Scotch is an adjective meaning "of Scotland". The modern usage in Scotland is Scottish or Scots, the word "Scotch" is only applied to specific products food or drink, such as Scotch whisky, Scotch pie, Scotch broth, Scotch eggs. "Scotch" applied to people is considered pejorative in Scotland, reflecting old Anglo-Scottish antagonisms, but it is still used in England and Ireland, though the usage is considered old-fashioned. The verb to scotch is unrelated to the adjective, it derives from Anglo-French escocher meaning "to notch, nick", from coche, "a notch, groove", extended in English to mean "to put an abrupt end to", with the forms "scotched", "scotching", "scotches". For example: "The prime minister scotched the rumours of her illness by making a public appearance." In the traditional children's game of "hopscotch", known as "peevers" in Scotland, it refers to the lines one hops over. The adjective or noun Scotch is an early modern English contraction of the English word Scottish, adopted into the Scots language.
It less replaced Scottish as the prevailing term in England in the 17th century. The English playwright William Shakespeare used the word Scotch to describe a jig, but always employed the term Scottish when people were the subject. Scots predominated in Scotland until the 18th century when anglicisation became fashionable and Scotch came to be used in both England and Scotland. A 1788 letter by Robert Burns says in part: "Apropos, is not the Scotch phrase Auld lang syne exceedingly expressive? There is an old song and tune which has thrilled through my soul. You know I am an enthusiast in old Scotch songs.". Burns wrote of himself in 1787, "The appellation of a Scotch Bard, is by far my highest pride, thus Byron: English Bards and Scotch Reviewers ref. 1809). From the early 19th century, Scots or Scottish became the preferred usages among educated Scottish people, Scotch being regarded as an anglicised affectation. By 1908, this was described by The New York Times as a "long-established… preference".
In modern usage in Scotland, "Scotch" is used, other than as described in the following paragraph for certain articles. In modern current British usage, in England as in Scotland, the general term for things from or pertaining to Scotland is Scottish. Scots is used for the Scots language and Scots law, although one hears it used of people and organisations in newspaper articles. Scotch remains in use in only a few specific cases.'Scotch terrier' was once one of these legacy uses, but has been replaced with Scottish terrier. Scotland was one of the first countries in the world to introduce compulsory education for all children in 1696, administered in each parish by the Kirk; when the British government chose to centralise and regulate the system in 1872, the Scottish school system was placed under a "Scotch Education Department" with offices in London. In 1918, as a result of objections from within Scotland, the department was moved to Edinburgh and renamed the Scottish Education Department.
This reflects the linguistic preferences of modern Scotland. In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote in his Preface to English History 1914–1945: "Some inhabitants of Scotland now call themselves Scots and their affairs Scottish, they are entitled to do so. The English word for both is Scotch, just as we call les français the French and Deutschland Germany. Being English, I use it.""Scots" is the modern preferred usage in all levels of society in Scotland, but occasional use of "Scotch" in varieties of the Scots language continues with terms such as Scotch and English, Scotch fiddle, Scotch mile and ell and many other examples. There are other good indicators that the use of "Scotch" has been "whitewashed out" and become a shibboleth. Early versions of dictionaries produced in Burns' wake in the 19th century had titles such as "A Dictionary of the Scotch Dialect of the Lowlands" and modern place names now written as "Scots" e.g. Scotstarvit and Scotscalder existed in previous incarnations as "Scotch".
Scotch Corner survives as a place-name in England. In a reminiscence on his early training as an advocate in Edinburgh, Sir Walter Scott describes the law as "Scotch Law" some four times and as "Scots Law" just once. By the 1840s other writers were using the phrase "Scots Law", this usage is now standard world-wide. Scots law reports in the nineteenth century show frequent judicial usage of'Scotch' as referring to people. In 1978, the song "Scotch Machine" by the pan-European group Voyage was released in the UK as "Scots Machine". In the 1937 film Storm in a Teacup, the Scottish/Scotch debate is a running joke. In one scene, Vicky is mixing cocktails, she explains to Frank that her father Provost Gow, standing for Parliament as a member of the "Caledonia League", "...wants to be prime minister of the first Scotch parliament." "Scottish, Scottish!" Her father pompously corrects her. "Well fix yourself a scottish and soda!" she replies, flounces out the door. In another scene one of Gow's Caledonia League minions says to him "I've never seen the
Simon Gougnard is a Belgian field hockey player who plays as a midfielder for Leuven and the Belgium national team. Gougnard played club hockey in Belgium for Waterloo Ducks until 2009, when he transferred to the Netherlands to play for TMHC Tilburg, he left them after one season to play for Oranje Zwart. In 2012 he returned to Belgium because of his study, he played one year in Belgium for Racing Bruxelles. In 2013, Gougnard went back to the Netherlands, he played for Bloemendaal until 2015. In 2017 he went back to the Waterloo Ducks. In April 2019, he agreed to play for Leuven from the 2019–20 season onwards. During that year's Euro Hockey League, Gougnard's Waterloo Ducks became the first Belgian club to win the Euro Hockey League. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, he competed for the national team in the men's tournament. Gougnard became European vice-champion with Belgium at the 2013 European Championship on home ground in Boom. During the 2018 World Cup, he lost his father and in the match on the next day against England, Belgium played with a mourning band.
Gougnard scored the 2–0 in that match and they won the tournament by defeating the Netherlands in the final. In August 2019, he was selected in the Belgium squad for the 2019 EuroHockey Championship, they won Belgium its first European title by defeating Spain 5-0 in the final. Simon Gougnard at the International Hockey Federation
HMS Gore was a British Captain-class frigate of the Royal Navy in commission during World War II. Constructed as the United States Navy Evarts-class destroyer escort USS Herzog, she served in the Royal Navy from 1943 to 1946; the ship was ordered on 25 January 1942 and laid down as USS Herzog, the first ship of the name, by the Boston Navy Yard in Boston, Massachusetts, on 20 May 1943. She was launched on 8 July 1943; the United States transferred her to the United Kingdom under Lend-Lease on 14 October 1943. The ship was commissioned into service in the Royal Navy as HMS Gore under the command of Lieutenant John Vivian Reeves-Brown, RN, on 14 October 1943 with her transfer, she served on escort duty. On 26 February 1944, Gore joined the British frigates HMS Affleck and HMS Gould in a depth-charge attack that sank the German submarine U-91 in the North Atlantic Ocean at position 49°45′00″N 026°20′00″W. On 29 February 1944, Gore was operating as part of the First Escort Group when she, Affleck and the British frigate HMS Garlies detected the German submarine U-358 in the North Atlantic north-northeast of the Azores and began a depth-charge attack which continued through the night and into 1 March 1944, the four frigates dropping a combined 104 depth charges.
Gore and Garlies were forced to withdraw to Gibraltar to refuel on 1 March, but Affleck and Gould continued to attack U-358. During the afternoon of 1 March, U-358 succeeded in torpedoing and sinking Gould at position 45°46′00″N 023°16′00″W, but was forced to surface after 38 hours submerged and was sunk by gunfire from Affleck at position 45°46′00″N 023°16′00″W; the Royal Navy returned Gore to the U. S. Navy on 2 May 1946; the U. S. Navy sold Gore on either 19 November 10 June 1947 for scrapping; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Navsource Online: Destroyer Escort Photo Archive Herzog /HMS Gore uboat.net HMS Gore Captain Class Frigate Association HMS Gore K481 Photo gallery of HMS Gore
Turbo excellens is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Turbinidae, the turban snails. This marine species occurs off Japan; the length of the shell varies between 22 mm. The imperforate shell has a globose-turbinate shape, its color pattern is pale fleshy. The conic spire contains five convex whorls with narrowly channelled sutures; the whorls are spirally lirated with minute nodules. The penultimate whorl is trilirate; the body whorl is inflated and square-shaped. The aperture is silvery white on the inside; the peristome is simple. The white columella is smooth; the operculum is round. Its outer surface is white convex and everywhere minutely granulate. Additional information regarding this species: Taxonomic status: Some authors place the name in the subgenus Turbo To Encyclopedia of Life To World Register of Marine Species "Turbo excellens". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019
Education in Montenegro is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science of Government of Montenegro. Education starts in elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools at the age of 6 and elementary education lasts for nine years. Before 1868, there were only a few elementary schools in Montenegro, but between 1868 and 1875, 72 new schools opened, serving 3000 students. Elementary education was provided for free. In 1869, a teachers' seminary school and the Girls' Institute were opened in Cetinje; the Girls' Institute was a specialized school for teachers of elementary schools. In 1875, an agricultural school was opened in the newly developed town of Danilovgrad, but the school closed two years due to the war with Turkey. Subsequently, a similar school opened in Podgorica in 1893. Younger, educated Montenegrins took key positions in the growing government administration. In 1880, the first'lower classical gymnasium' was opened. In 1902, it developed into a'higher classical gymnasium'.
In 1899, Montenegro had 26 private schools. The educational system is uniformed; the school curriculum includes the culture of all ethnic groups. The language of instruction is Montenegrin, so is Albanian in some elementary and secondary schools where there is a significant presence of Albanians. All students up to Secondary schools are enrolled in public schools, which are financed from the republic's budget. In December 2008, Montenegrin Education Minister Sreten Škuletić said that, in 2009, all school text books will be printed in the Montenegrin language as part of an educational reform; this will include Dictionaries and grammar books. Elementary education in Montenegro is free and compulsory for all children between the ages of 6 and 14, when children attend the nine-year school. Secondary schools are divided into three types, children attend one depending on their choice and their elementary school grades: Gymnasium lasts for four years and offers general and broad education, it is considered a preparatory school for college and thus the most prestigious.
Professional schools last for three or four years and specialize students in certain fields, while still offering broad education. Vocational schools last for three years, without an option of continuing education, specialize in narrow vocations. Tertiary level institutions are divided into Higher education and High education level faculties. Study programmes at universities and art academies last between 4 and 6 years and award diplomas equivalent to a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science degree. Higher school lasts between four years. Post-graduate education is offered after tertiary level and offers Masters' degrees, Ph. D. and specialization education. Diploma o Završenoj Srednjoj Školi Diploma Diploma Visokog Obrazovanja Magistar Nauka Doktor Nauka University of Montenegro University "Mediterranean" University of Donja Gorica University of Montenegro Website University "Mediterranean" - official web presentation UDG University Website
Stockade Companies is a multi-concept restaurant company based in Round Rock, Texas. Stockade Companies, LLC grew from a single Sirloin Stockade restaurant, founded in 1966, to now having over 80 restaurants under three brands: Sirloin Stockade, Montana Mike's and Coyote Canyon. Sirloin Stockade is a steakhouse and buffet restaurant featuring all-you-can-eat breakfast and dinner. Montana Mike's is a full-service steakhouse, Coyote Canyon is a casual low-price buffet restaurant found in 8 states: Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota and Texas; the restaurants are located in Mexico. The company is owned by the management team consisting of Doug Frieling. Stockade Companies LLC