Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular, multicellular, or acellular. Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, parasitology and bacteriology. Eukaryotic microorganisms possess membrane-bound cell organelles and include fungi and protists, whereas prokaryotic organisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include Bacteria and Archaea. Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means. Microbiologists rely on molecular biology tools such as DNA sequence based identification, for example 16s rRNA gene sequence used for bacteria identification. Viruses have been variably classified as organisms, as they have been considered either as simple microorganisms or complex molecules. Prions, never considered as microorganisms, have been investigated by virologists, however, as the clinical effects traced to them were presumed due to chronic viral infections, virologists took search—discovering "infectious proteins".
The existence of microorganisms was predicted many centuries before they were first observed, for example by the Jains in India and by Marcus Terentius Varro in ancient Rome. The first recorded microscope observation was of the fruiting bodies of moulds, by Robert Hooke in 1666, but the Jesuit priest Athanasius Kircher was the first to see microbes, which he mentioned observing in milk and putrid material in 1658. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is considered a father of microbiology as he observed and experimented with microscopic organisms in 1676, using simple microscopes of his own design. Scientific microbiology developed in the 19th century through the work of Louis Pasteur and in medical microbiology Robert Koch; the existence of microorganisms was hypothesized for many centuries before their actual discovery. The existence of unseen microbiological life was postulated by Jainism, based on Mahavira’s teachings as early as 6th century BCE. Paul Dundas notes that Mahavira asserted the existence of unseen microbiological creatures living in earth, water and fire.
Jain scriptures describe nigodas which are sub-microscopic creatures living in large clusters and having a short life, said to pervade every part of the universe in tissues of plants and flesh of animals. The Roman Marcus Terentius Varro made references to microbes when he warned against locating a homestead in the vicinity of swamps "because there are bred certain minute creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes, which float in the air and enter the body through the mouth and nose and thereby cause serious diseases."In the golden age of Islamic civilization, Iranian scientists hypothesized the existence of microorganisms, such as Avicenna in his book The Canon of Medicine, Ibn Zuhr who discovered scabies mites, Al-Razi who gave the earliest known description of smallpox in his book The Virtuous Life. In 1546, Girolamo Fracastoro proposed that epidemic diseases were caused by transferable seedlike entities that could transmit infection by direct or indirect contact, or vehicle transmission.
In 1676, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, who lived most of his life in Delft, observed bacteria and other microorganisms using a single-lens microscope of his own design. He is considered a father of microbiology as he pioneered the use of simple single-lensed microscopes of his own design. While Van Leeuwenhoek is cited as the first to observe microbes, Robert Hooke made his first recorded microscopic observation, of the fruiting bodies of moulds, in 1665, it has, been suggested that a Jesuit priest called Athanasius Kircher was the first to observe microorganisms. Kircher was among the first to design magic lanterns for projection purposes, so he must have been well acquainted with the properties of lenses, he wrote "Concerning the wonderful structure of things in nature, investigated by Microscope" in 1646, stating "who would believe that vinegar and milk abound with an innumerable multitude of worms." He noted that putrid material is full of innumerable creeping animalcules. He published his Scrutinium Pestis in 1658, stating that the disease was caused by microbes, though what he saw was most red or white blood cells rather than the plague agent itself.
The field of bacteriology was founded in the 19th century by Ferdinand Cohn, a botanist whose studies on algae and photosynthetic bacteria led him to describe several bacteria including Bacillus and Beggiatoa. Cohn was the first to formulate a scheme for the taxonomic classification of bacteria, to discover endospores. Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch were contemporaries of Cohn, are considered to be the father of microbiology and medical microbiology, respectively. Pasteur is most famous for his series of experiments designed to disprove the widely held theory of spontaneous generation, thereby solidifying microbiology's identity as a biological science. One of his students, Adrien Certes, is considered the founder of marine microbiology. Pasteur designed methods for food preservation and vaccines against several diseases such as anthrax, fowl cholera and rabies. Koch is best known for his contributions to the germ theory of disease, proving that specific diseases were caused by specific pathogenic microorganisms.
He developed a series of criteria. Koch was one of the first scientists to focus on the i
A flagellum is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacteria and eukaryotic cells termed as flagellates. A flagellate can have several flagella; the primary function of a flagellum is that of locomotion, but it often functions as a sensory organelle, being sensitive to chemicals and temperatures outside the cell. The similar structure in the archaea functions in the same way but is structurally different and has been termed the archaellum. Flagella are organelles defined by function rather than structure. Flagella vary greatly. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella can be used for swimming but they differ in protein composition and mechanism of propulsion; the word flagellum in Latin means whip. An example of a flagellated bacterium is the ulcer-causing Helicobacter pylori, which uses multiple flagella to propel itself through the mucus lining to reach the stomach epithelium. An example of a eukaryotic flagellate cell is the mammalian sperm cell, which uses its flagellum to propel itself through the female reproductive tract.
Eukaryotic flagella are structurally identical to eukaryotic cilia, although distinctions are sometimes made according to function or length. Fimbriae and pili are thin appendages, but have different functions and are smaller. Three types of flagella have so far been distinguished: bacterial and eukaryotic; the main differences among these three types are: Bacterial flagella are helical filaments, each with a rotary motor at its base which can turn clockwise or counterclockwise. They provide two of several kinds of bacterial motility. Archaeal flagella are superficially similar to bacterial flagella, but are different in many details and considered non-homologous. Eukaryotic flagella—those of animal and protist cells—are complex cellular projections that lash back and forth. Eukaryotic flagella are classed along with eukaryotic motile cilia as undulipodia to emphasize their distinctive wavy appendage role in cellular function or motility. Primary cilia are immotile, are not undulipodia; the bacterial flagellum is made up of the protein flagellin.
Its shape is a 20-nanometer-thick hollow tube. It has a sharp bend just outside the outer membrane. A shaft runs between the hook and the basal body, passing through protein rings in the cell's membrane that act as bearings. Gram-positive organisms have two of these basal body rings, one in the peptidoglycan layer and one in the plasma membrane. Gram-negative organisms have four such rings: the L ring associates with the lipopolysaccharides, the P ring associates with peptidoglycan layer, the M ring is embedded in the plasma membrane, the S ring is directly attached to the plasma membrane; the filament ends with a capping protein. The flagellar filament is the long, helical screw that propels the bacterium when rotated by the motor, through the hook. In most bacteria that have been studied, including the Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Caulobacter crescentus, Vibrio alginolyticus, the filament is made up of 11 protofilaments parallel to the filament axis; each protofilament is a series of tandem protein chains.
However, Campylobacter jejuni has seven protofilaments. The basal body has several traits in common with some types of secretory pores, such as the hollow, rod-like "plug" in their centers extending out through the plasma membrane; the similarities between bacterial flagella and bacterial secretory system structures and proteins provide scientific evidence supporting the theory that bacterial flagella evolved from the type-three secretion system. The bacterial flagellum is driven by a rotary engine made up of protein, located at the flagellum's anchor point on the inner cell membrane; the engine is powered by proton motive force, i.e. by the flow of protons across the bacterial cell membrane due to a concentration gradient set up by the cell's metabolism. The rotor transports protons across the membrane, is turned in the process; the rotor alone can operate at 6,000 to 17,000 rpm, but with the flagellar filament attached only reaches 200 to 1000 rpm. The direction of rotation can be changed by the flagellar motor switch instantaneously, caused by a slight change in the position of a protein, FliG, in the rotor.
The flagellum is energy efficient and uses little energy. The exact mechanism for torque generation is still poorly understood; because the flagellar motor has no on-off switch, the protein epsE is used as a mechanical clutch to disengage the motor from the rotor, thus stopping the flagellum and allowing the bacterium to remain in one place. The cylindrical shape of flagella is suited to locomotion of microscopic organisms; the rotational speed of flagella varies in response to the intensity of the proton motive force, thereby permitting certain forms of speed control, permitting some types of bacteria to attain remarkable speeds in proportion to their size. At such a speed, a bacterium would take about 245 days to cover 1 km. In comparison to macroscopic life forms, it is fast indeed when expressed in terms of number of body lengths p
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, 400 F. Supp. 2d 707 was the first direct challenge brought in the United States federal courts testing a public school district policy that required the teaching of intelligent design. In October 2004, the Dover Area School District of York County, Pennsylvania changed its biology teaching curriculum to require that intelligent design be presented as an alternative to evolution theory, that Of Pandas and People, a textbook advocating intelligent design, was to be used as a reference book; the prominence of this textbook during the trial was such that the case is sometimes referred to as the Dover Panda Trial, a name which recalls the popular name of the Scopes Monkey Trial in Tennessee, 80 years earlier. The plaintiffs argued that intelligent design is a form of creationism, that the school board policy violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution; the judge's decision sparked considerable response from both critics.
Eleven parents of students in Dover, York County, near the city of York, sued the Dover Area School District over the school board requirement that a statement presenting intelligent design as "an explanation of the origin of life that differs from Darwin's view" was to be read aloud in ninth-grade science classes when evolution was taught. The plaintiffs were represented by the American Civil Liberties Union, Americans United for Separation of Church and State and Pepper Hamilton LLP; the National Center for Science Education acted as consultants for the plaintiffs. The defendants were represented by the Thomas More Law Center; the Foundation for Thought and Ethics, publisher of Of Pandas and People, tried to join the lawsuit late as a defendant but was denied for multiple reasons. The suit was brought in the U. S. District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania seeking declaratory and injunctive relief. Since it sought an equitable remedy, by the Seventh Amendment, right to a jury trial did not apply.
It was tried in a bench trial from September 26, 2005, to November 4, 2005, before Judge John E. Jones III, a Republican appointed in 2002 by George W. Bush. On December 20, 2005, Jones issued his 139-page findings of fact and decision ruling that the Dover mandate requiring the statement to be read in class was unconstitutional; the ruling concluded that intelligent design is not science, permanently barred the board from "maintaining the ID Policy in any school within the Dover Area School District, from requiring teachers to denigrate or disparage the scientific theory of evolution, from requiring teachers to refer to a religious, alternative theory known as ID." All eight of the Dover school board members who were up for re-election on November 8, 2005, were defeated by a set of challengers who opposed the teaching of intelligent design in a science class. The new school board president subsequently stated that the board did not intend to appeal the ruling. From 2002, William Buckingham and Alan Bonsell, members of the Dover Area School District Board of Education who were young earth creationists, had made various statements supporting teaching creationism alongside evolution.
At a board meeting on June 7, 2004, Buckingham mentioned creationism and raised objections to the proposed use of the textbook Biology written by Kenneth R. Miller and Joseph S. Levine, describing it as "laced with Darwinism" and saying it was "inexcusable to have a book that says man descended from apes with nothing to counterbalance it."This story made the York newspapers, Buckingham was telephoned by Discovery Institute staff attorney Seth Cooper, whose tasks included "communicating with legislators, school board members, teachers and students" to "address the topic of ID in a scientifically and educationally responsible way" in public schools. He stated that he made the call to "steer the Dover Board away from trying to include intelligent design in the classroom or from trying to insert creationism into its cirriculum ", an account Buckingham has disputed. Cooper sent the book and DVD of Icons of Evolution to Buckingham, who required the Dover High School science teachers to watch the DVD.
They did not take up the opportunity to use it in their classes. Cooper advised that the Discovery Institute was not offering legal advice, soon afterwards Buckingham contacted Richard Thompson of the Thomas More Law Center, who agreed to represent the Dover Board, recommended the book Of Pandas and People. On October 18, 2004, the school board voted 6–3 resolving that there were to be lectures on the subject, with Pandas as a reference book, that the following statement was to be added to their biology curriculum: "Students will be made aware of the gaps/problems in Darwin's theory and of other theories of evolution including, but not limited to, intelligent design. Note: Origins of life is not taught."On November 19, 2004, the Dover Area School District issued a press release stating that, commencing in January 2005, teachers would be required to read the following statement to students in the ninth-grade biology class at Dover High School: The Pennsylvania Academic Standards require students to learn about Darwin's theory of evolution and to take a standardized test of which evolution is a part.
Because Darwin's Theory is a theory, it is still being tested. The Theory is not a fact. Gaps in the Theory exist for. A theory is defined as a well-tested explanation. Intelligent design is an explanation of the origin of life; the reference book Of Pandas and People, is available for students t
Iraq Survey Group
The Iraq Survey Group was a fact-finding mission sent by the multinational force in Iraq after the 2003 invasion of Iraq to find the weapons of mass destruction alleged to be possessed by Iraq, the main ostensible reason for the invasion. Its final report, Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the Director of Central Intelligence on Iraq WMD, was submitted to Congress and the president in 2004, it consisted of a 1,400-member international team organized by the Pentagon and Central Intelligence Agency to hunt for the alleged stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction, including chemical and biological agents, any supporting research programs and infrastructure that could be used to develop WMD. The report acknowledged that only small stockpiles of chemical WMDs were found, the numbers being inadequate to pose a militarily significant threat; the ISG was made up of more than one thousand American and Australian citizens, with the United States providing the bulk of the personnel and resources for the operation.
These people included civilian and military intelligence and WMD experts, as well as a large number of people working to provide armed security and support. David Kay, a weapons inspector after the first Gulf War, was chosen to head the group; the agency tasked as the head U. S. government agency of the ISG was a joint venture of the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency, a Department of Defense intelligence agency. Chosen as the senior military officer of the ISG was MG Keith Dayton, tasked TDY from his assignment as Deputy Director, Human Intelligence, Defense Intelligence Agency; the Iraq Survey Group replaced the United Nations inspections teams and from the International Atomic Energy Agency, mandated by the UN Security Council to search for illegal weapons before the conflict. None had been found; the ISG was a combined joint/multi-agency intelligence task force operating in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. It was made up of personnel from all four services, US Government Agencies, the Australian and UK Armed Forces as well as UK and Australian Governmental Agencies.
The ISG mission was to organize and apply intelligence capabilities and expertise to discover, capture and disseminate information on individuals and other media, facilities and operations relative to Weapons of Mass Destruction, Former Regime Intelligence, as well as Iraqi or Third-Country Nationals associated with the Former Regime, detained by the Former Regime, or subjects of Indictment for War Crimes or Crimes against Humanity. The ISG's mission included the ongoing investigation into the fate of United States Navy Captain Michael Scott Speicher, shot down in 1991 during the Gulf War. Presumed dead, he was declared missing when evidence emerged after the war that he had survived the crash of his aircraft. On August 2, 2009, the Navy reported that Speicher's remains were found in Iraq by United States Marines belonging to MNF-W's Task Force Military Police, his jawbone was used to identify him after study at the Charles C. Carson Center for Mortuary Affairs at Dover Air Force Base. According to local civilians, Speicher was buried by Bedouins.
The evidence proved. Senator Nelson attributed the delayed finding to the culture of the locality: "These Bedouins roam around in the desert, they don't stay in one place, it just took this time to find the specific site." Speicher's family expressed gratitude that the Defense Department had stayed with the case and that closure was now available. To make the primary mission of WMD search more manageable, ISG was operationally divided up into several sectors each with its own Sector Control Point; the three sectors were North and South, with Sector Control Point-Baghdad being the primary and largest. The bulk of the ISG staff and SCP-B were located on Camp Slayer at the former Al Radwaniyah Presidential Site on Baghdad International Airport in western Baghdad. One of the major supporting elements of the ISG was the Combined Media Processing Center, it consisted of four components, CMPC-Main at Camp Al Sayliyah, Qatar, CMPC-Baghdad located on Camp Slayer, as well as CMPC-North, CMPC-South. The initial nucleus of the CMPC were drawn from DIA document exploitation personnel.
By the summer of 2004, the CMPC had grown to over four hundred civilian document and media processors and linguists/translators living and working in CMPC-M at Camp Al Sayliyah, CMPC-B at Camp Slayer in Iraq. Acting as an independent entity outside of the normal chain of command, it surveyed and exploited hundreds of possible WMD sites across the breadth of Iraq with few problems. There were two incidents; the first incident was a paint factory explosion of 26 April 2004, which killed two soldiers, US Army sergeants Lawrence Roukey, Sherwood Baker, injured several more. The mission had been abandoned because of security concerns; these were the ISG's first casualties in over a year of operations. The second was a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device attack against Charles Duelfer's convoy, which claimed the lives of two of Duelfer's Physical Security Detail, SSG Clinton Wisdom and SPC Don Clary, both of the Kansas Army National Guard's B Battery, 2/130th Field Artiller
Center for Science and Culture
The Center for Science and Culture known as the Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture, is part of the Discovery Institute, a conservative Christian think tank in the United States. The CSC lobbies for the inclusion of creationism in the form of intelligent design in public-school science curricula as an explanation for the origins of life and the universe while casting doubt on the theory of evolution; these positions have been rejected by the scientific community, which identifies intelligent design as pseudoscientific neo-creationism, whereas the theory of evolution is overwhelmingly accepted as a matter of scientific consensus. The Center for Science and Culture serves as the hub of the intelligent design movement. Nearly all of prominent proponents of intelligent design are either CSC advisors, officers, or fellows. Stephen C. Meyer, a former vice president of the Discovery Institute and founder of the CSC, serves as a Senior Fellow, Phillip E. Johnson is the Program Advisor. Johnson is presented as the movement's "father" and architect of the Center's Wedge strategy and "Teach the Controversy" campaign, as well as the Santorum Amendment.
In 1987, the US Supreme Court ruled in Edwards v. Aguillard against creation science being taught in United States public school science classes. In reaction, the term intelligent design was coined as a substitute in drafts of the textbook Of Pandas and People, published in 1989, beginning the campaigning of the intelligent design movement under the leadership of Pandas editor Charles Thaxton; the Edwards v. Aguillard ruling inspired Phillip E. Johnson to begin anti-evolution campaigning, he met Stephen C. Meyer, through him was introduced to others who were developing what became the Wedge strategy, including Michael Denton, Michael Behe and William A. Dembski, with Johnson becoming the de facto leader of the group. By 1995, Johnson was opposing the methodological naturalism of science in which "The Creator belongs to the realm of religion, not scientific investigation", promoting "theistic realism" which "assumes that the universe and all its creatures were brought into existence for a purpose by God" and expects "this'fact' of creation to have empirical, observable consequences."In December 1993, Bruce Chapman and founder of the Discovery Institute, noticed an essay in The Wall Street Journal by Meyer about a dispute when biology lecturer Dean H. Kenyon taught intelligent design creationism in introductory classes.
Kenyon had co-authored Of Pandas and People, in 1993 Meyer had contributed to the teacher's notes for the second edition of Pandas. Meyer was an old friend of Discovery Institute co-founder George Gilder, over dinner about a year they formed the idea of a think tank opposed to materialism. In the summer of 1995, Chapman and Meyer met a representative of Howard Ahmanson, Jr. Meyer, who had tutored Ahmanson's son in science, recalls being asked "What could you do if you had some financial backing?"The Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture, as it was named, grew out of a conference called "The Death of Materialism and the Renewal of Culture" that the Discovery Institute organised in the summer of 1995. It was founded in 1996 by the Discovery Institute with funding provided by Fieldstead & Company, the Stewardship Foundation, Howard Ahmanson, Jr. and the Maclellan Foundation. The evolution of the Center's name in 2002 reflects its attempt to present itself as less religiously motivated in the public's eye.
The evolving banners on the CRSC/CSC's website pictorially parallel these verbal efforts to disassociate the site from its overtly religious origins. The "renewal" in its name referred to its stated goal of "renewing" American culture by grounding society's major institutions education, in religion as outlined in the Wedge Document. Program DirectorStephen C. MeyerAssociate DirectorJohn G. WestProgram AdvisorPhillip E. JohnsonSenior Fellows Fellows Former Fellows Casey Luskin, Research Coordinator. Luskin has helped promote the Academic Freedom bills in Florida alongside Ben Stein. Luskin writes for the Discovery Institute's blog, offering critiques of evolution, which have been met with stiff criticism and rebuttal from the scientific community. Robert L. Crowther, II, Director of Communications An internal CSC report dating from 1998 which outlined a five-year plan for fostering broader acceptance of ID was leaked to the public in 1999; this plan became known as the Wedge strategy. The Wedge Document explained the CSC's key aims are "To defeat scientific materialism and its destructive moral and political legacies" and to "replace materialistic explanations with the theistic understanding that nature and human beings are created by God."
The document sets as "Five-Year Goals" "To see intelligent design theory as an accepted alternative in the sciences and scientific research being done from the perspective of design theory" and notably "To see major new debates in education, life issues and personal responsibility pushed to the front of the national agenda." This was seen in the following years, with public debates over the teaching of intelligent design in public school classrooms taking place in many states as part of the Teach the Controversy campaign. If the CSC's strategy is successful, within twenty years the goals are "To see intelligent design theory as the dominant perspective in science." And "To see design theory permeate our religious, cultural and political life." The CSC has responded to controversy regarding the Wedge Document, saying "Conspiracy theorists in the media continue to recycle the urban legend of the'Wedge' document..." The CSC's Teach the Controversy campaign seeks to promote the teaching of "the full range of scientific views" on evolut
Intelligent design is a pseudoscientific argument for the existence of God, presented by its proponents as "an evidence-based scientific theory about life's origins". Proponents claim that "certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection." ID is a form of creationism that lacks empirical support and offers no testable or tenable hypotheses, so it is not science. The leading proponents of ID are associated with the Discovery Institute, a fundamentalist Christian and politically conservative think tank based in the United States. Though the phrase "intelligent design" had featured in theological discussions of the argument from design, the first publication of the term intelligent design in its present use as an alternative term for creationism was in Of Pandas and People, a 1989 creationist textbook intended for high school biology classes; the term was substituted into drafts of the book, directly replacing references to creation science and creationism, after the 1987 United States Supreme Court's Edwards v. Aguillard decision, which barred the teaching of creation science in public schools on constitutional grounds.
From the mid-1990s, the intelligent design movement, supported by the Discovery Institute, advocated inclusion of intelligent design in public school biology curricula. This led to the 2005 Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial in which U. S. District Judge John E. Jones III found that intelligent design was not science, that it "cannot uncouple itself from its creationist, thus religious, antecedents," and that the school district's promotion of it therefore violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. ID presents two main arguments against evolutionary explanations: irreducible complexity and specified complexity; these arguments assert. As a positive argument against evolution, ID proposes an analogy between natural systems and human artifacts, a version of the theological argument from design for the existence of God. ID proponents conclude by analogy that the complex features, as defined by ID, are evidence of design. Detailed scientific examination has rebutted the claims that evolutionary explanations are inadequate, this premise of intelligent design—that evidence against evolution constitutes evidence for design—is a false dichotomy.
It is asserted that ID challenges the methodological naturalism inherent in modern science though proponents concede that they have yet to produce a scientific theory. By 1910 evolution was not a topic of major religious controversy in America, but in the 1920s the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy in theology resulted in Fundamentalist Christian opposition to teaching evolution, the origins of modern creationism. Teaching of evolution was suspended in U. S. public schools until the 1960s, when evolution was reintroduced into the curriculum, there was a series of court cases in which attempts were made to get creationism taught alongside evolution in science classes. Young Earth creationists promoted creation science as "an alternative scientific explanation of the world in which we live"; this invoked the argument from design to explain complexity in nature as demonstrating the existence of God. The argument from design, the teleological argument or "argument from intelligent design", has been advanced in theology for centuries.
It can be summarised as "Wherever complex design exists, there must have been a designer. Thomas Aquinas presented it in his fifth proof of God's existence as a syllogism. In 1802, William Paley's Natural Theology presented examples of intricate purpose in organisms, his version of the watchmaker analogy argued that, in the same way that a watch has evidently been designed by a craftsman and adaptation seen in nature must have been designed, the perfection and diversity of these designs shows the designer to be omnipotent, the Christian God. Like creation science, intelligent design centers on Paley's religious argument from design, but while Paley's natural theology was open to deistic design through God-given laws, intelligent design seeks scientific confirmation of repeated miraculous interventions in the history of life. Creation science prefigured the intelligent design arguments of irreducible complexity featuring the bacterial flagellum. In the United States, attempts to introduce creation science in schools led to court rulings that it is religious in nature, thus cannot be taught in public school science classrooms.
Intelligent design is presented as science, shares other arguments with creation science but avoids literal Biblical references to such things as the Flood story from the Book of Genesis or using Bible verses to age the Earth. Barbara Forrest writes that the intelligent design movement began in 1984 with the book The Mystery of Life's Origin: Reassessing Current Theories, co-written by creationist Charles B. Thaxton, a chemist, with two other authors, published by Jon A. Buell's Foundation for Ethics. Thaxton held a conference in 1988, "Sources of Information Content in DNA", which attracted creationists such as Stephen C. Meyer. In March 1986, a review by Meyer used information theory to suggest that messages transmitted by DNA in the cell show "specified complexity" specified by intelligence, must have originated with an intelligent agent. In November of that year, Thaxton described his reasoning as a more sophisticated form of Paley's argument from design. At the "Sources of Information Content in DNA" co
Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative bacillus-shaped bacterium, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It becomes nonmotile at normal human body temperature. Y. enterocolitica infection causes the disease yersiniosis, an animal-borne disease occurring in humans, as well as in a wide array of animals such as cattle, deer and birds. Many of these animals become carriers; the bacterium infects the host by sticking to its cells using trimeric autotransporter adhesins. The genus Yersinia includes 11 species: Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, Y. bercovieri, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, Y. aldovae, Y. ruckeri. Among them, only Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, certain strains of Y. enterocolitica are of pathogenic importance for humans and certain warm-blooded animals, whereas the other species are of environmental origin and may, at best, act as opportunists. However, Yersinia strains can be isolated from clinical materials, so they have to be identified at the species level.
Y. enterocolitica is a heterogeneous group of strains, which are traditionally classified by biotyping into six biogroups on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, by serotyping into more than 57 O serogroups, on the basis of their O surface antigen. Five of the six biogroups are regarded as pathogens. However, only a few of these serogroups have been associated with disease in either humans or animals. Strains that belong to serogroups O:3, O:5,27, O:8, O:9 are most isolated worldwide from human samples. However, the most important Y. enterocolitica serogroup in many European countries is serogroup O:3 followed by O:9, whereas the serogroup O:8 is detected in the United States. Y. enterocolitica is widespread in nature, occurring in reservoirs ranging from the intestinal tracts of numerous mammals, avian species, cold-blooded species, from terrestrial and aquatic niches. Most environmental isolates are avirulent. In addition, sheep, wild rodents, environmental water may be a reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains.
Human pathogenic strains are confined to the intestinal tract and lead to enteritis/diarrhea. The portal of entry is the gastrointestinal tract; the organism is acquired by insufficiently cooked pork or contaminated water, meat, or milk. Acute Y. enterocolitica infections lead to mild self-limiting enterocolitis or terminal ileitis and adenitis in humans. Symptoms may include watery or bloody diarrhea and fever, resembling appendicitis or salmonellosis or shigellosis. After oral uptake, Yersinia species invade Peyer's patches. From here they can disseminate further to mesenteric lymph nodes causing lymphadenopathy; this condition can be confused with appendicitis. In immunosuppressed individuals, they can disseminate from the gut to the liver and spleen and form abscesses; because Yersinia species are siderophilic bacteria, people with hereditary hemochromatosis are more susceptible to infection with Yersinia. In fact, the most common contaminant of stored blood is Y. enterocolitica. See yersiniosis for further details.
Yersiniosis is self-limiting and does not require treatment. For sepsis or severe focal infections if associated with immunosuppression, the recommended regimen includes doxycycline in combination with an aminoglycoside. Other antibiotics active against Y. enterocolitica include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol. Y. enterocolitica is resistant to penicillin G, cefalotin due to beta-lactamase production. Y. enterocolitica infections are sometimes followed by chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, erythema nodosum, reactive arthritis. This is most because of some immune-mediated mechanism. Y. Enterocolitica seems to be associated with autoimmune Graves-Basedow thyroiditis. Whilst indirect evidence exists, direct causative evidence is limited. Y. Enterocolitica is not a major cause of this disease but may contribute to the development of thyroid autoimmunity arising for other reasons in genetically susceptible individuals. Y. Enterocolitica infection has been suggested to be not the cause of autoimmune thyroid disease but rather an associated condition, with both sharing a common inherited susceptibility.
More the role for Y. enterocolitica has been disputed. Yersinia enterocolitica genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID "Yersinia enterocolitica". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 630. Type strain of Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. Enterocolitica at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase