Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Lapland referred to as Lappi Province, is the largest and northernmost region of Finland. The municipalities in the region cooperate in a Regional Council. Lapland borders the region of North Ostrobothnia in the south, it borders the Gulf of Bothnia, Norrbotten County in Sweden, Finnmark County and Troms County in Norway, Murmansk Oblast and the Republic of Karelia in Russia. Lapland's cold and wintry climate, coupled with the relative abundance of conifer trees such as pines and spruces means that it has become associated with Christmas in some countries, most notably the United Kingdom, holidays to Lapland are common towards the end of the year. Rovaniemi Airport is the third busiest airport in Finland; the region has been associated with Father Christmas since 1927, when proposed by Finnish radio host Markus Rautio. The area of Lapland region is 100,367 km², which consists of 92,667 km² of dry land, 6,316 km² fresh water and 1,383 km² of sea areas. In the south it borders Northern Ostrobothnia region, in the west Sweden, in the north and west Norway and in the east Russia.
Its borders follow three rivers: Tana and Torne. The largest lake is Lake Inari, 1,102 km². Highest point is on Halti; the areas of Enontekiö and Utsjoki in northern Lapland are known as Fell-Lapland. The bulk and remaining Lapland is known as Forest-Lapland. Lake Inari, the many fens of the region and the Salla-Saariselkä mountains are all part of Forest-Lapland. Fell-Lapland lies in the fells of the Scandinavian Mountains. Where it is not made up of barren ground like blockfields it has a vegetation of birch forests, willow thickets or heath. Common soil types in Forest-Lapland are sand with conifer forest growing on top; these forest show little variation across Lapland. Compared to southern Finland forest tree species grow slower. Understory is made of blueberry, lichens and ling; the landscape of large parts of Lapland is an inselberg plain. It has been suggested the inselberg plains formed in Late Cretaceous or Paleogene time by pediplanation or etchplanation. Relative to southern Finland Lapland stand out for its thick till cover.
The hills and mountains are made up of resistant rocks like granite, gneiss and amphibolite. The ice sheet that covered Finland intermittently during the Quaternary grew out from the Scandinavian Mountains; the central parts of the Fennoscandian ice sheet had cold-based conditions during the times of maximum extent. This mean that in areas like north-east Sweden and northern Finland pre-existing landforms and deposits escaped glacier erosion and are well preserved at present. Northwest to southeast movement of the ice has left a field of aligned drumlins in central Lapland. Ribbed moraines found in the same area reflect a west to east change in movement of the ice. During the last deglaciation ice in Lapland retreated from north-east and southeast so that the lower course of Tornio was the last part of Finland to be deglaciated 10,100 years ago. Present-day periglacial conditions in Lapland are reflected in the existence of numerous palsas, permafrost landforms developed on peat; the bedrock of Lapland belong to the Karelian Domain occupying the bulk of the region, the Kola Domain in the northeast around Lake Inari and the Scandinavian Caledonides in the tip of Lapland's northwestern arm.
With few exceptions rocks are of Proterozoic age. Granites, gneiss and metavolcanics are common rocks while greenstone belts are recurring features. More rare rock associations include mafic and ultramafic layered intrusions and one of the world's oldest ophiolites; the region hosts valuable deposits of gold, chromium and phosphate. The first snowflakes fall to the ground in late August or early September over the higher peaks; the first ground-covering snow arrives in average in late September. Permanent snow cover comes between mid-October and end of November earlier than in southern Finland; the winter is long seven months. The snow cover is thickest in early April. Soon after that the snow cover starts to melt fast; the thickest snow cover was measured in Kilpisjärvi in 19 April 1997 and it was 190 cm. The annual mean temperature varies from a couple of degrees below zero in northwest to a couple of degrees above zero in the southwest. Lapland exhibits a trend of increasing precipitation towards the south, with the dryest part being located at the two arms.
The area of Lapland was split between two counties of the Swedish Realm from 1634 to 1809. The northern and western areas were part of Västerbotten County, while the southern areas were part of Ostrobothnia County; the northern and western areas were transferred in 1809 to Oulu County. Under the royalist constitution of Finland during the first half of 1918, Lapland was to become a Grand Principality and part of the inheritance of the proposed king of Finland. Lapland Province was separated from Oulu Province in 1938. During the Interim Peace and beginning of the Continuation War the government of Finland allowed the Nazi German Army to station itself in Lapland as a part of Operation Barbarossa. After Finland made a separate peace with the Soviet Union in 1944, the Soviet Union demanded that Finland expel the German army from its soil; the result was the Lapland War, during which the whole civilian population of Lapland was evacuated. The Germans used scorched earth tactics in Lapland. Forty t
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system at the intersection of Europe and Asia. Stretching between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, it surrounds the eponymous Caucasus region and is home to Mount Elbrus, the highest peak in Europe; the Caucasus Mountains include Lesser Caucasus in the south. The Greater Caucasus runs west-northwest to east-southeast, from the Caucasian Natural Reserve in the vicinity of Sochi on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea nearly to Baku on the Caspian Sea; the Lesser Caucasus runs parallel to the Greater about 100 km south. The Greater and Lesser Caucasus ranges are connected by the Likhi Range, to the west and east of the Likhi Range lie the Colchis Plain and the Kur-Araz Lowland; the Meskheti Range is a part of the Lesser Caucasus system. In the southeast the Aras River separates the Lesser Caucasus from the Talysh Mountains which straddle the border of southeastern Azerbaijan and Iran; the Lesser Caucasus and the Armenian Highland constitute the Transcaucasian Highland, which at their western end converge with the highland plateau of Eastern Anatolia in the far north east of Turkey.
The highest peak in the Caucasus range is Mount Elbrus in the Greater Caucasus, which rises to a height of 5,642 metres above sea level. Mountains near Sochi hosted part of the 2014 Winter Olympics. Geologically, the Caucasus Mountains belong to a system that extends from southeastern Europe into Asia; the Greater Caucasus Mountains are composed of Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks with the Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks in the higher regions. Some volcanic formations are found throughout the range. On the other hand, the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are formed predominantly of the Paleogene rocks with a much smaller portion of the Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks; the evolution of the Caucasus began from the Late Triassic to the Late Jurassic during the Cimmerian orogeny at the active margin of the Tethys Ocean while the uplift of the Greater Caucasus is dated to the Miocene during the Alpine orogeny. The Caucasus Mountains formed as the result of a tectonic plate collision between the Arabian plate moving northwards with respect to the Eurasian plate.
As the Tethys Sea was closed and the Arabian Plate collided with the Iranian Plate and was pushed against it and with the clockwise movement of the Eurasian Plate towards the Iranian Plate and their final collision, the Iranian Plate was pressed against the Eurasian Plate. As this happened, the entire rocks, deposited in this basin from the Jurassic to the Miocene were folded to form the Greater Caucasus Mountains; this collision caused the uplift and the Cenozoic volcanic activity in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains. The entire region is subjected to strong earthquakes from this activity. While the Greater Caucasus Mountains have a folded sedimentary structure, the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are of volcanic origin; the Javakheti Volcanic Plateau in Georgia and the surrounding volcanic ranges which extend well into central Armenia are some of the youngest features of the region. Only was the Caucasus a scene for intense volcanic activity: the Armenian highland was flooded by calc-alkaline basalts and andesites in the Pliocene and the highest summits of the Caucasus, the Elbrus, the Kazbek, formed as Pleistocene-Pliocene volcanoes.
The Kazbek is no longer active, but the Elbrus erupted in postglacial times and fumarole activity is registered near its summit. Contemporary seismic activity is a prominent feature of the region, reflecting active faulting and crustal shortening. Clusters of seismicity occur in northern Armenia. Many devastating earthquakes have been documented in historical times, including the Spitak earthquake in December 1988 which destroyed the Gyumri-Vanadzor region of Armenia. Europe's highest mountain is Mount Elbrus 5,642 m in the Caucasus Mountains. Elbrus is 832 m higher than the highest peak in the Alps and western Europe at 4,810 m; the crest of the Caucasus Mountains is taken to define the continental divide between Asia and Europe for the region between the Black and Caspian Seas. The table below lists some of the highest peaks of the Caucasus. With the exception of Shkhara, the heights are taken from Soviet 1:50,000 mapping; the list includes all mountains over 4,500 m height with 300 m prominence.
Mount Ararat in Turkey is just south of the lesser Caucasus. The climate of the Caucasus varies both vertically and horizontally. Temperature decreases as elevation rises. Average annual temperature in Sukhumi, Abkhazia at sea level is 15 °C while on the slopes of Mt. Kazbek at an elevation of 3,700 metres, average annual temperature falls to−6.1 °C. The northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range are 3 °C colder than the southern slopes; the highlands of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in Armenia and Georgia are marked by sharp temperature contrasts between the summer and winter months due to a more continental climate. Precipitation increases from east to west in most areas. Elevation plays an important role in the Caucasus and mountains receive higher amounts of precipitation than low-lying areas; the northeastern regions and the southern portions of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are the driest. The absolute minimum annual precipitation is 250 mm in the northeastern Caspian Depression.
Western parts of the Caucasus Mountains are marked by high amounts of precipitation. The southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range receive higher amounts of precipitation than the northern slope
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes. Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the gametophytes during the process of their movement from the stamens to the pistil of flowering plants, or from the male cone to the female cone of coniferous plants. If pollen lands on a compatible pistil or female cone, it germinates, producing a pollen tube that transfers the sperm to the ovule containing the female gametophyte. Individual pollen grains are small enough to require magnification to see detail; the study of pollen is called palynology and is useful in paleoecology, paleontology and forensics. Pollen in plants is used for transferring haploid male genetic material from the anther of a single flower to the stigma of another in cross-pollination. In a case of self-pollination, this process takes place from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower. Pollen is used as food and food supplement.
However, because of agricultural practices, it is contaminated by agricultural pesticides. Pollen itself is not the male gamete; each pollen grain contains a generative cell. In flowering plants the vegetative tube cell produces the pollen tube, the generative cell divides to form the two sperm cells. Pollen is produced in the microsporangia in the male cone of a conifer or other gymnosperm or in the anthers of an angiosperm flower. Pollen grains come in a wide variety of shapes and surface markings characteristic of the species. Pollen grains of pines and spruces are winged; the smallest pollen grain, that of the forget-me-not, is around 6 µm in diameter. Wind-borne pollen grains can be as large as about 90–100 µm. In angiosperms, during flower development the anther is composed of a mass of cells that appear undifferentiated, except for a differentiated dermis; as the flower develops, four groups of sporogenous cells form within the anther. The fertile sporogenous cells are surrounded by layers of sterile cells that grow into the wall of the pollen sac.
Some of the cells grow into nutritive cells that supply nutrition for the microspores that form by meiotic division from the sporogenous cells. In a process called microsporogenesis, four haploid microspores are produced from each diploid sporogenous cell, after meiotic division. After the formation of the four microspores, which are contained by callose walls, the development of the pollen grain walls begins; the callose wall is broken down by an enzyme called callase and the freed pollen grains grow in size and develop their characteristic shape and form a resistant outer wall called the exine and an inner wall called the intine. The exine is. Two basic types of microsporogenesis are recognised and successive. In simultaneous microsporogenesis meiotic steps I and II are completed prior to cytokinesis, whereas in successive microsporogenesis cytokinesis follows. While there may be a continuum with intermediate forms, the type of microsporogenesis has systematic significance; the predominant form amongst the monocots is successive.
During microgametogenesis, the unicellular microspores undergo mitosis and develop into mature microgametophytes containing the gametes. In some flowering plants, germination of the pollen grain may begin before it leaves the microsporangium, with the generative cell forming the two sperm cells. Except in the case of some submerged aquatic plants, the mature pollen grain has a double wall; the vegetative and generative cells are surrounded by a thin delicate wall of unaltered cellulose called the endospore or intine, a tough resistant outer cuticularized wall composed of sporopollenin called the exospore or exine. The exine bears spines or warts, or is variously sculptured, the character of the markings is of value for identifying genus, species, or cultivar or individual; the spines may be less than a micron in length referred to as spinulose, or longer than a micron referred to as echinate. Various terms describe the sculpturing such as reticulate, a net like appearance consisting of elements separated from each other by a lumen.
The pollen wall protects the sperm. The pollen grain surface is covered with waxes and proteins, which are held in place by structures called sculpture elements on the surface of the grain; the outer pollen wall, which prevents the pollen grain from shrinking and crushing the genetic material during desiccation, is composed of two layers. These two layers are the tectum and the foot layer, just above the intine; the tectum and foot layer are separated by a region called the columella, composed of strengthening rods. The outer wall is constructed with a resistant biopolymer called sporopollenin. Pollen apertures are regions of the pollen wall that may involve exine thinning or a significant reduction in exine thickness, they allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. Elongated apertures or furrows in the pollen grain are called sulci. Apertures that are more circular are called pores. Colpi and pores are major features in the identification of classes of pollen.
Pollen may be referre
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, shrubs. Bark is a nontechnical term, it consists of the inner bark and the outer bark. The inner bark, which in older stems is living tissue, includes the innermost area of the periderm; the outer bark in older stems includes the dead tissue on the surface of the stems, along with parts of the innermost periderm and all the tissues on the outer side of the periderm. The outer bark on trees which lies external to the last formed periderm is called the rhytidome. Products derived from bark include: bark shingle siding and wall coverings and other flavorings, tanbark for tannin, latex, poisons, various hallucinogenic chemicals and cork. Bark has been used to make cloth and ropes and used as a surface for paintings and map making. A number of plants are grown for their attractive or interesting bark colorations and surface textures or their bark is used as landscape mulch. What is called bark includes a number of different tissues.
Cork is an external, secondary tissue, impermeable to water and gases, is called the phellem. The cork is produced by the cork cambium, a layer of meristematically active cells which serve as a lateral meristem for the periderm; the cork cambium, called the phellogen, is only one cell layer thick and it divides periclinally to the outside producing cork. The phelloderm, not always present in all barks, is a layer of cells formed by and interior to the cork cambium. Together, the phellem and phelloderm constitute the periderm. Cork cell walls contain suberin, a waxy substance which protects the stem against water loss, the invasion of insects into the stem, prevents infections by bacteria and fungal spores; the cambium tissues, i.e. the cork cambium and the vascular cambium, are the only parts of a woody stem where cell division occurs. Phloem is a nutrient-conducting tissue composed of sieve tubes or sieve cells mixed with parenchyma and fibers; the cortex is the primary tissue of roots. In stems the cortex is between the epidermis layer and the phloem, in roots the inner layer is not phloem but the pericycle.
From the outside to the inside of a mature woody stem, the layers include: Bark Periderm Cork, includes the rhytidome Cork cambium Phelloderm Cortex Phloem Vascular cambium Wood Sapwood Heartwood Pith In young stems, which lack what is called bark, the tissues are, from the outside to the inside: Epidermis, which may be replaced by periderm Cortex Primary and secondary phloem Vascular cambium Secondary and primary xylem. As the stem ages and grows, changes occur that transform the surface of the stem into the bark; the epidermis is a layer of cells that cover the plant body, including the stems, leaves and fruits, that protects the plant from the outside world. In old stems the epidermal layer and primary phloem become separated from the inner tissues by thicker formations of cork. Due to the thickening cork layer these cells die; this dead layer is the rough corky bark that forms around other stems. A secondary covering called the periderm forms on small woody stems and many non-woody plants, composed of cork, the cork cambium, the phelloderm.
The periderm forms from the phellogen. The periderm replaces the epidermis, acts as a protective covering like the epidermis. Mature phellem cells have suberin in their walls to protect the stem from desiccation and pathogen attack. Older phellem cells are dead; the skin on the potato tuber constitutes the cork of the periderm. In woody plants the epidermis of newly grown stems is replaced by the periderm in the year; as the stems grow a layer of cells form under the epidermis, called the cork cambium, these cells produce cork cells that turn into cork. A limited number of cell layers may form interior to the cork cambium, called the phelloderm; as the stem grows, the cork cambium produces new layers of cork which are impermeable to gases and water and the cells outside the periderm, namely the epidermis and older secondary phloem die. Within the periderm are lenticels, which form during the production of the first periderm layer. Since there are living cells within the cambium layers that need to exchange gases during metabolism, these lenticels, because they have numerous intercellular spaces, allow gaseous exchange with the outside atmosphere.
As the bark develops, new lenticels are formed within the cracks of the cork layers. The rhytidome is the most familiar part of bark, being the outer layer that covers the trunks of trees, it is composed of dead cells and is produced by the formation of multiple layers of suberized periderm and phloem tissue. The rhytidome is well developed in older stems and roots of trees. In shrubs, older bark is exfoliated and thick rhytidome accumulates, it is thickest and most distinctive at the trunk or bole of the tree. Bark tissues make up by weight between 10–20% of woody vascular plants and consists of various biopolymers, lignin, suberin and polysaccharides. Up to 40% of the bark tissue is made of lignin which forms an important part of a plant providing stru
Populus tremula called aspen, common aspen, Eurasian aspen, European aspen, or quaking aspen, is a species of poplar native to cool temperate regions of Europe and Asia, from Iceland and the British Isles east to Kamchatka, north to inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and northern Russia, south to central Spain, the Tian Shan, North Korea, northern Japan. It occurs at one site in northwest Africa in Algeria. In the south of its range, it occurs at high altitudes in mountains; the English name Waverly, meaning "quaking aspen", is unisex given name. It is a substantial deciduous tree growing to 40 m tall by 10 m broad, with a trunk attaining over 1 m in diameter; the bark is pale greenish-grey and smooth on young trees with dark grey diamond-shaped lenticels, becoming dark grey and fissured on older trees. The adult leaves, produced on branches of mature trees, are nearly round wider than long, 2–8 cm diameter, with a coarsely toothed margin and a laterally flattened petiole 4–8 cm long; the flat petiole allows them to tremble in slight breezes, is the source of its scientific name, as well as one of its vernacular names "langues de femmes" attributed to Gerard's 17th-century Herball.
The leaves on seedlings and fast-growing stems of suckers are of a different shape, heart-shaped to nearly triangular. They are often much larger, up to 20 cm long; the flowers are wind-pollinated catkins produced in early spring. The male catkins are patterned brown, 5 -- 10 cm long when shedding pollen; the fluff assists wind dispersal of the seeds. It can be distinguished from the related North American Populus tremuloides by the leaves being more coarsely toothed. Like other aspens, it spreads extensively by suckers, which may be produced up to 40 m from the parent tree, forming extensive clonal colonies. Eurasian aspen is a water and light demanding species, able to vigorously colonize an open area after fire, clear cutting or other kind of damages. After an individual has been damaged or destroyed, root suckers are produced abundantly on the shallow lateral roots. Fast growth continues until the age of about 20 years. After that, growth speed culminates at about 30 years of age. Aspen can reach an age of 200 years.
It is a hardy species and tolerates long, cold winters and short summers. Aspen is resistant to browsing pressure by fallow deer due to its unpleasant taste; this species is important for the hornet moth. Fossils of Populus tremula have been described from the fossil flora of Kızılcahamam district in Turkey, of early Pliocene age; the aspen is found in cultivation in large gardens. The fastigiate cultivar ‘Erecta’, with bright yellow autumn colouring, has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit; the hybrid with Populus alba, known as grey poplar, Populus × canescens, is found in Europe and central Asia. Hybrids with several other aspens have been bred at forestry research institutes in order to find trees with greater timber production and disease resistance; the wood of aspen is light soft and has little shrinkage. It is used for lumber and matches but is valued in the pulp and paper industry, being particular useful for writing paper. In addition, it is used for plywood and different types of particle boards.
Furthermore, the tree plays an important role in production of wood for renewable energy. Ecologically the species is important; the tree further provides habitat for several birds that require young forests. Video and annotation on why Aspen leaves tremble. Populus tremula - distribution map, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
Anatolia known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west; the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. The eastern border of Anatolia is traditionally held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highland to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Nowadays, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises the entire country. By some definitions, the area called the Armenian highlands lies beyond the boundary of the Anatolian plateau.
The official name of this inland region is the Eastern Anatolia Region. The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages included Hittite and Lydian among other more poorly attested relatives; the Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Arabic, Laz and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Assyrians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian and Aeolian Greeks. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau; this traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia.
To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria and the Mesopotamian plain. Following the Armenian genocide, Ottoman Armenia was renamed "Eastern Anatolia" by the newly established Turkish government. Vazken Davidian terms the expanded use of "Anatolia" to apply to territory referred to as Armenia an "ahistorical imposition", notes that a growing body of literature is uncomfortable with referring to the Ottoman East as "Eastern Anatolia". Most archeological sources consider the boundary of Anatolia to be Turkey's eastern border; the highest mountains in "Eastern Anatolia" are Mount Ararat. The Euphrates, Araxes and Murat rivers connect the Armenian plateau to the South Caucasus and the Upper Euphrates Valley. Along with the Çoruh, these rivers are the longest in "Eastern Anatolia"; the oldest known reference to Anatolia – as “Land of the Hatti” – appears on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of the Akkadian Empire. The first recorded name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula, Ἀσία echoed the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia.
As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to other areas east of the Mediterranean, Greeks in Late Antiquity came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία or Asia Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia. The English-language name Anatolia itself derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more “sunrise”; the precise reference of this term has varied over time originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region; the term "Anatolia" is Medieval Latin. The modern Turkish form of Anatolia, derives from the Greek name Aνατολή; the Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. The term "Anatolia" referred to a northwestern Byzantine province. By the 12th century Europeans had started referring to Anatolia as Turchia, it has also been called "Asia Minor". In earlier times, it was called" Rûm" by the Seljuqs.
During the era of the Ottoman Empire mapmakers outside the Empire referred to the mountainous plateau in eastern Anatolia as Armenia. Other contemporary sources called the same area Kurdistan. Geographers have variously used the terms east Anatolian plateau and Armenian plateau to refer to the region, although the territory encompassed by each term overlaps with the other. According to archaeologist Lori Khatchadourian this difference in terminology "primarily result from the shifting political fortunes and cultural trajectories of the region since the nineteenth century."Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun-Black Sea line named the Eastern Anatolia Region and the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the former corresponding to the weste