a 45-degree angle towards the direction of approach of the enemy.
Furthermore, it is recommended that the trees remain connected to the stumps and the length of roadway covered be at least 80 yards. US military maps record an abatis by use of an inverted "V" with a short line extending from it to the right. Zasechnaya cherta Pamplin Historical Park & The National Museum of the Civil War Soldier includes large and authentic reproduction of abatis used in the U. S. Civil War
An Albarrana tower is a defensive tower detached from the curtain wall and connected to it by a bridge or an arcade. They were built by Muslims when they occupied the Iberian Peninsula between the 8th and the 15th centuries from the 12th century during the Almohad dynasty and in the south of Spain and Portugal where the Islamic influence was the longest. In Spanish, they are called torre albarrana; the towers of typical appearance, with a square section, were built several meters in front of the curtain wall. They were accessible by a bridge walkway from the curtain wall. More the bridge had a removable wooden section allowing the tower to be isolated from the wall if the tower is occupied by attacking forces; the earliest Albarrana towers were pentagonal or octagonal in plan but a more rectangular plan became the norm. In France and the north of Europe, flanking towers remained a part of the wall; the keep were sometimes built as a part of the wall instead of inside the yard at the center of the castle.
They were philippian towers. The main albarrana towers are: Torre de Espantaperros in Spain; the first albarrana tower, built by Abu Yaqub Yusuf in 1170. Its plan is octagonal. Torre del Oro, Torre de la Plata in Sevilla Torre de la Malmuerta in Cordoba Town of Talavera de la Reina near Toledo with several albarrana towers Òdena castle near Barcelona Castle of Paderne in Portugal 2 albarrana towers in the Santa Catalina castle in Jaén Castle of Loulé in PortugalAlbarrana towers are uniquely confined in the Iberian Peninsula. In the other parts of the medieval Muslim world this defensive feature seems not to be used; the only example of a true Albarrana tower in England can be found at Pontefract Castle. The castle now lies in ruins, but one Albarrana tower called Swillington Tower is visible on the models of the castle and the remains of the tower itself can be seen to the north of the castle. Burton, Peter, "Islamic Castles in Iberia", The Castle Studies Group Journal, 21: 228–244 Burton, Peter, "Islamic Castles in Iberia", Postern, 21 http://www.elperiodicoextremadura.com/noticias/noticia.asp?pkid=435528 https://web.archive.org/web/20140606060349/http://castlesofspain.co.uk/TorreAlbarrana.html