Winfield Scott was an American military commander and political candidate. He served as a general in the United States Army from 1814 to 1861, taking part in the War of 1812, the Mexican–American War, the early stages of the American Civil War, various conflicts with Native Americans. Scott was the Whig Party's presidential nominee in the 1852 presidential election, but was defeated by Democrat Franklin Pierce, he was known as Old Fuss and Feathers for his insistence on proper military etiquette, as the Grand Old Man of the Army for his many years of service. Scott was born near Petersburg, Virginia in 1786. After training as a lawyer, he joined the army in 1808 as a captain of the light artillery. In the War of 1812, Scott served on the Canadian front, taking part in the Battle of Queenston Heights and the Battle of Fort George, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in early 1814, he served with distinction in the Battle of Chippawa, but was badly wounded in the subsequent Battle of Lundy's Lane.
After the conclusion of the war, Scott was assigned to command army forces in a district containing much of the Northeastern United States, he and his family made their home near New York City. During the 1830s, Scott negotiated an end to the Black Hawk War, took part in the Second Seminole War and the Creek War of 1836, presided over the removal of the Cherokee. Scott helped to avert war with Britain, defusing tensions arising from the Patriot War and the Aroostook War. In 1841, Scott became the Commanding General of the United States Army, beating out his rival, Edmund P. Gaines, for the position. After the outbreak of the Mexican–American War in 1846, Scott served as an administrator, but in 1847 he led a campaign against the Mexican capital of Mexico City. After capturing the port city of Veracruz, he defeated Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna's armies at the Battle of Cerro Gordo, the Battle of Contreras, the Battle of Churubusco and captured Mexico City, he maintained order in the Mexican capital and indirectly helped envoy Nicholas Trist negotiate the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which brought an end to the war.
Scott was a candidate for the Whig presidential nomination in 1840, 1844, 1848, he won the Whig presidential nomination at the 1852 Whig National Convention. The Whigs were badly divided over the Compromise of 1850, Pierce won a decisive victory over his former commander. Nonetheless, Scott remained popular among the public, in 1855 he received a brevet promotion to the rank of lieutenant general, becoming the first U. S. Army officer to hold that rank since George Washington. Despite being a Virginia native, Scott stayed loyal to the Union and served as an important adviser to President Abraham Lincoln during the opening stages of the Civil War, he developed a strategy known as the Anaconda Plan, but retired in late 1861 after Lincoln relied on General George B. McClellan for military advice and leadership. Scott's military talent was regarded by contemporaries, historians consider him to be one of the most accomplished generals in U. S. history. Winfield Scott was born on June 13, 1786, to Ann Mason and her husband, William Scott, a farmer, veteran of the American Revolutionary War, officer in the Dinwiddie County militia.
At the time, the Scott family resided at a plantation near Petersburg, Virginia. Ann Mason Scott was the daughter of Daniel Mason and Elizabeth Winfield, it was Ann's mother's maiden name that William and Ann Scott selected for their son. Scott's paternal grandfather, James Scott, had migrated from Scotland after the defeat of Charles Edward Stuart's forces in the Battle of Culloden. Scott's father died. Although Scott's family held considerable wealth, most of the family fortune went to his older brother, James. In 1805, Scott began attending the College of William and Mary, but he soon left in order to study law in the office of attorney David Robinson, where his contemporaries included Thomas Ruffin. While apprenticing under Robinson, he attended the trial of Aaron Burr, accused of treason for his role in events now known as the Burr conspiracy. During the trial, Scott developed a negative opinion of the Senior Officer of the United States Army, General James Wilkinson, as the result of Wilkinson's obvious efforts to minimize his complicity in Burr's actions by providing forged evidence and false, self-serving testimony.
In 1807, Scott gained his initial military experience as a corporal of cavalry in the Virginia militia, serving in the midst of the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair. Scott led a detachment that captured eight British sailors who had attempted to land in order to purchase provisions. Virginia authorities did not approve of this action, fearing it might spark a wider conflict, they soon ordered the release of the prisoners; that year, Scott attempted to establish a legal practice in South Carolina, but was unable to obtain a law license due to failing to meet a state residency requirement. In early 1808, President Thomas Jefferson asked Congress to authorize an expansion of the United States Army after the British announced an escalation of their naval blockade of France, thereby threatening American shipping. Scott convinced an old friend, William Branch Giles, to help him obtain a commission in the newly-expanded army. In May 1808, shortly before his twenty-second birthday, Scott was commissioned as a captain in the light artillery.
Tasked with recruiting a company, he raised his troops from the Petersburg and Richmond areas, traveled with his unit to New Orleans to join his regiment. Scott was deeply
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Cedar County, Iowa
Cedar County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,499, its county seat is Tipton. The county is named for the Cedar River. Cedar County is located between the Cedar Rapids, Quad Cities and Iowa City metropolitan areas, areas known as the "Tri-Metro" county, it is the only Iowa county. Cedar County was the focus of the Iowa Cow War of 1931. Cedar County was formed on December 1837, from sections of Dubuque County, it was named for the Cedar River. In 1840, the City of Tipton, the current county seat, was established. Before the American Civil War, the area around West Branch was an active focal point of the Underground Railroad, a network for the freeing of slaves from the southern states; the former US President Herbert Hoover was born in West Branch in Cedar County. The Cedar County Sheriff's House and Jail is believed to be the last jail and residence combination still in use when it closed in 2001, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 582 square miles, of which 579 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles is water. Rock Creek flows through Cedar County. Interstate 80 U. S. Highway 6 U. S. Highway 30 Iowa Highway 38 Iowa Highway 130 Jones County Clinton County Scott County Muscatine County Johnson County Linn County Herbert Hoover National Historic Site The 2010 census recorded a population of 13,956 in the county, with a population density of 31.89/sq mi. There were 8,064 housing units, of which 7,511 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 18,187 people, 7,147 households, 5,138 families residing in the county. The population density was 31 people per square mile. There were 7,570 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.47% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. 0.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 7,147 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.60% were married couples living together, 6.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families. 23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 16.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,198, the median income for a family was $48,850. Males had a median income of $32,008 versus $23,260 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,200. About 4.00% of families and 5.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.00% of those under age 18 and 7.70% of those age 65 or over.
Rochester Cedar County is divided into seventeen townships: The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Cedar County.† county seat Herbert Hoover, the 31st President of the United States and the first president born west of the Mississippi River. John Brown, maintained his headquarters at William Maxson's house near the small community of Springdale in Cedar County while planning his Harpers Ferry raid. Lawrie Tatum, an Indian Agent to the Kiowa and Comanche tribes and, beginning in 1884, guardian to future President Herbert Hoover. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cedar County, Iowa Official Cedar County Government website Cedar County Economic Development Commission
The Quad Cities is a region of five cities in the U. S. states of Iowa and Illinois: Davenport and Bettendorf in southeastern Iowa, Rock Island and East Moline in northwestern Illinois. These cities are the center of the Quad Cities metropolitan area, which as of 2013 had a population estimate of 383,781 and a CSA population of 474,937, making it the 90th largest CSA in the nation. Before European settlers came to inhabit the Quad Cities, the confluence of rivers had attracted many varying cultures of indigenous peoples, who used the waterways and riverbanks for their settlements for thousands of years. At the time of European encounter, it was a home and principal trading place of the Sauk and Fox tribes of Native Americans. Saukenuk was the principal village of the Sauk tribe and birthplace of its 19th-century war chief, Black Hawk. In 1832, Sauk chief Keokuk and General Winfield Scott signed a treaty in Davenport after the US defeated the Sauk and their allies in the Black Hawk War; the treaty resulted in the Native Americans ceding six million acres of land to the United States in exchange for a much smaller reservation elsewhere.
Black Hawk State Historic Site in Rock Island preserves part of historic Saukenuk and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The history of urban settlements in the Quad Cities was stimulated by riverboat traffic. For 14 miles between LeClaire and Rock Island, the Mississippi River flowed across a series of finger-like rock projections protruding from either bank; these rapids were difficult for steamboats to traverse. As demand for river-based transportation increased along the upper Mississippi, the navigability of the river throughout the "Rock Island Rapids" became a greater concern. Over time, a minor industry grew up in the area to meet the steamboats' needs. Boat crews needed rest areas to stop before encountering the rapids, places to hire expert pilots such as Phillip Suiter, the first licensed pilot on the upper Mississippi River, to guide the boat through the rocky waters, or, when the water was low, places where goods could be removed and transported by wagon on land past the rapids.
Today, the rocks are submerged six feet underwater by a lake formed by dams. As the Industrial Revolution developed in the United States, many enterprising industrialists looked to the Mississippi River as a promising source of water power; the combination of energy and easy access to river transportation attracted entrepreneurs and industrialists to the Quad Cities for development. In 1848, John Deere moved his plough business to Moline, his business was incorporated as Deere & Company in 1868. Deere & Company is the largest employer today in the Quad Cities; the first railroad bridge built across the Mississippi River connected Davenport and Rock Island in 1856. It was built by the Rock Island Railroad Company, replaced the slow seasonal ferry service and winter ice bridges as the primary modes of transportation across the river. Steamboaters saw the nationwide railroads as a threat to their business. On May 6, 1856, just weeks after completion of the bridge, an angry steamboater crashed the Effie Afton into it.
John Hurd, the owner of the Effie Afton, filed a lawsuit against the Rock Island Railroad Company. The Rock Island Railroad Company selected Abraham Lincoln as their trial lawyer and won after he took the case to the US Supreme Court. Phillip Suiter was one of his expert witnesses, it was a pivotal trial in Lincoln's career. After the Civil War, the region began to gain a common identity; the river towns that were thoughtfully planned and competently led flourished, while other settlements get-rich-quick schemes for speculators, failed to pan out. By World War I, the towns of Davenport, Rock Island, Moline had begun to style themselves as the "Tri-Cities," a cluster of three more-or-less equally-sized river communities growing around the small bend of the Mississippi River where it flows west, but with the growth of Rock Island County, during the 1930s the term "Quad Cities" came into vogue, as East Moline was given "equal status." Despite the fact that the region had earned the name "Quad Cities," the National Basketball Association had a franchise in Moline, from 1946 to 1951 called the "Tri-Cities Blackhawks."
With the opening of an Alcoa plant east of Davenport in 1948, the town of Bettendorf underwent so much growth that many people in the community discussed the adoption of the name "Quint Cities", But by this time, the name "Quad Cities" had become known well beyond the area, "Quint Cities" never caught on, despite the efforts of WOC-TV and others. When Bettendorf passed East Moline in size, there was some debate about whether Bettendorf had "displaced" East Moline. Instead, local officials, such as the Chamber of Commerce, have chosen an inclusive approach, maintaining the name "Quad Cities" yet including all five cities. Beginning in the late 1970s, economic conditions caused major industrial restructuring, which disrupted the basis of the region's economy; the major companies, agricultural manufacturers, ceased or scaled back operations in the Quad Cities. Factories which closed included International Harvester in Case IH in Bettendorf. Moline-based John Deere cut its labor headcount by one half.
In the 1980s, Caterpillar Inc. closed its factories at Mount Joy and Bettendorf. Since the 1990s, the Quad Cities governments, non-profits and residents have worked hard to redevelop the region, they have achieved national attention for their accomplishments. Examples of revitalization and rebirth include: Davenport's River Renaissance (a downtown revitalization project that includes a river music history ce
Clinton County, Iowa
Clinton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 49,116, its county seat is Clinton. Its name is in honor of the seventh Governor of DeWitt Clinton. Clinton County comprises the Clinton, IA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Davenport-Moline, IA-IL Combined Statistical Area. Clinton County was formed on December 21, 1837, it was named for DeWitt Clinton, a Governor of New York and most ardent advocate for the construction of the Erie Canal. The cities of DeWitt and Clinton were named after him. In 1835, Elijah Buell built a log cabin for himself and his family and was thus the first settler of the region. In 1854, the first newspaper was issued and in 1858, the Lyons Female College for girls opened its doors; the tuition was set at $175 per student. The county has used three courthouses in its history; the structure in use was constructed in Romanesque style and opened in 1897. Clinton county was first settled by Mr. Bourne, who located upon Sec. 1, T. 80, R. 4, East.
The county was surveyed in 1837, by the Messrs. Burtz; the Surveyor General's office was at Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1840, the county was organized by Sheriff Bourne. In 1841, R. R. Bed ford and others formed a little settlement at De Witt, during the same year Messrs. Wheeler and Evans erected a log court-house. In stepping from the past to the present, we quote the language of one of the "oldest inhabitants." He says: "Clinton County was settled by the poorest class of people on God's earth. The population of this County in 1840, was 821; the population of Lyons in 1850, was 453. In 1856 the population increased to 2700. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 710 square miles, of which 695 square miles is land and 15 square miles is water, it includes the easternmost point in the state of Iowa, on the Mississippi River in Elk River township in the northeast section of the county. US 30 US 61 US 67 Iowa 136 Jackson County Carroll County, Illinois Whiteside County, Illinois Rock Island County, Illinois Scott County Cedar County Jones County Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge The 2010 census recorded a population of 49,116 in the county, with a population density of 70.67/sq mi.
There were 21,733 housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 50,149 people, 20,105 households, 13,671 families residing in the county; the population density was 72 people per square mile. There were 21,585 housing units at an average density of 31 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.87% White, 1.89% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, 1.08% from two or more races. 1.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 20,105 households out of which 31.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.60% were married couples living together, 9.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.00% were non-families. 27.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.60% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 15.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 94.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,423, the median income for a family was $46,450. Males had a median income of $35,049 versus $21,333 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,724. About 7.70% of families and 10.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.70% of those under age 18 and 7.80% of those age 65 or over. Bryant Elwood Elvira Teeds Grove Big Rock Folletts Buena Vista Clinton County is divided into these townships: The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Clinton County.† county seat National Register of Historic Places listings in Clinton County, Iowa The Clinton County Courthouse Article Clinton County government's website
Iowa is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states. In colonial times, Iowa was a part of Spanish Louisiana. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, financial services, information technology and green energy production. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U. S states, its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines. Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in, its nickname is the Hawkeye State. Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east.
The southern border is the Des Moines River and a not-quite-straight line along 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in Missouri v. Iowa after a standoff between Missouri and Iowa known as the Honey War. Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties; the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowa's bedrock geology increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old. Iowa is not flat. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils and river drainage. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state. Northeast Iowa along the Upper Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Area, consisting of steep hills and valleys which appear mountainous. Several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake. Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, Rathbun Lake.
The state's northwest area has many remnants such as Barringer Slough. Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys, pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture; the Southern part of Iowa is categorised as the Central forest-grasslands transition ecoregion. The Northern, drier part of Iowa is categorised as the Central tall grasslands and is thus considered to be part of the Great Plains. There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa include the interior least tern, piping plover, Indiana bat, pallid sturgeon, the Iowa Pleistocene land snail, Higgins' eye pearly mussel, the Topeka shiner. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Mead's milkweed, prairie bush clover, northern wild monkshood.
There is little proof to suggest that the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. In fact, covered manure storage in modern barns prevent that manure from washing away into surface water, as it does in open lots as snow melts and thunderstorms occur. Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants and pesticide runoff from crop production, diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer. Iowa has a humid continental climate throughout the state with extremes of both cold; the average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F. Winters are harsh and snowfall is common. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year; the 30 year annual average Tornadoes in Iowa is 47. In 2008, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968 and the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, matching the total from 2001.
Iowa summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes near 90 °F and exceeding 100 °F. Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing dropping below −18 °F. Iowa's all-time hottest temperature of 118 °F was recorded at Keokuk on July 20, 1934. Iowa has a smooth gradient of var