Football in Israel
Football is the most popular sport in Israel. Football as an organised sport, first developed in the United Kingdom, who controlled the Mandatory Palestine during the days of the British Mandate; the Israel Football Association joined the Asian Football Confederation in 1954, but was expelled in 1974 due to political pressure from Arab and Muslim members in the context of the Arab–Israeli conflict. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the Israel Football Association was not affiliated with any confederation. During this period, the Israeli national teams were only playing in FIFA competitions in OFC, UEFA and CONMEBOL qualifying tournaments, it was admitted to UEFA as an associate member in 1992 and as a full member in 1994, therefore their teams compete as part of Europe in all international competitions. The Israel Football Association is the governing body of football in the State of Israel. All of Israel's professional football clubs must be members, hundreds of semi-professional and amateur clubs belong.
As of 2013–14, the Israeli football league system has five levels and 16 different divisions, all run by the IFA. Promotion and relegation operates between each level, theoretically allowing clubs to progress from bottom to top within four seasons; the current structure of the Israeli league system is this: Israeli Premier League: the top division operates at the national level and has 14 member clubs Liga Leumit: the second division operates at the national level and has 16 member clubs Liga Alef: the third division is split into two regional leagues and has 32 member clubs Liga Bet: the fourth division is split into four regional leagues and has 64 member clubs Liga Gimel: the fifth division is split into eight regional leagues and has 114 member clubs In Israel, there are two major cup competitions: the State Cup and the Toto Cup. The State Cup is the Israeli equivalent of the English FA Cup, is open to all Israeli clubs, with clubs at the higher levels entering in the rounds, it is a straightforward knock-out cup.
The final is played at the Ramat Gan Stadium and the winner qualifies for the UEFA Europa League. The Toto Cup is the Israeli equivalent of the English League Cup, the main difference being that there is a separate cup for each of the three national divisions; the cup is played first in a group stage, with the highest placed teams qualifying for the knock-out stages. Like the State Cup, the final is played at the National Stadium, though the winner does not qualify for the UEFA Europa League. Clubs who do well in either the Premier League or State Cup qualify to compete in various UEFA-organised Europe-wide competitions in the following season; the number of Israeli clubs playing in Europe in any one season can range from four to six, depending on the qualification scenarios. Israel is awarded the following places in European competitions: In addition, once in a European competition, it becomes possible to qualify for others: All the losers of the UEFA Champions League Preliminary Round and First qualifying round go forward to the UEFA Europa League Second qualifying round All the losers of the UEFA Champions League Second qualifying round go forward to the UEFA Europa League Third qualifying round All the losers of the UEFA Champions League Third qualifying round go forward to the UEFA Europa League Play-off round All the losers of the UEFA Champions League Play-off round go forward to the UEFA Europa League Group stage.
Any clubs playing in the UEFA Champions League that will finish third in the group stage will go into the UEFA Europa League round of 32 Israel hosted and won the 1964 AFC Asian Cup. Israel qualified for the World Cup in 1970, held in Mexico. Mordechai Spiegler scored in a 1–1 draw against Sweden. Israel's Olympic football team qualified for the 1968 Summer Olympics and the 1976 Summer Olympics both times reaching the quarter finals. Israel's highest FIFA ranking was 15th in November 2008. Famous matches of the Israeli football team include the 1-2 and 0-1 defeat against Iran in 1968 AFC Asian Cup and 1974 Asian Games, both held in Tehran when Israel and Iran were on friendly terms, the 3–2 win in France in the 1994 World Cup qualification, which ended up disqualifying the French team from the World Cup in the United States, the defeat of Austria 5–0 in 1999 during Euro 2000 qualifications, a 2–1 win over Argentina in a friendly match in 1998, a game played in Teddy Stadium in Jerusalem. During the British Mandate for Palestine, organized football consisted of British and Jewish clubs, although Arab clubs existed and took part in IFA competitions.
As early as 1906, Maccabi Tel Aviv was formed as a social club, followed by a string of Maccabi clubs in other cities and towns, such as Jerusalem, Petah Tikva, Zikhron Ya'akov and Hadera. On 24 April 1924, Hapoel Haifa was formed. Shortly after formation, they joined the World Maccabi Organization; the first membership cards read "Club Hapoel Sport, Cultural Organization Haifa". During a meeting of Hapoel laborers in Afula, it was decided to break off from the World Maccabi Organization and create the Hapoel Organization, followed by Hapoel teams from Tel Aviv, Jerusalem and other cities and towns. During the 1930s and the 1940s other sport organizations were formed, such as Beitar and the short lived Hakoah 09 (formed by former members of Ha
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Adelaide United FC
Adelaide United Football Club is a professional soccer club based in Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. The club participates in the A-League under licence from Football Federation Australia; the club was founded in 2003 to fill the place vacated by Adelaide City and West Adelaide in the former National Soccer League, is now the sole team from the state of South Australia in the A-League. Adelaide United's home ground is Hindmarsh Stadium. Adelaide United were premiers in the inaugural 2005–06 A-League season, finishing 7 points clear of the rest of the competition, before finishing third in the finals, they were Premiers again in 2015/16 finishing just one point ahead of second place Western Sydney. Adelaide United holds the record for the largest win in an A-League game. Adelaide defeated North Queensland Fury 8–1 at Hindmarsh Stadium on 21 January 2011, it was the first time – and, to date, remains the only time – a team had two players score hat-tricks in a single match: one to Marcos Flores and the other to Sergio van Dijk.
In 2014, Adelaide United were the winners of the first FFA Cup, beating Perth Glory 1–0 in the final, in 2016 won their first A-League Grand Final, beating the Western Sydney Wanderers 3–1 with goals from Bruce Kamau, Isaías and Pablo Sanchez. In 2018, Adelaide United became the first team to win two FFA Cup titles after defeating Sydney FC in the 2018 FFA Cup Final. In August 2003, Adelaide City withdrew from the National Soccer League, leaving Adelaide with no NSL presence for the first time since the beginning of the league in 1977. West Adelaide had withdrawn from the NSL in 1999. In response, Adelaide United was created on 12 September 2003, with builder and property developer Gordon Pickard funding the new club and former Soccer Australia and FIFA executive Basil Scarsella as Chairman. On 13 September, former Brisbane Strikers and Newcastle Breakers manager John Kosmina was announced as the manager, within the frame of a few weeks time a team was cobbled together with the remnants of the Adelaide City squad to compete in the clubs inaugural season.
On 17 October 2003, Adelaide United won its first NSL match, against Brisbane Strikers 1–0 in front of a crowd in excess of 16,000 people. After an impressive home-and-away season, including a seven-match unbeaten streak during November and December 2003, Adelaide United reached the NSL preliminary final, losing to Perth Glory; the NSL came to an end at the completion of the 2003–04 season after 28 seasons with The Reds only competing in the final season as governing body Australian Soccer Association shut down the league in preparation for the launch of the professional A-League 12 months on 26 August 2005. Adelaide United were announced as one of eight teams to compete in the first season of the A-League, are, along with the Perth Glory and Newcastle Jets, one of only three teams to survive from the National Soccer League's last season. United began preparation earlier than most of the other clubs and had announced two thirds of the 20 man squad before February 2005; the club focused on bringing several Adelaide born players back to South Australia, such as Angelo Costanzo, Travis Dodd and Lucas Pantelis, who had played for Adelaide City SC in the NSL.
Shengqing Qu was signed from Chinese club Shanghai Shenhua as the clubs "marquee" signing in March 2005. Aurelio Vidmar announced his retirement before the A-League had started, he was replaced before the fifth round by striker Fernando from Brazil, a former'player of the year' in the old NSL. By moving to Adelaide, he was reunited with former coach John Kosmina who introduced him to Australian audiences at the Brisbane Strikers. Adelaide United Director Mel Patzwald established links with American club Miami FC, setting up a'sister club' relationship, with whom they played a number of friendlies and leading to signing Diego from them; the team signed Brazilian legend Romário for a 5-game guest stint in November/December 2006. Furthermore, through Mel's connections established a sister club relationship with Chinese club and reigning Asian champions at the time Shandong Luneng. Continuing their good form from the final season of the NSL, Adelaide United finished as Premiers in the inaugural season of the Hyundai A-League.
The Reds were bundled out of the finals race in straight sets losing to Sydney FC in the two leg semi final and Central Coast Mariners 1–0 in the preliminary final at Hindmarsh. Adelaide United started the season well by winning the A-League Pre-Season Challenge Cup, beating reigning champions Central Coast Mariners 5–4 on penalties after 1–1 at the end of extra time. In the premiership season, The Reds finished runners up to Melbourne Victory. After a successful finals campaign, The Reds advanced to the 2006–07 Grand Final after winning 4–3 on penalties against the Newcastle Jets. Adelaide United played Melbourne Victory at the Telstra Dome in the Grand Final on 18 February 2007 losing 6–0. Coach John Kosmina was sacked the following week-however not only because of the grand final disaster but for alleged abuse of 2 Channel 10 reporters; the 2006–07 season saw Brazilian international Romário join the club for a four-game guest player stint. Adelaide United were selected, along with Sydney FC, as the first Australian representatives to play in the 2007 AFC Champions League.
They received their Asian berth as A-League premiers. Adelaide was drawn into Group G with Chinese champion Shandong Luneng Taishan, Korean champions Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma and Vietnamese league and Super Cup champions Gach Dong Tam Long An. Adelaide finished 3rd in its group; the Reds launched into the season by winning the A-League P
Macedonia national football team
The North Macedonia national football team is the national football team of North Macedonia and is controlled by the Football Federation of Macedonia. The team plays its home games at the Toshe Proeski Arena in Skopje. Despite being one of the less successful national teams from former Yugoslavia, North Macedonia has still produced several good results, notably drawing with England twice away, drawing Italy and Netherlands once, as well as beating Croatia 2–0 in 2007 and Serbia at home 1–0 in 2012; some popular Macedonian footballers have played for different national teams, notably Marek Jankulovski who represented Czech Republic. On 12 August 2009, as part of the 100-year anniversary of football in the country, the national team played a friendly match against Spain. Star player Goran Pandev scored two goals in the first half to give Macedonia a 2–0 lead before Spain scored three goals in the second half to record the 3–2 victory in front of a record crowd of 30,000 at the renovated Tose Proeski Arena.
The North Macedonia national football team has yet to qualify for a World Cup Finals tournament. In their attempt at qualifying for the 2010 World Cup, they finished fourth in Group 9 with seven points. Due to the closeness of the group throughout the campaign, Macedonia remained in contention to qualify until the final group game, which Macedonia lost 2–1 away to Norway, although Norway would be the only runner up to not make the play offs that year. Macedonia was part of the Yugoslavia until Seoul 1988. After that, they never managed to qualify from Barcelona 1992 to Rio 2016. In 1994, Macedonia became a member of UEFA after the break-up of Yugoslavia; the team began its football journey with a 4–1 win against Slovenia in a friendly on 13 October 1993 under coach Andon Dončevski. They went on to win their next two friendlies against Slovenia and Estonia before suffering their first loss against Turkey on 31 August 1994; the inaugural Macedonian side featured Darko Pančev, who won the European Cup with Red Star Belgrade in 1991 and played for Internazionale in Italy.
The Euro 96 Qualifiers was the first major qualifying tournament that Macedonia participated in as an independent nation and they were grouped with Spain, Belgium and Armenia. In their opening game, their first official match, Macedonia was drawn against the reigning European Champions Denmark; the game was played in Skopje on 7 September 1994 and it finished 1–1 with Macedonia leading for most of the game after scoring in the fourth minute. In this qualifying stage, Macedonia suffered one of its worst defeats when they lost 0–5 to Belgium at home on 7 June 1995, they failed finishing fourth in the group with seven points. Macedonia's first qualifying attempt for the World Cup saw them grouped with Romania, Lithuania and Liechtenstein; the tournament began on 24 April 1996 with a 3–0 win at home against Liechtenstein. On 9 November 1996, Macedonia recorded their biggest win an 11–1 thrashing of Liechtenstein. Half of the goals Macedonia scored in the entire campaign were scored in this match alone.
Macedonia failed again to qualify for the 1998 World Cup in France, finishing fourth in the group on 13 points. Macedonia's journey to qualify for the Euro 2000 tournament in the Netherlands and Belgium saw them grouped with FR Yugoslavia, Ireland and Malta, they once again opened their qualifying campaign with a win after beating Malta 4–0 at home on 6 September 1998. Their most notable result in the campaign was a 1–1 draw against Croatia in June 1999, with an equalizer of Gjorgji Hristov 10 minutes before the end of the game, they were helped Yugoslavia to qualify directly and eliminate Croatia, because were drawn 1–1 against Republic of Ireland with a last minute equalizer of Goran Stavrevski. However, they failed finishing fourth in the group with eight points. Macedonia's 2002 World Cup qualifying campaign saw them grouped with Sweden, Slovakia and Azerbaijan, they were unsuccessful in their opening match, going down to Slovakia 2–0 in Slovakia on 3 September 2000. The Macedonians once again failed to qualify for the 2002 World Cup, held in Japan and South Korea, as they finished fourth in the group with seven points.
The Euro 2004 Qualifiers saw Macedonia grouped alongside England, Turkey and Liechtenstein. Despite Macedonia failing to win its first four games of the campaign, they managed to record one of its most memorable results of its short history. On 16 October 2002, Macedonia played former world champions England in Southampton, England's first home game in Southampton in 100 years. Macedonia grabbed the lead early in the first half after Artim Šakiri scored directly from a corner kick, leaving English goalkeeper David Seaman stunned. England soon not before Macedonia managed to take the lead once again. However, the game ended. Macedonia lost to England 2–1 at home in the return leg, which took place in September 2003. Macedonia's only win of the campaign came on 7 June 2003. Macedonia did not qualify for the Euro 2004 tournament, held in Portugal, finishing fourth in the group with six points. Macedonia was drawn in Group 1 and was grouped with the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Finland and Andorra.
They managed to open their campaign with a comfortable 3–0 win at home against Armenia on 18 August 2004. Macedonia did not win another ho
John Hughes (footballer, born 1964)
John Hughes is a Scottish professional football player and manager. Hughes played as a central defender for several clubs, including Falkirk, Celtic and Ayr United. Towards the end of his playing career, Hughes took on coaching responsibilities, was appointed manager of Falkirk in 2003. Hughes guided Falkirk to promotion to the Scottish Premier League and a Scottish Cup Final during his time in charge, he left Falkirk to take up the managerial role at Hibernian in 2009, but left by mutual consent after sixteen months. Hughes was appointed manager of Livingston in February 2012, but left in November to take over at English club Hartlepool United, he departed Hartlepool in May 2013 after being unable to prevent their relegation to League Two. Hughes soon returned to football when he was appointed manager of Inverness Caledonian Thistle in December 2013, he led the club to their first major silverware with the Scottish Cup in May 2015 and their first foray into European football. Hughes left Inverness in May 2016.
He had a brief stint with Raith Rovers, which ended in them being relegated to Scottish League One. Hughes is "one of six kids from the working-class family" in Leith, he started his playing career in junior football with Newtongrange Star, before beginning his senior career with Berwick Rangers, where he played as a striker. After a brief stint in the Football League with Swansea City, Hughes established himself as a central defender at Falkirk, his playing career peaked when he signed for Celtic in 1995. He scored a late, headed equaliser in the derby against Rangers at Ibrox on 17 March 1996, he subsequently played for his local club Hibernian, Ayr United and returned to Falkirk in a joint player and coaching role. Hughes shares his name with Crystal Palace and Sunderland player John ` Yogi' Hughes; as a result, Hughes is referred to as'Yogi' himself. He famously performed a streak during his first stint at Falkirk whilst team-mate Mo Johnston was being interviewed for STV's Scotsport. Hughes landed his first managerial job in 2003, when he and Owen Coyle were appointed co-managers of Falkirk.
Coyle subsequently left Falkirk to join Ian McCall at Dundee United. He guided Falkirk to promotion to the Scottish Premier League in 2005; as well as maintaining their SPL status for four seasons, Hughes led Falkirk to the 2009 Scottish Cup Final. Hughes was appointed Hibernian manager in the 2009 close season, he led the club to Europa League qualification in his first season in charge, as they finished in fourth place in the SPL. Poor results at the start of the following season, led to fans jeering their own team. Hughes left the club by mutual consent on 4 October following a 2–0 defeat against St Johnstone. Hughes interviewed for the Swindon Town job in the 2011 close season. Hughes was appointed manager of Livingston on 14 February 2012. After nine months at Livingston, Hughes moved to English club Hartlepool United, he took the job. Despite an upturn in form that earned him a Manager of the Month award, Hartlepool were relegated to Football League Two. Hughes publicly stated his desire to remain at the club, but he was sacked on 9 May 2013.
Hughes was appointed manager of Scottish Premiership club Inverness Caledonian Thistle on 4 December 2013 on a two-and-a-half-year contract. Soon after this appointment, Hughes led Inverness CT to their first major final after beating Hearts in a penalty shoot-out in the semi-final of the 2013–14 Scottish League Cup. Inverness drew 0–0 against Aberdeen in the final, after extra-time, lost the tie 4–2 on penalties. At the beginning of season 2014–15, Caley Thistle's excellent early performances led him to receive the award of SPFL Manager of the Month for August, he followed this by winning the award for January 2015, as his Inverness side continued to impress. In April 2015, Hughes led Caley Thistle to their first Scottish Cup final after a controversial 3–2 win over favourites, at the end of the month he was shortlisted for PFA Scotland Manager of the Year. On 3 May, Hughes was announced as the winner of the managerial award, ahead of Ronny Deila, Derek McInnes and Robbie Neilson. Further success soon followed as he guided Inverness to a highest league finish – 3rd place, with it, a milestone debut in European competition for the club.
The accolades continued, with Hughes winning the SFWA Manager of the Year award, to complete the managerial'double' for 2014–15. He led the club to their first major silverware with a Scottish Cup final success over his old club Falkirk in May 2015 to conclude the club's most successful season. Hughes left Inverness at the end of the 2015–16 season. Hughes was appointed manager of Scottish Championship club Raith Rovers in February 2017; the club finished ninth in the Championship, were relegated to League One after they lost in the playoffs to Brechin City. After the game, Raith announced that Hughes and his assistant Kevin McBride would be leaving the club. FalkirkScottish First Division: 1993–94, 2002–03HibernianScottish First Division: 1998–99 FalkirkScottish First Division: 2004–05 Scottish Challenge Cup: 2004–05 Stirlingshire Cup: 2006–07, 2007–08Inverness Caledonian ThistleScottish Cup: 2014–15 SPL Manager of the Month: December 2006 SPL Manager of the Month: September 2009 League One – Manager of the Month: February 2013 SPFL Manager of the Month: August 2014 SPFL Manager of the Month: January 2015 PFA Scotland Manager of the Year: 2014–15 SFWA Manager of the Year: 2014–15 As of match played on 13 May 2017 John Hughes at Soccerbase
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Mark Nelson Paston is a New Zealand football goalkeeper who most played for the Wellington Phoenix in the A-League before announcing his retirement from professional football at the end of the 2012/13 A-League season. Paston's senior career began with Napier City Rovers before he moved to the United Kingdom in 2003 to join Bradford City, he followed this with a season at Walsall and St Johnstone, before returning to New Zealand with the New Zealand Knights. Paston signed for A-League club Wellington Phoenix in 2007 from the New Zealand Knights. Paston made his debut for the Phoenix against Adelaide United where they lost 4–1. Paston was the Phoenix second choice goalkeeper but when Glen Moss left to Melbourne Victory, Paston became Phoenix's first-choice goalkeeper. Paston signed a new one-year contract at the beginning of the 2009, keeping him at the Phoenix until the end of the 2009/2010 season. Paston played a large part in the Phoenix's undefeated home streak A-League record by keeping clean sheets against Central Coast Mariners and Gold Coast United.
On 10 December 2009 Paston suffered a tibia fracture that kept him sidelined for the rest of the season. On 19 January 2010, Paston along with teammates Reece Crowther and Troy Hearfield signed contract extensions with the Phoenix. Paston is contracted until the conclusion of the 2011–12 season. In a repeat of history, Paston suffered another tibial fracture below the right knee on 11 December 2010 after a collision in the loss to Gold Coast United, sidelining him for the second half of the 2010–2011 season. On 31 March 2013 Mark Paston announced his retirement from Wellington Phoenix and all professional football following the final 2012/13 regular season game in Round 27 against Melbourne Victory at Westpac Stadium. Paston, having represented New Zealand at Under-23 level, made his full All Whites debut at the age of 20 in a 5–0 loss to Indonesia on 21 September 1997, but did not feature in another full international until 2003, Jason Batty, Michael Utting and Ross Nicholson being preferred choices.
Since returning to the international side in 2003, Paston has competed with former Wellington Phoenix teammate Glen Moss for the goalkeeper position. Since 2003 New Zealand has played 59 matches and between Paston and Moss they have played 56 matches between them, he was named in the New Zealand 2009 Confederations Cup squad to travel to South Africa, where he was second choice as Moss played in all three games. However, Moss' suspension from international football for improper conduct meant that Paston played in the World Cup Qualification playoff against Bahrain. On 10 October 2009 Paston kept a clean sheet in the first leg in Riffa, in the return leg on 14 November 2009 he was Man of the Match, saving a penalty from Sayed Mohamed Adnan in the 51st minute, enough to secure New Zealand a 1–0 win in Wellington, enabling them to qualify for the World Cup for only the second time in their history. Paston's fractured leg had threatened to harm his World Cup chances, but the goalkeeper made a good recovery and was named in New Zealand's final 23-man squad to compete at the World Cup on 10 May 2010.
With Moss' suspension running into the first two games of the World Cup, Paston went on to play all of New Zealand's matches as Ricki Herbert's first-choice goalkeeper. On 15 June 2010, Paston started against Slovakia and played an important role in helping New Zealand secure their first World Cup point with a 1–1 draw, however in the first half he went to clear the ball but missed it in his attempted kick, luckily Slovakia could not convert the chance. Five days he was instrumental in ensuring the All Whites drew 1–1 with reigning champions Italy, making several acrobatic saves, his good form meant that he started the final group game against Paraguay on 24 June, but despite pulling off more excellent saves and keeping a clean sheet in a 0–0 draw, the All Whites were unable to reach the last 16. Following the retirement from Wellington Phoenix at the end of the 2012/13 A-League season, Paston did not make his retirement from international football official until 8 August 2013. New Zealand's goal tally first.
New Zealand national football team New Zealand at the FIFA World Cup New Zealand national football team results List of New Zealand international footballers Mark Paston – FIFA competition record Profile Wellington Phoenix at the Wayback Machine Profile NZ Soccer – All White Mark Paston at Soccerbase