California State Route 1
California State Route 1 is a major north–south state highway that runs along most of the Pacific coastline of the U. S. state of California. At a total of just over 659 miles, it is the longest state route in California. SR 1 has several portions designated as either Pacific Coast Highway, Cabrillo Highway, Shoreline Highway, or Coast Highway, its southern terminus is at Interstate 5 near Dana Point in Orange County and its northern terminus is at U. S. Route 101 near Leggett in Mendocino County. SR 1 at times runs concurrently with US 101, most notably through a 54-mile stretch in Ventura and Santa Barbara counties, across the Golden Gate Bridge; the highway is designated as an All-American Road. In addition to providing a scenic route to numerous attractions along the coast, the route serves as a major thoroughfare in the Greater Los Angeles Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, several other coastal urban areas. SR 1 was built piecemeal in various stages, with the first section opening in the Big Sur region in the 1930s.
However, portions of the route had several numbers over the years as more segments opened. It was not until the 1964 state highway renumbering that the entire route was designated as SR 1. Although SR 1 is a popular route for its scenic beauty, frequent landslides and erosion along the coast have caused several segments to be either closed for lengthy periods for repairs, or re-routed inland. SR 1 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, through the Los Angeles metro area, Santa Cruz, San Francisco metro area, Leggett is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 1 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System; the Big Sur section from San Luis Obispo to Carmel is an official National Scenic Byway. The entire route is designated as a Blue Star Memorial Highway to recognize those in the United States armed forces. In Southern California, the California State Legislature has designated the segment between Interstate 5 in Dana Point and US 101 near Oxnard as the Pacific Coast Highway.
Between US 101 at the Las Cruces junction and US 101 in Pismo Beach, between US 101 in San Luis Obispo and Interstate 280 in San Francisco, the legislature has designated SR 1 as the Cabrillo Highway, after the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo who sailed along the coast line. The legislature has designated the route as the Shoreline Highway between the Manzanita Junction near Marin City and Leggett. Smaller segments of the highway have been assigned several other names by the state and municipal governments; the legislature has relinquished state control of segments within Dana Point, Newport Beach, Santa Monica, Oxnard. In addition to connecting the coastal cities and communities along its path, SR 1 provides access to beaches and other attractions along the coast, making it a popular route for tourists; the route annually helps bring several billion dollars to the state's tourism industry. The route runs right besides the coastline, or close to it, for the most part, it turns several miles inland to avoid several federally controlled or protected areas such as Vandenberg Air Force Base, Diablo Canyon Power Plant and Point Reyes National Seashore.
Segments of SR 1 range from a rural two-lane road to an urban freeway. Because of the former, long distance thru traffic traveling between the coastal metropolitan areas are instead advised to use faster routes such as US 101 or I-5. At its southernmost end in Orange County, SR 1 terminates at I-5 in Capistrano Beach in Dana Point, it travels west into the city center. After leaving Dana Point, Pacific Coast Highway becomes "Coast Highway" while at the same time continues northwest along the coast through Laguna Beach and Crystal Cove State Park. SR 1 enters Newport Beach and passes through several affluent neighborhoods, including Newport Coast and Corona Del Mar, spans the entrance to the Upper Newport Bay, which marks the boundary between East Coast Highway and West Coast Highway, crosses California State Route 55 near its southern terminus. Upon entering Huntington Beach, SR 1 regains the Pacific Coast Highway designation, it passes Huntington State Beach and the southern terminus of California State Route 39 before reaching Bolsa Chica State Beach and the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve.
PCH continues along the coast into Seal Beach, the final city on its journey in Orange County. PCH enters the city of Long Beach after crossing the San Gabriel River. SR 1 continues northwest through the city to its junction with Lakewood Boulevard and Los Coyotes Diagonal at the Los Alamitos Circle, more than 2 miles from the coast. From the traffic circle, it continues inland west through Long Beach, including one mile adjacent to the southern boundary of Signal Hill. PCH is marked as such in Long Beach, but bore the name of Hathaway Avenue east of the traffic circle and State Street west of there. PCH passes through the Los Angeles districts of Wilmington and Harbor City. While bypassing the immediate coastline of Palos Verdes, SR 1 continues to head west
A noose is a loop at the end of a rope in which the knot tightens under load and can be loosened without. The knot can be used to secure a rope to a post or pole, but only where the end is in a position that the loop can be passed over; the knot is tied by forming a loop in the end of a rope, passing a bight of the standing end through the loop. The noose knot is a slipped version of the overhand knot; the knot most associated with execution is the hangman's knot, known as the "hangman's noose." Tying is similar to the original noose. The reason for this was to make the hanging more humane, as it would break the person's neck, killing them rather than strangling them to death. In the United States, a noose is sometimes left as a message in order to intimidate people, as it was the main object used in segregation era lynchings, it is illegal to display a noose in a threatening manner in New York and Connecticut. Austin Reed Edenfield, a former student of the University of Mississippi, pled guilty in 2016 to a federal civil-rights crime, acknowledging that he and another man had tied a noose and a Confederate flag around the neck of a statue honoring James Meredith, the university's first African-American student.
Capital punishment List of knots Hangman's knot Jack Shuler, The Thirteenth Turn: A History of the Noose, Public Affairs, 2014, ISBN 9781610391368
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Palm Beach, Florida
The Town of Palm Beach is an incorporated town in Palm Beach County, United States. The Intracoastal Waterway separates it from the neighboring cities of West Palm Beach and Lake Worth; as of 2010, Palm Beach had a year-round population of 8,348. In 2018, Bloomberg ranked Palm Beach as the 27th-wealthiest place in the United States. Prior to being established as a resort by Henry Morrison Flagler, who made the Atlantic coast barrier island accessible via his Florida East Coast Railway, Palm Beach was a sparsely populated part of Lake Worth; the nucleus of the community was established by Flagler's two luxury resort hotels, the Royal Poinciana Hotel and The Breakers Hotel. West Palm Beach was built across Lake Worth as a service town and has become a major city in its own right. Flagler's house lots were bought by the beneficiaries of the Gilded Age, in 1902 Flagler himself built a Beaux-Arts mansion, designed by the New York-based firm Carrère and Hastings and helped establish the Palm Beach winter "season" by entertaining.
The town was incorporated on 17 April 1911. An area known as the Styx housed the people. Workers rented small houses from the landowners. In the early 1900s the landowners agreed to evict all of the residents of the Styx and Edward R. Bradley bought up much of this land; the houses were razed, according to the Palm Beach Daily News. The wreck of the Providencia is credited with giving Palm Beach its famous name; the Providencia was traveling from Havana to Cádiz, Spain with a cargo of coconuts harvested on the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad & Tobago, when the ship wrecked near Palm Beach. Many of the coconut were planted along the Palm Beach coast. A lush grove of palm trees soon grew on what would be named Palm Beach. Today the tallest coconut palms in the United States can be found along the Palm Beach coast. Palm Beach is the easternmost town in Florida, located on an 18-mile long barrier island between Lake Worth Lagoon on the west and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. At no point is the island wider than three-quarters of a mile, in places it is only 500 feet wide.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 10.4 square miles. 3.9 square miles of it is land and 6.5 square miles of it is water. The total area is 62.45% water. According to the Köppen climate classification Palm Beach has a tropical savanna climate with hot, humid summers and warm, dry winters; the wet season is from May to October when convective thunderstorms and tropical downpours are common, weak tropical lows pass nearby. Average high temperatures in Palm Beach are 87 to 93 °F with lows of 76 to 82 ºF. During this period, more than half of the summer days bring occasional afternoon thunderstorms and seabreezes that somewhat cool the rest of the day; the winter brings dry and much less humid weather. Average high temperatures of 76 to 83 °F and lows of 67 to 73 °F, is considered the main tourist season in the Palm Beach area. Highs drop below 70 ºF while at other times high temperatures reach 90 ºF in mid winter. In some years, the dry season can become quite dry, water restrictions are imposed.
The annual average precipitation is 65 in, most of which occurs during the summer season from May through October. In the wet summer season, short-lived heavy afternoon thunderstorms are common. Palm Beach reports more than 2,900 hours of sunshine annually. Although rare, tropical cyclones can impact Palm Beach, with the last direct hit in 1928; as of the census of 2010, there were 9,091 households, out of which 47.2% were vacant. As of the 2000 census, over half the population were 65 years of age or older, with a median age of 67 years. 9.4% were under the age of 18, 1.5% were from 18 to 24, 11.5% were from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64. For every 100 females, there were 79.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.0 males. In 2000, the household income for the town was $109,219. Males had a median income of $71,685 versus $42,875 for females. 5.3% of the population and 2.4% of families were below the poverty line. 4.6% of those under the age of 18 and 2.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
Palm Beach had a median household income of $124,562 and a median family income of $137,867. The town's affluence and its "abundance of pleasures" and "strong community-oriented sensibility" were cited when it was selected in June 2003 as America's "Best Place to Live" by Robb Report magazine. In 2000, 7.7% of the households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 3.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.8% were non-families. 42.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 27.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.81 and the average family size was 2.38. In 2000, English was the first language of 87.81% of all residents, while French comprised 4.48%, Spanish consisted of 3.65%, German made up 2.16%, Italian speakers made up 0.45%, Yiddish made up 0.36%, Russian was at 0.30%, Arabic and Swedish at 0.25%, Polish was the mother tongue of 0.24% of the population. In 2000, Palm Beach had the 40th highest percentage of Russian residents in the U.
S. with 10.30% of the populace. It had the 26th highest percentage of Austrian residents in the US, at 2.10% of the town's population. The city is served by Amtrak and Tri-Rail, which connect Palm Beach with Miami, as w
Ricinus communis, the castor bean or castor oil plant, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It is the sole species in the monotypic genus and subtribe, Ricininae; the evolution of castor and its relation to other species are being studied using modern genetic tools. It reproduces with a mixed pollination system which favors selfing by geitonogamy but at the same time can be an out-crosser by anemophily or entomophily, its seed is the castor bean, despite its name, is not a true bean. Castor is indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, India, but is widespread throughout tropical regions. Castor seed is the source of castor oil; the seeds contain between 40% and 60% oil, rich in triglycerides ricinolein. The seed contains ricin, a water-soluble toxin, present in lower concentrations throughout the plant. An unrelated plant species, Fatsia japonica, is from Japan; the name Ricinus is a Latin word for tick. The genus Ricinus exists in zoology, designates insects which are parasites of birds.
The common name "castor oil" comes from its use as a replacement for castoreum, a perfume base made from the dried perineal glands of the beaver. It has another common name, palm of Christ, or Palma Christi, that derives from castor oil's reputed ability to heal wounds and cure ailments. Ricinus communis can vary in its growth habit and appearance; the variability has been increased by breeders who have selected a range of cultivars for leaf and flower colours, for oil production. It is a fast-growing, suckering shrub that can reach the size of a small tree, around 12 m, but it is not cold hardy; the glossy leaves are 15–45 cm long, long-stalked and palmate with five to twelve deep lobes with coarsely toothed segments. In some varieties they start off dark reddish purple or bronze when young changing to a dark green, sometimes with a reddish tinge, as they mature; the leaves of some other varieties are green from the start, whereas in yet others a pigment masks the green color of all the chlorophyll-bearing parts, leaves and young fruit, so that they remain a dramatic purple-to-reddish-brown throughout the life of the plant.
Plants with the dark leaves can be found growing next to those with green leaves, so there is most only a single gene controlling the production of the pigment in some varieties. The stems and the spherical, spiny seed capsules vary in pigmentation; the fruit capsules of some varieties are more showy than the flowers. The flowers lack petals and are unisexual where both types are borne on the same plant in terminal panicle-like inflorescences of green or, in some varieties, shades of red; the male flowers are yellowish-green with prominent creamy stamens. The fruit is a spiny, greenish capsule containing large, shiny, bean-like poisonous seeds with variable brownish mottling. Castor seeds have a warty appendage called the caruncle, a type of elaiosome; the caruncle promotes the dispersal of the seed by ants. Castor oil has many uses in medicine and other applications. An alcoholic extract of the leaf was shown, in lab rats, to protect the liver from damage from certain poisons. Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Ricinus communis were used in antimicrobial testing against eight pathogenic bacteria in rats and showed antimicrobial properties.
The pericarp of Ricinus showed central nervous system effects in mice at low doses. At high doses mice died. A water extract of the root bark showed analgesic activity in rats. Antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties were found in ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis root bark. Extract of Ricinus communis exhibited acaricidal and insecticidal activities against the adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann and hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach; the Bodo tribals of Bodoland in Assam, use the leaves of this plant to feed and rear the larvae of muga and endi silkworms. Castor oil is an effective motor lubricant and has been used in internal combustion engines, including those of World War I airplanes, some racing cars and some model airplanes, it has been popular for lubricating two-stroke engines due to high resistance to heat compared to petroleum-based oils. It does not mix well with petroleum products at low temperatures, but mixes better with the methanol based fuels used in glow model engines.
In total-loss-lubrication applications, it tends to leave carbon deposits and varnish within the engine. It has been replaced by synthetic oils that are more stable and less toxic. Jewelry is made of castor beans necklaces and bracelets. Although Ricinus communis is indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, India, today it is widespread throughout tropical regions. In areas with a suitable climate, castor establishes itself where it can become an invasive plant and can be found on wasteland, it is used extensively as a decorative plant in parks and other public areas as a "dot pla
Life imprisonment is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled. Crimes for which, in some countries, a person could receive this sentence include murder, attempted murder, conspiracy to commit murder, apostasy, severe child abuse, child rape, treason, high treason, drug dealing, drug trafficking, drug possession, human trafficking, severe cases of fraud, severe cases of financial crimes, aggravated criminal damage in English law, aggravated cases of arson, burglary, or robbery which result in death or grievous bodily harm, aircraft hijacking, in certain cases genocide, ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity, certain war crimes or any three felonies in case of three strikes law. Life imprisonment can be imposed, in certain countries, for traffic offenses causing death; the life sentence does not exist in all countries, Portugal was the first to abolish life imprisonment, in 1884.
For more info about life imprisonment in other countries worldwide, refer here. Where life imprisonment is a possible sentence, there may exist formal mechanisms for requesting parole after a certain period of prison time; this means. Early release is conditional on past and future conduct with certain restrictions or obligations. In contrast, when a fixed term of imprisonment has ended, the convict is free; the length of time served and the conditions surrounding parole vary. The date when a convict is eligible for parole does not predict when or if parole will be granted. In many countries around the world in the Commonwealth, courts have the authority to pass prison terms which exceed a century. For example, courts in South Africa have handed out at least two sentences that have exceeded a century. In Tasmania, Martin Bryant, the perpetrator of the Port Arthur massacre in 1996, received 35 life sentences, plus 1,035 consecutive years, all to run concurrently and for the term of his natural life.
Another example of a life sentence that exceeded a century was Aurora Cinema shooter James Holmes, who received 12 consecutive life sentences and an extra 3,318 years without the possibility of parole for injuring 70,killing 12, 112 counts of attempted murder in the Colorado cinema and booby trapping his apartment with explosives. Few countries allow for a minor to be given a lifetime sentence with no provision for eventual release. According to a University of San Francisco Law School study, only the U. S. had minors serving such sentences in 2008. In 2009, Human Rights Watch estimated that there were 2,589 youth offenders serving life sentences without the possibility for parole in the U. S; the United States leads in life sentences, at a rate of 50 people per 100,000 residents imprisoned for life. In 2011, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that sentencing minors to life without parole, automatically or as the result of a judicial decision, for crimes other than intentional homicide, violated the Eighth Amendment's ban on "cruel and unusual punishments", in the case of Graham v. Florida.
Graham v. Florida was a significant case in juvenile justice. In Jacksonville, Terrence J. Graham tried to rob a restaurant along with three adolescent accomplices. During the robbery, one of Graham's accomplices had a metal bar that he used to hit the restaurant manager twice in the head. Once arrested, Graham was charged with attempted armed robbery and armed burglary with assault/battery; the maximum sentence he faced from these charges was life without the possibility of parole, the prosecutor wanted to charge him as an adult. During the trial, Graham pleaded guilty to the charges, resulting in three years of probation, one year of which had to be served in jail. Since he had been awaiting trial in jail, he served six months and therefore was released after six additional months. Within six months of his release, Graham was involved in another robbery. Since he violated the conditions of his probation, his probation officer reported to the trial court about his probation violations a few weeks before Graham turned 18 years old.
It was a different judge presiding over his trial for the probation violations a year later. While Graham denied any involvement of the robbery, he did admit to fleeing from the police; the trial court found that Graham violated his probation by "committing a home invasion robbery, possessing a firearm, associating with persons engaged in criminal activity", sentenced him to 15 years for the attempted armed robbery plus life imprisonment for the armed burglary. The life sentence Graham received meant he had a life sentence without the possibility of parole, "because Florida abolished their parole system in 2003". Graham's case was presented to the United States Supreme Court, with the question of whether juveniles should receive life without the possibility of parole in non-homicide cases; the Justices ruled that such a sentence violated the juvenile's 8th Amendment rights, protecting them from punishments that are disproportionate to the crime committed, resulting in the abolition of life s