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Scooter (motorcycle)

A scooter or motor scooter is a type of motorcycle with a step-through frame and a platform for the rider's feet. Elements of scooter design were present in some of the earliest motorcycles, scooters have been made since at least 1914. Scooter development continued in the United States between the World Wars; the global popularity of motor scooters dates from the post-World War II introductions of the Vespa and Lambretta models in Italy. These scooters were intended to provide economical personal transportation; the original layout is still used in this application. Maxi-scooters, with larger engines from 250 to 850 cc have been developed for Western markets. Scooters are popular for personal transportation due to being more affordable, easier to operate, more convenient to park and store than a car. Licensing requirements for scooters are easier and cheaper than for cars in most parts of the world, insurance is cheaper; the term motor scooter is sometimes used to avoid confusion with kick scooter, but can be confused with motorized scooters, another distinct kind of scooter.

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary defines a motor scooter is a motorcycle similar to a kick scooter with a seat, a floorboard, small or low wheels. The US Department of Transportation defines a scooter as a motorcycle that has a platform for the operator's feet or has integrated footrests, has a step-through architecture; the classic scooter design features a flat floorboard for the rider's feet. This design is possible because most scooter engines and drive systems are attached to the rear axle or under the seat. Unlike a conventional motorcycle, in which the engine is mounted on the frame, most modern scooters allow the engine to swing with the rear wheel, while most vintage scooters and some newer retro models have an axle-mounted engine. Modern scooters starting from late-1980s use a continuously variable transmission, while older ones use a manual transmission with the gearshift and clutch control built into the left handlebar. Scooters feature bodywork, including a front leg shield and body that conceals all or most of the mechanicals.

There is some integral storage space, either under the seat, built into the front leg shield, or both. Scooters have varying engine displacements and configurations ranging from 50 cc single-cylinder to 850 cc twin-cylinder models. Traditionally, scooter wheels are smaller than conventional motorcycle wheels and are made of pressed steel or cast aluminum alloy, bolt on and are interchangeable between front and rear; some scooters carry a spare wheel. Many recent scooters use conventional front forks with the front axle fastened at both ends. Most jurisdictions do not differentiate between motorcycles. For all legal purposes in the United States of America, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration recommends using the term motorcycle for all of these vehicles. However, while NHTSA excludes the term motor scooter from legal definition, it proceeds, in the same document, to give detailed instructions on how to import a small motor scooter; as of 2020 the US state of California has a complex regulatory system for 2- and 3-wheeled vehicles.

It classifies vehicles with fewer than four wheels into the following categories: Motorcycle: a motorcycle is any 2- or 3-wheeled gas operated vehicle weighing under 1,500 lbs. with an engine displacement greater than or equal to 150ccs. Operation requires an M1 class license, such vehicles must be registered with the state and carry mandatory insurance as well as bear a motorcycle license plate. Motorcycles may travel on any public roadway, including freeways, may carry a single passenger in addition to the driver. Helmets are mandatory. Motor-driven cycle: a motor-driven cycle is 2-wheeled gas operated vehicle with an engine displacement of 149ccs or less that does not qualify as a moped and is capable of traveling greater than 30mph, it has the same licensing, insurance, license plating, helmet requirements as a motorcycle, though it may not travel on freewways. Such vehicles are referred to as "scooters". Moped: a moped is a 2- or 3-wheeled device with an automatic transmission capable of traveling no more than 30mph, with either a gas engine displacement of less than 50ccs with built-in pedals like a bicycle for human operation, OR, if powered only by electricity, it must not produce more than four gross brake horsepower.

There are no registration or insurance requirements for the device, but the operator him- or herself must have an M1 or M2 class license and must carry the minimum state automobile insurance and the moped itself must bear a special moped license plate. A single passenger is permitted if the vehicle is fitted with a specific seat and footrests for same. Motorized tricycle/ quadricycie: a motorized tricycle or quadricycle is a 3- or 4-wheeled vehicle propelled by a gas motor not capable of traveling greater than 30mph and with a gross brake horsepower of 2 or less. Motorized scooter: a motorized scooter is a 2-wheeled vehicle not capable of traveling greater than 15mph with a floorboard designed to be stood upon while operating, they do not require a license plate or insurance, may not be driven on a roadway with a posted speed limit greater than 25mph. A valid class C driver license is required. Passenger are prohibited, they may be operated on a bikeway but not on a sidewalk. If a given roadway has a bicycle lane, the motorized scooter must travel within it, can only make a left-hand turn

Caucasian Knot

Caucasian Knot is an online news site that covers the Caucasus region in English and Russian. It was established in 2001 and Grigory Shvedov is the editor-in-chief, it has a particular focus including freedom of the press. The site started out as a project related to the human rights organisation Memorial, but developed into a site for independent journalism, it is funded by a number of charitable organisations in the U. S. and Western Europe. Caucasian Knot does not have any editorial offices, citing security risks. Grigory Shvedov operated from Moscow while many of the other reporters are spread around in the Caucasus area, including in Chechnya and Azerbaijan; the reporters stay in contact via Google programs in a virtual office. Due to safety concerns, a number of the correspondents do not use their names. Russian human rights activist and journalist Natalya Estemirova contributed to Caucasian Knot before she was kidnapped and killed in Chechnya in 2009. Akhmednabi Akhmednabiev, deputy editor of the weekly paper Novoe Delo and wrote for Caucasian Knot, was shot and killed in Makhachkala in 2013.

In 2009, Caucasian Knot launched a project together with the BBC named "North Caucasus through the eyes of bloggers". The site had a monthly readership of 1.8 million in 2011. In 2007, Caucasian Knot was awarded the Free Press of Eastern Europe award, given out jointly by the German magazine Zeit and the Norwegian free speech organisation Fritt Ord; the editor received the Dutch Geuzenpenning award in 2012 for his work with Memorial and Caucasian Knot. Official website

Chintha Ravi

K. Ravindran, better known by his pen-name Chintha Ravi, was an Indian writer, film critic and film director. Born in Kannadikkal in Kozhikode as the son of Kunnummal Krishnan and Lakshmi, Ravindran studied at Kozhikode Malabar Christian School, Malabar Christian College, did a journalism course at the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan in Mumbai, he started his sojourn into literature with Athiranippookkal a children's book published by National Book Stall. He was only a pre-degree student then. Although he was not too politically active during his school and college days, Ravindran's association with reading rooms and libraries with Leftist leanings led him to the path of discussion and thought, he began his professional writing career with Searchlight where cinema was a specific subject of his words. He soon joined Communist Party of India's ideological journal Chintha and became a member of the editorial board of the weekly, which earned him the pen-name Chintha Ravi, he worked for a while with the Kalakaumudi weekly.

His association with Kalakaumudi led him to the world of travelogues with "Ente Yathrakal". As a writer, he is best known for his travelogues like Swiss Sketchukal, Akalangalile Manushyar and Buddha Patham. Akalangalile Manushyar was the result of his journeys to remote villages of India. Buddha Patham not only focused on India, but his tours abroad, including the heart of Europe, he made the first television travelogue Ente Keralam, that visualised Kerala's natural and cultural features by touring every nook and cranny of the state. Ente Keralam won the Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award for Best Travelogue, his Cinemayude Rashtreeyam, a book on art criticism and cinema, won the Kerala State Film Award for Best Book on Cinema in 1990. He debuted as a director with the Telugu film Harijan, his film Ore Thooval Pakshikal, featuring music by G. Aravindan, won many accolades including the Kerala State Film Award for Best Film, he directed several documentaries including the national award-winning Maunam Sowmanasyam, a documentary on G. Aravindan.

His films were inspired by the Neo-Gramscianist theories. He acted a small part in P. A. Backer's Kabani Nadi Chuvannappol, his visual travelogue serial entitled Ente Keralam was telecast in Asianet for many years. Ravi traveled to the remote villages of Kerala for this programme. Chintha Ravi died on 4 July 2011, aged 65, at a private hospital in Thrissur, he was under treatment for lung cancer. He is survived by wife N Chandrika, daughter of writer Devaki Nilayangode, son Thathagathan, an anthropology research scholar in the University of Texas. TraveloguesAkalangalile Manushyar Digaruvile Aanakal Swiss Sketchukal Mediterranean Venal Vazhikal Vyakthikal Ormakal Budhapatham Seethakala Yathrakal Ente Yathrakal Raveendrante Yathrakal OthersAthiranippookkal Kadine Nokkumbol Ilakale Kannunnathu Antonio Gramsci Cinemayude Rashtreeyam Kalavimarsam: Marxist Manadandam Harijan Iniyum Marichittillatha Nammal Ore Thooval Pakshikal Chintha Ravi on IMDb Chintha Ravi at the British Film Institute Movie Database Profile of Chintha Ravi at

Andrew Stawicki

Andrew Stawicki is a Polish-Canadian photo journalist. He began his career in Poland, he emigrated to Canada in 1982 to join the staff of the Toronto Star. In 1990 he co-founded the cooperative photography collective, PhotoSensitive, his most notable work is that of prominent Canadians, including a photograph of Leonard Cohen barefoot in his backyard and a photo of Mordecai Richler that appeared on the cover of Walrus magazine. In 2018, Stawicki was awarded the Meritorious Service Cross by the Governor General of Canada for his work with PhotoSensitive. Cohen, David Elliot. A Day in the Life of Canada. Collins Publishers. ISBN 978-0-00-217380-3. Cohen, David Elliot. A Day in the Life of Japan. Collins Pub San Francisco. ISBN 978-0-00-217580-7. Cohen, David Elliot. A Day in the Life of America. Collins Pub San Francisco. ISBN 978-0-00-255332-2. Cohen, David Elliot. A Day in the Life of The Soviet Union. Harpercollins. ISBN 978-0-00-217969-0. Kenna, Kathlee. A People Apart. HMH Books for Young Readers. ISBN 978-0395673447

George Andrews Moriarty Jr.

George Andrews Moriarty Jr. called G. Andrews Moriarty in most of his published work, was an American genealogist from Newport, Rhode Island, he was born in Newport on February 14, 1883, the only son of George Andrews Moriarty and Mary Ann Sheffield. His ancestor, John Moriarty, settled in Salem, Massachusetts. George attended St. George's School in Newport, did his undergraduate work at Harvard University where he earned an A. B. in 1905, cum laude. He attended Christ Church College in Oxford, England where he specialized in historical studies, following which he returned to Harvard to earn an M. A. in 1907. Moriarty went to work for the U. S. State Department in the foreign service, served in consular and secretarial roles in Fiume, Italy, he returned to Harvard once again to study law, received his LL. B. in 1916. He practiced law in Providence, Rhode Island and Boston, Massachusetts for over a decade, which time included a year in the U. S. Army at the end of World War I when he was a captain in military intelligence.

In 1927 he ended his career in law and devoted the remainder of his life to historical and genealogical pursuits. Moriarty's interest in genealogy began when he was young, in 1899, at the age of 16, he became a member of the New England Historic Genealogical Society. In 1912 he became a member of the society's Council, in 1916 was named the Corresponding Secretary and in 1918 became chairman of the Committee on English and Foreign Research, he served as the chairman for publications for 25 years and was on the Committee for Heraldry from 1920 to 1949. Making his first contribution to the New England Historical and Genealogical Register in 1912, Moriarty submitted 134 articles to that journal over the next 54 years, most of them dealing with English feudal families. In addition, he became a contributing editor of The American Genealogist, published by Donald Lines Jacobus, from 1932 to 1965 submitted more than 75 articles to this journal; these articles included a series of additions and corrections to John Osborne Austin's Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island.

He contributed to more than a dozen other American and English journals, as well as writing genealogical notes in the Boston Evening Transcript for a period of 30 years. Moriarty was a fellow of the American Society of Genealogists and of the Society of Genealogists and the Society of Antiquaries, London, he was the founder and first president of the Descendants of the Illegitimate Sons and Daughters of the Kings of Britain. In his personal life, Moriarty was twice married, he was first married in London in 1908 to Olga Gillming of Hungary. He was married a second time in 1930 to the Countess Louise de Alfau, the daughter of John V. Dittemore of New York, she died in the summer of 1968, Moriarty died less than two weeks on 12 July 1968, at the York Harbor Nursing Home in York Harbor, Maine. In 1986 the National Genealogical Society instituted a Hall of Fame for individuals that had made significant strides in the field of genealogy. In 1990 G. Andrews Moriarty was inducted into that prestigious group, having been nominated by the Genealogical Society of Utah and the American Society of Genealogists.

Rubincam, Milton. "George Andrews Moriarty Jr.". National Genealogical Society Quarterly. 56: 303–306. Online sources "National Genealogy Hall of Fame Members". National Genealogical Society. 2014. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2014

Enamel organ

The enamel organ known as the dental organ, is a cellular aggregation seen in a developing tooth and it lies above the dental papilla. The enamel organ is responsible for the formation of enamel, initiation of dentine formation, establishment of the shape of a tooth's crown, establishment of the dentoenamel junction; the enamel organ has four layers. The dental papilla, the differentiated ectomesenchyme deep to the enamel organ, will produce dentin and the dental pulp; the surrounding ectomesenchyme tissue, the dental follicle, is the primitive cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone beneath the tooth root. The site where the internal enamel epithelium and external enamel epithelium coalesce is the cervical root, important in proliferation of the dental root. Tooth development begins in the oral epithelium; the process is divided into three stages: Initiation Morphogenesis and HistogenesisAt the end of week 7 i.u. localised proliferations of cells in the dental laminae form round and oval swellings known as tooth buds, which will develop into mesenchymal cells and surround the enamel organ.

Each epithelial swelling and the surrounding mesenchymal cells form a tooth germ. Tooth germs are the primitive structure of teeth; the stages are based on the degree of development of enamel organ. Oral epithelium forms the tooth enamel while the ectomesenchyme forms the pulp and dentine of the tooth; the ectomesenchyme lies deep to the oral epithelium. This is the initial stage of tooth development, which occurs at week 8 i.u.. Proliferation of dental lamina occurs, forming small tooth buds which are spherical or ovoid condensations of epithelial cells, now known as the enamel organ; the enamel organ consists of peripherally located, low columnar cells and centrally located polygonal cells. The enamel organ is surrounded by proliferating mesenchymal cells, which results in the condensation of two distinct areas: The dental papilla: below the enamel organ The tooth sac: ectomesenchymal condensation of the area surrounding the tooth bud and dental papilla. Both the dental papilla and the tooth sac are not structurally defined in the bud stage, will become more defined in subsequent stages.

The interaction and signalling between the enamel organ and the surrounding mesenchymal cells play an important role in the stages of tooth development. Each dental arch will have 10 tooth buds, accounting for 20 primary teeth; the cap stage occurs in week 9-10 i.u. Unequal proliferation of cells during this stage, invaginating into the ectomesenchyme tissue, leads to the formation of the cap-shaped enamel organ; the ectomesenchyme tissue invaginates superficially to shape the primitive dental pulp. Differentiation of cells occurs at this stage to make different tissue layers; the external enamel epithelium, a layer of simple cuboidal epithelium, has a protective role during tooth development. The stellate reticulum, the innermost layer of the enamel organ, gathers GAGs between cells; the internal enamel epithelium will form enamel during the Bell Stage There is uneven growth of enamel organ in this phase, the epithelial cap deepens. The cap shape of the enamel organ assumes a bell shape as the undersurface of the cap deepens.

Foldings of the internal enamel epithelium maps out the occlusal pattern of the tooth crown. The process is known as morphodifferentiation; the pressure exerted by the dental papilla cells has been shown to be opposed by the pressure from the fluid in the stellate reticulum. The folding of the enamel organ is caused by different rates of mitosis and difference in cell differentiation times, causing different crown shapes in each tooth; this stage is the apposition stage characterised by the commencement of root formation and mineralisation. The area between the internal enamel epithelium and odontoblasts outline the future dentinoenamel junction. Formation of dentine precedes enamel formation, it occurs first as along the future dentinoenamel junction in the region of future cusps and proceeds pulpally and apically. Cells of the internal enamel epithelium become pre-ameloblasts and release inductive factors which encourage the differentiation of odontoblasts from the mesenchymal cells of the dental papilla.

This can be seen in the figure. The odontoblasts lay down dentine. After the first layer of dentine is formed, this induces ameloblasts to lay down enamel over the dentine in the future incisal and cuspal areas. Amelogenesis will follow; the cervical portion of the enamel organ gives rise to the Hertwig Epithelial Root Sheath - this outlines the future root and is responsible for the size, shape and the number of roots. The composition of the enamel organ does not vary between incisors, canines and molars. Although the quantity of odontoblasts and cementoblasts present in premolars/molars and incisors/canines remains the same, the major difference between these morphological types of teeth is the rate of secretion and quantity of products secreted by the enamel organ. There has been no definite consensus as to what determines the differences between enamel organs in different teeth. However, it is a held view by dental professionals and biologists that genes and cell signaling between cells in the den