Piercy is an unincorporated community in Mendocino County, California. It is located on the South Fork of the Eel River 9 miles north-northwest of Leggett, at an elevation of 794 feet; the first post office at Piercy opened in 1920. The name honors Sam Piercy, who settled there around 1900; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Piercy has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps
Laytonville is a census-designated place in Mendocino County, United States. Laytonville, is located 20 miles north-northwest of Willits, at an elevation of 1670 feet; the population was 1,227 at the 2010 census, down from 1,301 at the 2000 census. Laytonville is located at 39°41′18″N 123°28′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 5.4 square miles, of which, 5.4 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. A few miles south of Laytonville lie the headwaters of the South Fork Eel River, a tributary of the Eel River; the town was founded by Nova Scotian Frank B. Layton, who in 1874 built a house at the site; the first post office opened in 1879. The 2010 United States Census reported that Laytonville had a population of 1,227; the reported population density was 225.8 people per square mile, but this figure is inaccurate as the reported population includes the majority of the population that lives outside the town limits. The actual population density is much less than 225.8 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Laytonville was 839 White, 16 African American, 244 Native American, 10 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 60 from other races, 57 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 141 persons; the Census reported that 1,226 people lived in households, 1 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 493 households, out of which 163 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 166 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 82 had a female householder with no husband present, 48 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 59 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 8 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 146 households were made up of individuals and 37 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49. There were 296 families; the population was spread out with 271 people under the age of 18, 96 people aged 18 to 24, 326 people aged 25 to 44, 384 people aged 45 to 64, 150 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.7 males. There were 562 housing units at a reported average density of 103.4 per square mile. Of these 562 housing units in the Laytonville area, 270 were owner-occupied, 223 were occupied by renters; the homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%. 640 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 586 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,301 people, 496 households, 344 families residing in the CDP; the reported population density was 258.0 people per square mile,however this figure is inaccurate because the reported population includes the majority of the population who live outside the town limits. The actual population density is much less than 258.0 people per square mile.. There were 546 housing units at a reported average density of 108.3 per square mile, however this figure is inaccurate because the reported number of housing units includes the majority of those outside the town limits.
The actual density is much less than 108.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 75.17% White, 0.23% African American, 15.37% Native American, 0.69% Asian, 0.77% Pacific Islander, 2.23% from other races, 5.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.30% of the population. There were 496 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.2% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families. 23.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.03. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.8 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $34,432, the median income for a family was $38,080. Males had a median income of $33,269 versus $21,563 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $19,367. About 19.0% of families and 21.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.1% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. In the state legislature, Laytonville is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood. Federally, Laytonville is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman. Hog Farm – located in Laytonville, it's an organization considered to be America's longest running hippie commune
In topography, prominence measures the height of a mountain or hill's summit relative to the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peak's key col is a unique point on this contour line and the parent peak is some higher mountain, selected according to various objective criteria. There are at least two definitions of prominence: The prominence of a peak is the minimum height necessary to descend to get from the summit to any higher terrain, which can be calculated for a given peak in the following way: for every path connecting the peak to higher terrain, find the lowest point on the path. See Figure 1; the prominence of a peak is the height of the peak’s summit above the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. This allows the prominence of points like Everest to be calculated, as long as a lowest point can be defined; the following mental exercise may illustrate the meaning of topographic prominence.
Imagine a peak and imagine that an imaginary sea level rises to the peak. Now lower the imaginary sea level and an imaginary island appears beneath your feet; the island will merge with other islands that emerge. The island will touch an island with a higher peak than the initial island The summit of that island is the parent peak of the summit, the point at which the two islands touch is the key col of the summit, the elevation rise from the key col to the summit is the topographic prominence of the summit; the parent peak may be either far from the subject peak. The summit of Mount Everest is the parent peak of Aconcagua at a distance of 17,755 km, as well as the parent of the South Summit of Mount Everest at a distance of 360 m; the key col may be close to the subject peak or far from it. The key col for Aconcagua, if sea level is disregarded, is the Bering Strait at a distance of 13,655 km; the key col for the South Summit of Mount Everest is about 100 m distant. Prominence is interesting to many mountaineers because it is an objective measurement, correlated with the subjective significance of a summit.
Peaks with low prominence are either subsidiary tops of some higher summit or insignificant independent summits. Peaks with high prominence tend to be the highest points around and are to have extraordinary views. Only summits with a sufficient degree of prominence are regarded as independent mountains. For example, the world's second-highest mountain is K2. While Mount Everest's South Summit is taller than K2, it is not considered an independent mountain because it is a sub-summit of the main summit. Many lists of mountains take topographic prominence as cutoff. John and Anne Nuttall's The Mountains of England and Wales uses a cutoff of 15 m, Alan Dawson's list of Marilyns uses 150 m.. In the contiguous United States, the famous list of "fourteeners" uses a cutoff of 300 ft / 91 m. In the U. S. 2000 ft of prominence has become an informal threshold that signifies that a peak has major stature. Lists with a high topographic prominence cutoff tend to favor isolated peaks or those that are the highest point of their massif.
While the use of prominence as a cutoff to form a list of peaks ranked by elevation is standard and is the most common use of the concept, it is possible to use prominence as a mountain measure in itself. This generates lists of peaks ranked by prominence, which are qualitatively different from lists ranked by elevation; such lists tend to emphasize isolated high peaks, such as range or island high points and stratovolcanoes. One advantage of a prominence-ranked list is that it needs no cutoff since a peak with high prominence is automatically an independent peak, it is common to define a peak's parent as a particular peak in the higher terrain connected to the peak by the key col. If there are many higher peaks there are various ways of defining which one is the parent, not based on geological or geomorphological factors; the "parent" relationship defines a hierarchy. For example, in Figure 1, the middle peak is a subpeak of the right peak, in turn a subpeak of the left peak, the highest point on its landmass.
In that example, there is no controversy over the hierarchy. These different definitions follow. A special case occurs for the highest point on an oceanic continent; some sources define no parent in this case. Called prominence island parentage, this is defined as follows. In figure 2 the key col of peak A is at the meeting place of two closed contours, one encircling A and the other containing at least one higher peak; the encirclement parent of A is the highest peak, inside this other contour. In terms of the
South Fork Eel River
The South Fork Eel River is the largest tributary of the Eel River in north-central California in the United States. The river flows 105 miles north from Laytonville to Dyerville/Founders' Grove where it joins the Eel River; the South Fork drains a long and narrow portion of the Coast Range of California in parts of Mendocino and Humboldt counties. U. S. Route 101 follows the river for much of its length; the Kai Pomo Indians, a branch of the Pomo Indians group, once lived in the upper portion of the watershed. Before industrial development in the 1800s, many native tribes relied on the river's abundant runs of salmon and steelhead. In the 1920s, a private company built the Benbow Dam, blocking fish migration to a large area of the basin; the South Fork is designated as a National Wild and Scenic River from the confluence of Section Four Creek to the mouth. The South Fork Eel River begins near Iron Mountain in western Mendocino County, at an elevation of 2,500 feet, its headwaters are near that of the Ten Mile River to the south.
Dropping off the high plateau where it begins, the South Fork winds north and bends southwest through a steep and narrow canyon. Longvale, California is a few miles to the east of the headwaters, while Laytonville, California is closer, only about 1-mile to the north, it is not long after its headwaters that Branscomb Road drops into the South Fork Eel's canyon from the north, paralleling the river. 1-mile past this point, it receives its first significant tributary, Section Four Creek, on the left bank. Although it is not a large creek, only about 2.5 miles long, it denotes the start of the National Wild and Scenic River section of the South Fork. The river turns west-northwest, passing Branscomb, California. Near the city, it receives Redwood Creek on the left; these two stream names are a common occurrence throughout the South Fork's watershed. Afterwards, it receives Tenmile Creek, on the right bank. Tenmile Creek begins in another section of the Coast Range, separated from the South Fork Eel River by two sub-ranges.
The creek begins in the easternmost of these two sub-ranges. It flows west, cutting a water gap through the western subrange, spills into the South Fork; the creek is about 21 miles long, despite the name. After the confluence with Tenmile Creek, the South Fork flows north, turning west where it receives another major tributary, 11-mile Rattlesnake Creek on the right; this point is significant because it is where it begins to parallel U. S. Highway 101 and California State Route 271. Both roads come in from the east and at this point are on the river's right bank; the river turns northwest, receiving Big Dann Creek and another large 9-mile tributary, Cedar Creek, on the right bank. Cedar Creek flows west and turns south-southwest, flowing in a steep, undeveloped gorge. Shortly past Cedar Creek, the South Fork Eel meets Hollow Tree Creek. Hollow Tree Creek flows east, turns north turns east again to meet the South Fork, fed by several smaller creeks; the South Fork turns west again, flowing through the Standish Hickey State Recreational Area.
It meanders north into Richardson Grove State Park on an wide valley floor, receiving Red Mountain Creek on the right bank. The river reaches Benbow Lake, inside the Benbow Lake State Recreational Area and next to the town of Benbow, California. Benbow Lake was a seasonal reservoir, formed by a dam at its western end; the dam was only raised in the summer, only when water flow is sufficient for impoundment. Since about 2009, the lake no longer gets built, good for the ecology of the river. At Benbow Lake the South Fork meets the East Branch South Fork Eel River; the East Branch, formed by the confluence of two small creeks, Cruso Cabin and Elkhorn Creeks, south of Bell Springs Mountain, flows through a rugged, narrow gorge in a northwest direction for about 20 miles. After passing through the Benbow Dam, non-functional during the winter months, the South Fork Eel receives another tributary called Redwood Creek on the left bank, as it bends north and west around the community of Redway, located on a plateau east of the river.
The river passes through another rugged canyon, flowing northeast passes the towns of Phillipsville and Miranda which are to the east of the river. West of Miranda, the river receives another medium-sized tributary, Salmon Creek, from the left bank; the South Fork flows north to a point where it turns around a ridge and flows due south turns back north again. At this point, it is paralleled by Highway 101 on the left bank and by California State Route 254 on the right bank. U. S. 101 crosses the South Fork, paralleling CA-254. The village of Myers Flat is located on a low slice of terrain north of the river; the South Fork, nearing its mouth, passes Burlington on the right bank, Weott, California on the right bank. Several hundred yards upstream from its confluence, it receives its last major tributary, Bull Creek, on the left bank. Bull Creek, whose watershed is contained inside Humboldt Redwoods State Park, begins south of Grasshopper Mountain and flows northwest makes a great bend to the west and joins the South Fork.
Its length is 8 miles. After receiving Bull Creek, the South Fork Eel curves halfway around 325-foot high Duckett Bluff, receives its last named tributary, Cabin Creek, on the left bank. Meandering through a downcut channel between U. S. 101 and SR 254 and California State R
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
Middle Fork Eel River
The Middle Fork Eel River is a major tributary of the Eel River of northwestern California in the United States. It drains a rugged and sparsely populated region of the Yolla Bolly Mountains, part of the California Coast Range, in Trinity and Mendocino Counties, its watershed comprises 745 square miles of land, or 20% of the entire Eel River basin. The river provides groundwater recharge and is used for recreation and for industrial and municipal water supply by residents; the Middle Fork Eel River flows 70 stream miles. It rises in the Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness at the crest of the Coast Range about a mile or so north of Wrights Ridge and west of The Knob, at the confluence of several small unnamed streams, it makes a large bend to the south southeast past the confluence with Rattlesnake Creek and the boundary between Trinity and Mendocino Counties. Turning south around Taliaferro Ridge at the Beaver Creek confluence, it runs southwest to where the Black Butte River enters from the left.
Williams Creek enters on the right the Middle Fork flows south through Round Valley Indian Reservation, passing within a few miles of Covelo before receiving Mill Creek from the right. Hayshed and Elk Creeks both enter from the left. Afterwards, the river's final miles are spent flowing westwards through a gorge to the confluence with the main stem near Dos Rios. In 1967, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers proposed to build an enormous dam just above the confluence of the Eel River and the Middle Fork Eel River at Dos Rios; the Dos Rios Dam would have been 730 feet tall, creating a reservoir that covered 110,000 acres of land. If built, this dam would have diverted most of the flow of the river into the Central Valley for irrigation purposes; the project was defeated by outcry from local residents and the intervention of then-California governor Ronald Reagan. Reagan remarked, "Enough treaties had been broken with the Indians"; the river provides wildlife habitat for preservation of rare and endangered species including cold freshwater habitat for fish migration and spawning.
In a 1965 California Fish and Wildlife Plan, the Middle Fork Eel River watershed supported an annual run of 23,000 Steelhead trout in 178 miles of stream habitat. Steelhead surveys were conducted by DFG and USFS from 1966 to 1999. In 1999 they described the Middle Fork summer steelhead run as “The largest remaining wild run of these magnificent fish”, it was noted to be “...probably the only population that has not been touched by a hatchery program, as such, is most the State’s most important summer steelhead population”. Counts from the annual surveys indicated that the Middle Fork summer steelhead population has declined since 1987, to a count of 471 fish in 1999. North Fork Eel River South Fork Eel River List of rivers of California Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness Reisner, Marc. Cadillac Desert, revised edition, Penguin USA, ISBN 0-14-017824-4