Matthew Dear is an American music producer, DJ and electronic avant-pop artist. Texas-born Dear moved to Michigan as a teenager, where he was inspired by the sound of Detroit Techno. Dear met Sam Valenti IV at a party while attending the University of Michigan, after which the two started the record label, Ghostly International, based on a shared love of electronic music. Dear’s first single was 1999’s "Hands Up For Detroit". Successive singles, such as "Stealing Moves" and the chart-topping "Mouth to Mouth" were issued on Spectral Sound, Ghostly’s offshoot that focuses on dancefloor music. Dear’s first album Leave Luck to Heaven appeared in 2003 and was praised as a seminal fusion of pop and minimal techno; the album’s single "Dog Days" became one of Spectral’s best sellers and a favorite of international DJs like Richie Hawtin. Dear followed the album with Backstroke in 2004 and has begun working under the harder-edged Audion alias, apart from additional monikers False and Jabberjaw. In 2007, Dear released Asa Breed.
Matthew and his band, Matthew Dear's Big Hands began a US promotional tour and a European tour as the opening act for Hot Chip. 2008 saw the re-release of Asa Breed as the Asa Breed Black Edition. This re-release added 5 new songs, including a remix of Don and Sherri from Hot Chip and the video for the song, shot in downtown New York City. In 2010, Dear opened for Interpol, performing on their first three dates in the UK. Dear's fourth album, Black City, was released on August 17, 2010, it conceptualizes a futuristic metropolis. Dear describes'Black City': "Well, there's a kind of timelessness to it in the sense that I don't want things to run on a 24-hour clock, it seems like a city that's always awake, maybe always dialed in electronically, cannot be turned off. It's this imaginary weird never-sleeping town, but yeah it's full of lust, love, dark shadows. Weird things around the corner…" Black City was met with near-unanimous critical praise, earning top marks from Mojo, Uncut, Q, URB, the Village Voice, ending up on countless year-end lists, earning Pitchfork’s Best New Music nod.
A worldwide tour followed. On stage, Dear performs with a multi-pieced live band, they have supported Hot Chip and Depeche Mode on their world tours. Dear revived his Audion alias in 2013, celebrating the tenth anniversary of the first Audion release with a compilation, Audion X, a series of new singles and DJ performances leading up to the release of the second Audion album, Alpha, in 2016. In early 2017 he released an entry into the well-regarded DJ-KiCKS mix series, along with his first single under his own name in five years, "Wrong With Us"; the song was produced during a writing and recording session with the English duo Simian Mobile Disco, which yielded several other songs. In June, he released "Modafinil Blues", the first single from his upcoming album, announced tour dates, where he will be performing without a band for the first time. Dear has listed Talking Heads, David Bowie, Nitzer Ebb, Roman Flügel as inspirations; when asked who he is influenced by Dear replied, "Definitely I'm influenced by Brian Eno and a lot of his work.
I've said it before but he is one, so interesting to listen to on all formats whether it be his production with other bands, whether it's his solo work or whether it's his collaboration work with other artists. He's the number one." Albums 2003 Leave Luck to Heaven 2004 Backstroke 2007 Asa Breed 2008 Asa Breed Black Edition 2010 Black City 2012 Beams 2018 Bunny EPs 2003 EP1 2003 EP2 2007 Don and Sherri 2012 HeadcageSingles 2000 Irreparably Dented 2001 Stealing Moves 2003 Dog Days 2004 Anger Management / Future Never Again 2007 Deserter 2008 Free To Ask 2008 Pom Pom 2013 Pale Shelter 2017 Wrong With Us 2017 Modafinil Blues 2017 Bad Ones Compilations 2008 Beginning of the End: Spectral Sound Singles Mixes 2008 Body Language Vol. 7 2008 BBC Essential Mix 2012 RA.306 2017 DJ-Kicks 1999 Hands Up For Detroit 2003 Idol Tryouts: Ghostly International Vol. 1 2003 State of the Union EP 2005 Spectral Sound Vol. 1 2006 Idol Troyouts: Ghostly International Vol. 2 2007 Chuck Season 1, Episode 4 2007 "Gossip Girls Season 1, Episode 1" 2008 Life Beyond Mars: Bowie Covered 2015 "Undercover" 2004 DJ Minx A Walk In The Park 2004 Håkan Lidbo Clockwise Rmxs 2004 L'usine Flat Remixes 2004 Monobox The Remixes 2004 Osborne Bout Ready to Jak Remixes 2004 Someone Else + Miskate Rip It Cookie Muenster EP 2005 Circlesquare / Colder 7 Minutes / Shiny Star 2005 The Postal Service We Will Become Silhouettes 2006 Hot Chip No Fit State 2006 The Chemical Brothers Do it Again 2007 Black Strobe "I'm a Man" 2007 Terence Fixmer "Electrostatic" 2007 Dubfire "I Feel Speed" 2008 Matt John "Olga Dancekowski" 2008 Sasha "Park It In The Shade" 2008 Kieran Hebden, Steve Reid "People Be Happy/R
(You're the) Devil in Disguise
" Devil in Disguise" is a 1963 single by Elvis Presley, written by Bill Giant, Bernie Baum and Florence Kaye. It was published by Elvis Presley Music in June 1963; the song peaked at number three in the US on the Billboard singles chart on August 10, 1963 and number nine on the Billboard Rhythm and Blues singles chart, becoming his last top ten single on the Rhythm and Blues charts. The single was certified "Gold" by the RIAA for sales in excess of 500,000 units in the US; the song topped Japan's Utamatic record chart in the fall of 1963. In 1963, when the song was debuted to a British audience on the BBC television show Juke Box Jury, the celebrity guest John Lennon voted the song "a miss" stating on the new song that Elvis Presley was "like Bing Crosby now"; the song went on to reach number 1 in the UK for a single week. Bill Porter engineered the song for the Elvis Presley recording session on May 26, 1963, at RCA Studios in Nashville. " Devil in Disguise" and its flipside, "Please Don't Drag That String Around", was recorded for a full-length album, scheduled for release in 1963, but RCA chose instead to release the album piecemeal on singles and as soundtrack album bonus tracks.
Bass singer Ray Walker, of the gospel vocal group The Jordanaires, is featured in the song, singing the repeated phrase, "Oh, you are," before the song's fade. The recording appeared on the 1968 RCA Victor compilation Elvis' Gold Records Volume 4. Elvis Presley – vocals The Jordanaires – backing vocals Millie Kirkham - backing vocals Scotty Moore – rhythm guitar Grady Martin - lead guitar Harold Bradley - "tic-tac" bass Floyd Cramer – piano Bob Moore – double bass D. J. Fontana – drums Buddy Harman - drums Boots Randolph - shakers A cover version by Trisha Yearwood appears on the Honeymoon in Vegas soundtrack, which consists of covers of Presley songs. Punk rock band The Misfits covered the song on the extended edition of Project 1950, an album which contained a cover of Presley's "Latest Flame". Karel Gott recorded the song in 2012; the Residents, Tom Green, Ronnie McDowell and Peter Kraus have recorded the song. Scotty Moore and D. J. Fontana have performed the song live in concert. In 1977, a Finnish band called Kontra covered the song in Finnish titled as "Nainen valepuvussa" in their debut album "Ei kontrollia".
Johnny Hallyday recorded the song in French in 1964
Rock and roll
Rock and roll is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s from musical styles such as gospel, jump blues, boogie woogie, rhythm and blues, along with country music. While elements of what was to become rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until 1954. According to Greg Kot, "rock and roll" refers to a style of popular music originating in the U. S. in the 1950s prior to its development by the mid-1960s into "the more encompassing international style known as rock music, though the latter continued to be known as rock and roll." For the purpose of differentiation, this article deals with the first definition. In the earliest rock and roll styles, either the piano or saxophone was the lead instrument, but these instruments were replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s; the beat is a dance rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, always provided by a snare drum.
Classic rock and roll is played with one or two electric guitars, a double bass or string bass or an electric bass guitar, a drum kit. Beyond a musical style and roll, as seen in movies, in fan magazines, on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion and language. In addition and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teenagers enjoyed the music, it went on to spawn various genres without the characteristic backbeat, that are now more called "rock music" or "rock". The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage; the American Heritage Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music. Encyclopædia Britannica, on the other hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s and developed "into the more encompassing international style known as rock music"; the phrase "rocking and rolling" described the movement of a ship on the ocean, but was used by the early twentieth century, both to describe the spiritual fervor of black church rituals and as a sexual analogy.
Various gospel and swing recordings used the phrase before it became used more – but still intermittently – in the 1940s, on recordings and in reviews of what became known as "rhythm and blues" music aimed at a black audience. In 1934, the song "Rock and Roll" by the Boswell Sisters appeared in the film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round. In 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term "rock-and-roll" to describe upbeat recordings such as "Rock Me" by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. By 1943, the "Rock and Roll Inn" in South Merchantville, New Jersey, was established as a music venue. In 1951, Ohio, disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it; the origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by historians of music. There is general agreement that it arose in the Southern United States – a region that would produce most of the major early rock and roll acts – through the meeting of various influences that embodied a merging of the African musical tradition with European instrumentation.
The migration of many former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as St. Louis, New York City, Chicago and Buffalo meant that black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than before, as a result heard each other's music and began to emulate each other's fashions. Radio stations that made white and black forms of music available to both groups, the development and spread of the gramophone record, African-American musical styles such as jazz and swing which were taken up by white musicians, aided this process of "cultural collision"; the immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues called "race music", country music of the 1940s and 1950s. Significant influences were jazz, gospel and folk. Commentators differ in their views of which of these forms were most important and the degree to which the new music was a re-branding of African-American rhythm and blues for a white market, or a new hybrid of black and white forms. In the 1930s, swing, both in urban-based dance bands and blues-influenced country swing, were among the first music to present African-American sounds for a predominantly white audience.
One noteworthy example of a jazz song with recognizably rock and roll elements is Big Joe Turner with pianist Pete Johnson's 1939 single Roll'Em Pete, regarded as an important precursor of rock and roll. The 1940s saw the increased use of blaring horns, shouted lyrics and boogie woogie beats in jazz-based music. During and after World War II, with shortages of fuel and limitations on audiences and available personnel, large jazz bands were less economical and tended to be replaced by smaller combos, using guitars and drums. In the same period on the West Coast and in the Midwest, the development of jump blues, with its guitar riffs, prominent beats and shouted lyrics, prefigured many developments. In the documentary film Hail! Hail! Rock'n' Roll, Keith Richards proposes that Chuck Berry developed his brand of rock and roll by transposing the familiar two-note lead line of jump blues piano directly to the electric guitar, creatin
Rabbit's Moon is an avant-garde short film by American filmmaker Kenneth Anger. Filmed in 1950, Rabbit's Moon was not completed until 1972. Anger re-released the film in 1979, sped up and with a different soundtrack. Filmed under a blue filter and set within a wooded glade during the night, the plot revolves around a clown, his longing for the moon, his futile attempts to jump up and catch it. Subsequently, another clown appears and teases Pierrot, showing him Columbina, with whom he appears to fall in love; the sets were borrowed from French filmmaker Jean-Pierre Melville. The 1972 version of Rabbit's Moon features a soundtrack consisting of 1950s and'60s pop: "There's a Moon Out Tonight" by The Capris, "Oh, What a Night" by The Dells, "Bye Bye Baby" by Mary Wells, "I Only Have Eyes For You" by The Flamingos and "Tears On My Pillow" by The El Dorados; the 1979 version features only a loop of A Raincoat's "It Came In The Night" as its soundtrack. The film is credited by electronic duo Rabbit in the Moon as the inspiration for their name.
Commedia dell'arte List of avant-garde films of the 1950s Rabbit's Moon on IMDb
I Will Follow Him
"I Will Follow Him" is a popular song, first recorded in 1961 by Franck Pourcel, as an instrumental titled "Chariot". The song achieved its widest success when it was recorded by American singer Little Peggy March with English lyrics in 1963; the music was written by Paul Mauriat. It was adapted by Arthur Altman; the English lyrics were written by Norman Gimbel. The song was first recorded by Franck Pourcel as an instrumental, was released in 1961 on the European LP Amour, Danse, Et Violons. No.17 and on an EP on the La Voix de son Maître label. Pourcel co-wrote the song with fellow French bandleader Paul Mauriat. Mauriat recorded an instrumental version, which he released on his album Paul Mauriat Plays the Hits of 1976. In 1963, Percy Faith released an instrumental version, re-titled "I Will Follow You", as the lead song on side 1 of his album titled Themes for Young Lovers; the album spent 28 weeks on Billboard's chart of Top LPs. 32, earned Percy Faith a gold record. In 1962, Petula Clark released a French language version of the song, titled "Chariot", which reached No. 1 in Wallonia, No. 2 in France, No. 8 in Flanders, earned Clark a gold record.
Her English version reached No. 4 in Denmark, where it was released by Vogue, but failed to chart in the UK and the US, where it was released by Pye and Laurie respectively. Clark recorded Italian and German versions of the song, with her Italian version, "Sul mio carro", reaching No. 4 in Italy, her German version, "Cheerio", reaching No. 6 in West Germany. In 1963, Little Peggy March's version of "I Will Follow Him", backed with "Wind Up Doll", was released by RCA Victor. March's version spent 14 weeks on the Billboard Hot 100, reaching No. 1 on April 27, 1963 and spending three weeks in this position, making 15-year-old March the youngest female artist to have a U. S. chart-topping single. Her version reached No. 1 in Australia, Hong Kong, South Africa, Canada's CHUM Hit Parade, New Zealand's "Lever Hit Parade", Billboard's Hot R&B Singles chart. The song reached No. 1 on the Cash Box Top 100, in a tandem ranking of Little Peggy March, Franck Pourcel, Petula Clark, Rosemary Clooney, Betty Curtis, Jackie Kannon, Joe Sentieri, Georgia Gibbs' versions, with March's version marked as a bestseller.
In Italy three versions of the song were in the charts in 1963: One recorded by Betty Curtis, another version by Petula Clark and the Franck Pourcel version. The song reached No. 1 in Italy's Musica e dischi, in a tandem ranking of these three versions. Curtis's version was a top 10 hit in Uruguay. In 1963, Italian singer Ennio Sangiusto released a version of the song titled "Chariot", which reached No. 1 in Spain. In 1963, Italian singer Joe Sentieri released a version of the song titled "La Tierra", which reached No. 3 in Argentina. In 1963, Argentine singer Alberto Cortez released a version of the song titled "La Tierra", which reached No. 2 in Spain. In 1963, Argentine singer Violeta Rivas released a version titled "La Tierra", which reached No. 1 in Uruguay. Dee Dee Sharp released. Sharp's version reached No. 1 in Hong Kong. In 1982, Dutch singer José Hoebee released a hit cover of the song, which reached No. 1 in Flanders, No. 1 on the Dutch Top 40, No. 2 on the Dutch Nationale Hitparade.
A new version, recorded in 2005, reached No. 90 on the Dutch Single Top 100. The Norwegian comedian Lars Mjøen wrote comedic Norwegian lyrics, «Torsken kommer!». The song was published by the comedy troupe KLM as Brødrene Dal as the B-side of "Gaus, Roms Og Brumund" and on the LP record Spektralplate in 1982. A music video remake was released by Norges Bank in 2017 to mark the introduction of the new 200 krone banknote that features a cod on the obverse side; the song is featured at the end of the 1992 film Sister Act, where it was performed by the nuns' chorus for the Pope with Whoopi Goldberg's character as the lead singer. The song is used by Malaysian mobile service provider Digi for its extensive promotional campaign in late 2006, albeit with different lyrics; the first five notes of the song has since been made into the main jingle for future Digi advertisements. Official Peggy March, includes discography
Jack Smith (film director)
Jack Smith was an American filmmaker and pioneer of underground cinema. He is acclaimed as a founding father of American performance art, has been critically recognized as a master photographer, though his photographic works are rare and remain unknown. Smith was raised in Texas where he made his first film, Buzzards over Baghdad, in 1952, he moved to New York in 1953. The most famous of Smith's productions is Flaming Creatures; the film is a satire of Hollywood B movies and tribute to actress Maria Montez, who starred in many such productions. However, authorities considered some scenes to be pornographic. Copies of the movie were confiscated at the premiere and it was subsequently banned. Despite not being viewable, the movie gained some notoriety when footage was screened during Congressional hearings and right-wing politician Strom Thurmond mentioned it in anti-porn speeches. Smith's next movie Normal Love was the only work in Smith's oeuvre with an conventional length, featured multiple underground stars, including Mario Montez, Diane di Prima, Tiny Tim, Francis Francine, Beverly Grant, John Vaccaro, others.
The rest of his productions consists of short movies, many never screened in a cinema, but featured in performances and re-edited to fit the stage needs. Apart from appearing in his own work, Smith worked as an actor, he played the lead in Andy Warhol's unfinished film Batman Dracula, Ken Jacobs's Blonde Cobra, appeared in several theater productions by Robert Wilson. He worked as a photographer and founded the Hyperbole Photographic Studio in New York. In 1962, he released The Beautiful Book, a collection of pictures of New York artists, re-published in facsimile by Granary Books in 2001. After his last film, No President, Smith created performance and experimental theatre work until his death on September 25, 1989 from AIDS-related pneumonia. In 1978, Sylvère Lotringer conducted a 13-page interview with Smith in Columbia University's philosophy department publication of Semiotext called Schizo-Culture: The Event, The Book. In 1989, New York performance artist Penny Arcade tried to salvage Smith's work from his apartment after his long bout with AIDS and subsequent death.
Arcade attempted to preserve the apartment as Smith had transformed it – an elaborate stage set for his never-to-be-filmed epic Sinbad In a Rented World – as a museum dedicated to Jack Smith and his work. This effort failed; until Smith's archive was co-managed by Arcade, alongside the film historian J. Hoberman via their corporation, The Plaster Foundation, Inc. Within ten years of Smith's death, the Foundation, operating without funding but through donations and good will, was able to restore all of Smith's films, create a major retrospective curated by Edward Leffingwell at PS 1, the Contemporary Arts Museum, now part of MOMA, put his films back into international distribution, publish several books on Jack Smith and his work. In January 2004, the New York Surrogate Court ordered Hoberman and Arcade to return Smith's archive to his legal heir, surviving sister Sue Slater. Hoberman and Arcade fought to dismiss Slater's claim, arguing that she abandoned Jack's apartment and its contents. In a six-minute trial, Judge Eve Preminger rejected the Foundation's argument and awarded the archive to Slater.
By October 2006, the Foundation had still refused to surrender Smith's archive to the estate, claiming money owed them for expenses associated with managing the archive—and hoping Smith's work would be bought by an appropriate public institution that could safeguard his legacy and keep the works in the public eye. According to curator Jerry Tartaglia, the dispute was resolved as of 2008, with the purchase of Smith's estate by the Gladstone Gallery. Smith was one of the first proponents of the aesthetics which came to be known as'camp' and'trash', using no-budget means of production to create a visual cosmos influenced by Hollywood kitsch and with Flaming Creatures created drag culture as it is known. Smith was involved with John Vaccaro, founder of The Playhouse of the Ridiculous, whose disregard for conventional theater practice influenced Smith's ideas about performance art. In turn, Vaccaro was influenced by Smith's aesthetics, it was Vaccaro who introduced Smith to glitter and in 1966 and 1967, Smith created costumes for Vaccaro's Playhouse of The Ridiculous.
Smith's style influenced the film work of Andy Warhol as well as the early work of John Waters. While all three were part of the 1960s gay arts movement and Smith refuted the idea that their sexual orientation was responsible for their art. In 1992, performer Ron Vawter recreated Smith's performance "What's Underground about Marshmallows" in Roy Cohn/Jack Smith which he presented in a live performance and, released as a film directed by Jill Godmilow and produced by Jonathan Demme. Playwright Richard Foreman was influenced by Smith. Tony Conrad produced two CDs from the Jack Smith tape archives subtitled 56 Ludlow Street that were recorded at 56 Ludlow Street between 1962 and 1964. By Jack Smith1952: Buzzards Over Baghdad 1961: Scotch Tape 1963: Flaming Creatures 1963: Normal Love 1967: No President With Jack Smith as actor1960: In Ken Jacobs's Little Stabs at Happiness. 1963: In Jacobs's Blonde Cobra 1963: In Ron Rice's
Marlon Brando Jr. was an American actor and film director. With a career spanning 60 years, he is well-regarded for his cultural influence on 20th-century film. Brando's Academy Award-winning performances include that of Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront and Don Vito Corleone in The Godfather. Brando was an activist for many causes, notably the civil rights movement and various Native American movements, he is credited with helping to popularize the Stanislavski system of acting, having studied with Stella Adler in the 1940s. He is regarded as one of the first actors to bring Method Acting to mainstream audiences, he gained acclaim and an Academy Award nomination for reprising the role of Stanley Kowalski in the 1951 film adaptation of Tennessee Williams' play A Streetcar Named Desire, a role that he originated on Broadway. He received further praise for his performance as Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront, his portrayal of the rebellious motorcycle gang leader Johnny Strabler in The Wild One proved to be a lasting image in popular culture.
Brando received Academy Award nominations for playing Emiliano Zapata in Viva Zapata!. Brando was included in a list of Top Ten Money Making Stars three times in the 1950s, coming in at number 10 in 1954, number 6 in 1955, number 4 in 1958; the 1960s saw. He directed and starred in the cult western film One-Eyed Jacks, a critical and commercial flop, after which he delivered a series of box-office failures, beginning with the 1962 film adaptation of the novel Mutiny on the Bounty. After 10 years, during which he did not appear in a successful film, he won his second Academy Award for playing Vito Corleone in Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather, a role critics consider among his greatest; the Godfather was one of the most commercially successful films of all time. With that and his Oscar-nominated performance in Last Tango in Paris, Brando re-established himself in the ranks of top box-office stars, placing sixth and tenth in the Money Making Stars poll in 1972 and 1973, respectively. Brando took a four-year hiatus before appearing in The Missouri Breaks.
After this, he was content with being a paid character actor in cameo roles, such as in Superman and The Formula, before taking a nine-year break from motion pictures. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, Brando was paid a record $3.7 million and 11.75% of the gross profits for 13 days' work on Superman. He finished out the 1970s with his controversial performance as Colonel Kurtz in another Coppola film, Apocalypse Now, a box-office hit for which he was paid and which helped finance his career layoff during the 1980s. Brando was ranked by the American Film Institute as the fourth-greatest movie star among male movie stars whose screen debuts occurred in or before 1950, he was one of six professional actors, along with Charlie Chaplin, U. S. President Ronald Reagan, Lucille Ball, Frank Sinatra, Marilyn Monroe, named in 1999 by Time magazine as one of its 100 Most Important People of the Century. Brando was born on April 3, 1924, in Omaha, Nebraska, to Marlon Brando, Sr. a pesticide and chemical feed manufacturer, Dorothy Julia.
Brando had Jocelyn Brando and Frances. His ancestry was German, Dutch and Irish, his patrilineal immigrant ancestor, Johann Wilhelm Brandau, arrived in New York in the early 1700s from the Palatinate in Germany. Brando was raised a Christian Scientist, his mother, known as Dodie, was unconventional for her time. An actress herself and a theatre administrator, she helped Henry Fonda begin his acting career. However, she was an alcoholic and had to be brought home from Chicago bars by her husband. In his autobiography, Songs My Mother Taught Me, Brando expressed sadness when writing about his mother: "The anguish that her drinking produced was that she preferred getting drunk to caring for us." Dodie and Brando's father joined Alcoholics Anonymous. Brando harbored far more enmity for his father, stating, "I was his namesake, but nothing I did pleased or interested him, he enjoyed telling me I couldn't do anything right. He had a habit of telling me I would never amount to anything." Brando's parents moved to Evanston, when his father's work took him to Chicago, but separated when Brando was 11 years old.
His mother took the three children to Santa Ana, where they lived with her mother. In 1937, Brando's parents reconciled and moved together to Libertyville, Illinois, a small town north of Chicago. In 1939 and 1941, he worked as an usher at The Liberty. Brando, whose childhood nickname was "Bud", was a mimic from his youth, he developed an ability to absorb the mannerisms of children he played with and display them while staying in character. He was introduced to neighborhood boy Wally Cox and the two were unlikely closest friends until Cox's death in 1973. In the 2007 TCM biopic, Brando: The Documentary, childhood friend George Englund recalls Brando's earliest acting as imitating the cows and horses on the family farm as a way to distract his mother from drinking, his sister Jocelyn was the first to pursue an acting career, going to study at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City. She appeared on Broadway films and television. Brando's sister Frances left college in California to study art in New York.
Brando had been held back a year i