The Bank of Nova Scotia, operating as Scotiabank, is a Canadian multinational bank. It is the third largest bank in Canada by deposits and market capitalization, it serves more than 25 million customers around the world and offers a range of products and services including personal and commercial banking, wealth management and investment banking. With a team of more than 88,000 employees and assets of $998 billion, Scotiabank trades on the Toronto and New York Exchanges. Founded in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1832, Scotiabank moved its executive offices to Toronto, Ontario, in 1900. Scotiabank has billed itself as "Canada's most international bank" due to its acquisitions in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Europe and parts of Asia. Through its subsidiary ScotiaMocatta, it is a member of the London Bullion Market Association and one of five banks that participates in the London gold fixing. Scotiabank's Institution Number is 002; the company ranked at number 41 on the SNL Financial World's 100 biggest banks listing, September 2013 and is led by President and CEO Brian J. Porter.
The bank was incorporated by the Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia on March 30, 1832, in Halifax, Nova Scotia, with William Lawson serving as the first president. Scotiabank was founded in Nova Scotia, in 1832 under the name of The Bank of Nova Scotia; the bank intended to facilitate the trans-Atlantic trade of the time. In 1883, The Bank of Nova Scotia acquired the Union Bank of Prince Edward Island, although most of the bank's expansion efforts in the century took the form of branch openings; the bank launched its branch banking system by opening in Nova Scotia. The expansion was limited to the Maritimes until 1882, when the bank moved west by opening a branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba; the Manitoba branch closed, but the bank continued to expand into the American Midwest. This included opening a branch in Minneapolis in 1885, which transferred to Chicago in 1892. Following the collapse of the Commercial Bank of Newfoundland and Union Bank of Newfoundland on December 10, 1894, The Bank of Nova Scotia established on December 15, 1894, in Newfoundland.
In 1899, Scotiabank opened a branch in Massachusetts. The bank opened a branch in Kingston, Jamaica in 1889 to facilitate the trading of sugar and fish; this was Scotiabank's first move into the Caribbean and the first branch of a Canadian bank to open outside of the United States or the United Kingdom. By the end of the 19th century, the bank was represented in all of the Maritimes, Quebec and Manitoba. In 1900, the bank moved its headquarters to Ontario; the bank continued to expand in the 20th century, although its growth now took the form of acquisitions rather than branch openings. 1906 – The bank opened a branch in Havana, Cuba. By 1931, it had five branches in Havana, one branch each in Camagüey, Cienfuegos and Santiago de Cuba. In 1960, the Government of Cuba nationalized all banks in Cuba, the Scotiabank withdrew services from all eight branches. 1907 – The bank opened a branch in New York City. 1910 – The bank opened a branch in San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1913 – The Bank of Nova Scotia merged with the Bank of New Brunswick.
1914 – Toronto-based Metropolitan Bank was acquired, making Scotiabank the fourth largest financial institution in Canada. 1919 – The bank opened a branch in Fajardo, Puerto Rico, located in Puerto Rico's northeast. 1919 – Bank of Ottawa was amalgamated. 1920 – The bank opened a branch in London, another in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 1961 – The bank became the first Canadian bank to appoint women bank managers on September 11, 1961. 1962 – The bank expanded into Asia with the opening of a Representative Office in Japan. 1975 – The bank adopted "Scotiabank" as its worldwide brand name. 1978 – The bank and Canadian Union of Public Employees signed the first collective agreement between a Canadian bank and a union on September 28, 1978, in Toronto. 1997 – The bank acquired Banco Quilmes in Argentina. 2000 – Scotiabank's stake in Mexican bank Grupo Financiero Inverlat was increased to 55 percent. The Mexican bank was subsequently renamed to Grupo Financiero Scotiabank Inverlat. 2002 – The bank shut its branches in Argentina during the currency crisis and massive sovereign default.
2003 -The bank's Guangzhou Branch was awarded the first licence to a Canadian bank by the Chinese government to deal in Chinese currency. 2003–2004 – The bank acquired Inverlat banking house in Mexico, taking over all of its branches and establishing a strong presence in the country. 2010 – The bank arrived in Bogotá, Colombia. 2012 - Scotiabank entered into an agreement to acquire ING Direct Bank of Canada from ING Groep N. V. In its early expansion, the bank followed trade and its customers' businesses rather than pursuing a strategy of expansion into international financial centres. Scotiabank is a member of the Global ATM Alliance, a joint venture of several major international banks that allows customers of the banks to use their ATM cards or check cards at certain other banks within the Global ATM Alliance without fees when traveling internationally. Other participating banks are Barclays, Bank of America, BNP Paribas, Deutsche Bank, Westpac. Scotiabank has spent $100 million implementing a controversial system to report to the United States the account holdings of close to one million Canadians of American origin and their Canadian-born spouses.
Scotiabank has been forced to implement this system in order to comply with FATCA. Ac
London Drugs Ltd. is a Canadian retail store chain with headquarters in Richmond, British Columbia. Its primary focus is on pharmaceuticals, electronics and cosmetics, with a limited selection of grocery items; as of June 2014, the chain had 78 stores in the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia. London Drugs was founded in 1945 as a small drugstore in British Columbia by Sam Bass; the first location at 800 Main Street, was named after London, the home of Canada's King, George VI. In 1968, London Drugs was sold to Daylin Corporation; the next year, Daylin ran into financial difficulties in the US branch of its business, decided to put London Drugs up for sale. In 1976 the business was acquired by the H. Y. Louie Group under the direction of President Tong Louie. Tong Louie expanded the company within BC and, for the first time, beyond the provincial border into Alberta with the first Edmonton location in 1976. In the next ten years, London Drugs tripled its number of stores. During this growth, the company began increasing the types of products available in stores.
Small kitchen appliances, high end cosmetics and high quality photo equipment became staple items lining the shelves. In 1981, London Drugs expanded into another non-traditional drugstore category by installing its first One-Hour Photofinishing labs; the introduction of photofinishing labs into the store and the one-hour-photo revolution paved the way for London Drugs’ introduction of a computer department in 1983. In 2004, the St. Vital Shopping Centre in Winnipeg becomes the new home to London Drugs’ first Manitoba store. Today, London Drugs has stores in more than 35 major markets throughout British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba. According to their website, January 2018, they operate 80 stores; the pharmacy is still the heart of the business, but today, London Drugs offers a full service computer department, cosmetics ranging from lip gloss to high-end face creams, cameras, high quality photo finishing, smart phones and 4K ultra high definition televisions. More people buy their small appliances in London Drugs than any other place in Western Canada.
All told, London Drugs serves more than 45 million customers each year. In January 2019, London Drugs acquired McBain Camera. A private company, London Drugs management consists of President and CEO Brandt C. Louie, Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer Clint Mahlman, Chief Financial Officer Laird Miller, Vice President Pharmacy and Cosmetics John Tse, General Manager of IT Nick Curalli, General Counsel Christine MacLean, Director of Real Estate Donna Figueira and Vice President General Merchandise, Insurance Services and Postal Outlets Rob Felix, it is Canadian-owned. London Drugs markets its own brand of products and services under the following labels: Of the chain's 81 stores, 52 are located in British Columbia, most of them in Greater Vancouver. In Alberta there are 24 stores, including nine in the Edmonton Capital Region, nine in the Calgary Region, five in other communities, a new LD Express store in Calgary. In Saskatchewan, 2 in Regina, 2 in Saskatoon and 1 in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
In 2014, a member of London Drugs staff in Vancouver falsely accused Andy Fiore, an award-winning documentary filmmaker with paranoid schizophrenia, of theft. Official website
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
SkyTrain is the rapid transit system of the Metro Vancouver Regional District, serving Vancouver, British Columbia and surrounding municipalities. SkyTrain has 79.6 km of track and uses automated trains on grade-separated tracks running on underground and elevated guideways, allowing SkyTrain to hold high on-time reliability. The name SkyTrain was coined for the system during Expo 86 because the first line principally runs on elevated guideway outside of Downtown Vancouver, providing panoramic views of the metropolitan area. SkyTrain uses the world's longest cable-supported transit-only bridge, known as SkyBridge, to cross the Fraser River. With the opening of the Evergreen Extension on December 2, 2016, SkyTrain became the longest rapid transit system in Canada and the longest automated driverless system in the world; the total lengths of the Singapore MRT's automated lines have since surpassed those of SkyTrain. SkyTrain has 53 stations serving three lines: Expo and Canada Line; the Expo Line and Millennium Line are operated by British Columbia Rapid Transit Company under contract from TransLink, a regional government transportation agency.
The Canada Line is operated on the same principles by the private concessionaire ProTrans BC under contract to TransLink, is an integrated part of the regional transport system. SkyTrain uses a fare system shared with other local transit services, is policed by the Metro Vancouver Transit Police. SkyTrain Attendants provide first aid and customer service, inspect fares, monitor train faults, operate the trains manually if necessary; the Expo Line connects Waterfront station in Vancouver to King George station in Surrey, principally along a route established by the Westminster and Vancouver Tramway Company as an interurban line in 1890. The Expo Line was built in 1985 in time for Expo 86, it now has 24 stations. The Expo Line ran only as far as New Westminster station initially. In 1989, it was extended to Columbia station and in 1990, once the Skybridge was finished, it continued across the Fraser River to Scott Road station in Surrey. In 1994, the terminus of the Expo Line became King George station in central Surrey.
It was built on a budget of $854 million. Effective October 22, 2016, Expo Line trains began operating on a new branch to Production Way–University, taking over the previous Millennium Line service between Waterfront and Production Way–University. During peak periods, every third Expo Line train provides service to Production Way–University. Prior to October 22, 2016, the Millennium Line shared tracks with the Expo Line from Waterfront station to Columbia station in New Westminster continued along its own elevated route through North Burnaby and East Vancouver, ending at VCC–Clark station, near Vancouver Community College's Broadway campus, it was built on a $1.2-billion budget and the final extension from Commercial Drive station to VCC–Clark station was opened on January 6, 2006. From October 22, 2016 to December 1, 2016, the Millennium Line operated from VCC–Clark to Lougheed Town Centre station; as of December 2, 2016, the Millennium Line operates between VCC–Clark station in Vancouver and Lafarge Lake–Douglas station in Coquitlam.
The Millennium Line has 17 stations, three of which are transfer stations with the Expo Line and two which connect with the West Coast Express commuter train. The original Millennium Line's stations were designed by British Columbia's top architects and are different from those on the Expo Line. In 2004, Busby and Associates Architects, designers of the Brentwood Town Centre station in Burnaby, were honoured for their work with a Governor General's Medal in Architecture. Construction on the Millennium Line's Evergreen Extension, from Lougheed Town Centre in Burnaby to Lafarge Lake–Douglas in Coquitlam, was completed in 2016 and it was opened for revenue service on December 2, 2016; this extension adds 6 new stations to the Millennium Line. The Canada Line begins at the Waterfront station hub continues south through Vancouver into the City of Richmond and Sea Island. From Bridgeport station, the Canada Line splits into two branches, one heading west to the YVR–Airport station at Vancouver International Airport and the other continuing south to the Richmond–Brighouse station in Richmond's city centre.
Opened on August 17, 2009, the Canada Line added 19.2 km to the SkyTrain network. Waterfront station is the only station; the Canada Line cost $1.9 billion, financed by the Governments of Canada and British Columbia, TransLink, InTransitBC. The Canada Line's trains, built by Rotem, are automated, but are of a different design from the Expo and Millennium lines' Bombardier-built fleet, they use conventional electric motors rather than linear induction motor technology. Canada Line tracks do not interconnect with the rest of the SkyTrain network, there is a separate fleet maintenance depot. SkyTrain provides high-frequency service, with trains arriving every 2–7 minutes at all stations during peak hours. Trains operate between 4:48 a.m. and 1:30 a.m. on weekdays, with reduced hours on weekends on the Expo and Millennium lines. SkyTrain has longer hours of service during special e
The Pacific Centre is a shopping mall located in downtown Vancouver, British Columbia and managed by Cadillac Fairview. Based on the number of stores, most of which are underground, it is the largest mall in Downtown Vancouver with over 100 stores and shops and the 7th busiest mall in Canada with 22.1 million annual visitors as of 2018. Anchor stores include Holt Renfrew, Harry Rosen, H&M, Nordstrom; the mall is directly connected to the Hudson's Bay department store, Vancouver Centre Mall, two SkyTrain subway stations, the Four Seasons Hotel Vancouver. Built between 1971 and 1973, it was an unofficial Eaton Centre; the Pacific Centre was home to an Eaton's department store, succeeded by Sears Canada after 2002 and vacated in the fall of 2012. A Nordstrom store opened in its former space in 2015; the City of Vancouver approved a 578,000 sq ft. expansion of Pacific Centre, including retail premises that will extend to the street on both sides of West Georgia Street, a direct link connecting the shopping centre with the new Vancouver City Centre SkyTrain station on Granville Street.
The link opened in the summer of 2009 in conjunction with the opening of the Canada Line. In November 2012, B. C. attorney general Shirley Bond ordered an investigation into a Downtown Vancouver Business Improvement Association security guard, who had physically assaulted a person with a disability whom he had accused of shoplifting. During the altercation, recorded on security cameras and witnesses' cellphones, the guard was seen hitting the man, throwing him from his wheelchair, yelling profanities at him. In January 2013, the Ministry of Justice ruled, he was fined $230, had his security license suspended for two month with a condition requiring re-certification on use of force before he could receive his license. On January 20, 2017, Cadillac Fairview announced an agreement to sell a 50 percent interest in its Vancouver properties, including Pacific Centre, to the Ontario Pension Board and Ontario's Workplace Safety and Insurance Board, each to hold a 25% stake. Cadillac Fairview, itself a subsidiary of the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan, will retain the remaining 50% interest and continue to manage the properties.
Pacific Centre is one of the most connected shopping centre in the region as it is located within the heart of downtown Vancouver. It acts as a junction for the Expo Line and Canada Line in addition to multiple bus lines and bus stops, its primary and closest Skytrain stations are Granville Station of the Expo Line and Vancouver City Centre Station of the Canada line. List of largest shopping malls in Canada Hotel Vancouver, which once sat on the site of Pacific Centre Cadillac Fairview Retail Site Pacific Centre official site City of Vancouver Development Permit Board report on expansion proposal
Downtown Vancouver is the southeastern portion of the peninsula in the north-central part of the City of Vancouver. It is the main city centre and central business district of the city, Metro Vancouver, the Lower Mainland regions; the downtown area is considered to be bounded by Burrard Inlet to the north, Stanley Park and the West End to the west, False Creek to the south, the Downtown Eastside to the east. Most sources include the full downtown peninsula as downtown Vancouver, but the City of Vancouver defines them as separate neighbourhoods. Besides the identifiable office towers of the financial and central business districts, Downtown Vancouver includes residential neighbourhoods in the form of high-rise apartment and condominiums, in Yaletown and Coal Harbour. Other downtown neighbourhoods include the Granville Mall and Entertainment District, Downtown's South, Gastown and Chinatown; the downtown area includes most of the remaining historic buildings and many of the larger notable buildings in the region.
There are two major sporting facilities in Rogers Arena and BC Place Stadium. The NHL's Vancouver Canucks play at Rogers Arena, while the CFL's BC Lions and the MLS's Vancouver Whitecaps FC use the neighbouring BC Place Stadium. SkyTrain Stadium-Chinatown station provides easy rapid transit access to the district; the presence of water on three sides limits access to downtown Vancouver. There are four major bridges: the Lions Gate Bridge, connecting to the North Shore municipalities and the Trans Canada Highway, the Burrard Street Bridge, Cambie Street Bridge, Granville Street Bridge provides access to the commercial and residential areas south of False Creek; the historic Waterfront station is the principal transit hub for the downtown core. There are six subway stations located in downtown Vancouver running on two SkyTrain lines: the Expo Line and Canada Line; the Expo Line travels from Waterfront station at the foot of the central harbor and through Dunsmuir Tunnel to the east. The Canada Line travels from Waterfront station and tunnels south under Granville Street and Davie Street, linking downtown to central Richmond and Vancouver International Airport.
SeaBus is a passenger-only ferry that connects from Waterfront station to the North Shore in 10–12 minutes. The West Coast Express commuter rail system travels from Waterfront station to the eastern suburbs and exurbs. Terminals are available near Waterfront station for float planes and helicopters. Most north-south Vancouver bus routes serve Downtown Vancouver, in addition to suburban routes from the North Shore and Burnaby; the bus rapid transit line 98 B-Line had eight stops in the downtown core along Seymour Street and Burrard Street. This service was replaced on August 2009 by SkyTrain's Canada Line; the 95 B-Line started service in December 2016 in conjunction with the opening of the Evergreen Extension, connecting downtown to Simon Fraser University along Hastings Street. There are two private passenger water taxi operators, providing service between several downtown neighbourhoods, False Creek, Granville Island; the city is planning to extend the downtown streetcar from its current route of Granville Island to the Main Street SkyTrain station, with future plans extending it to Chinatown and to Stanley Park.
City of Vancouver Community Profiles: Downtown Downtown page, Vancouver Then and Now website, comparisons of old photos with modern locations