The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Andrew Douglas Strachan is an Australian rock musician. In 1994, after growing up in Adelaide, he relocated to Melbourne where in 2000 he became the drummer of alternative rock group, Pollyanna. In 2002, he joined fellow alternative rockers, The Living End, they have issued four Top 5 albums on the ARIA Charts, Modern Artillery, State of Emergency, White Noise and The Ending Is Just the Beginning Repeating. Andrew Douglas Strachan grew up in Adelaide. Strachan completed secondary education at Aberfoyle Park High School studied Natural Therapies for three years and worked in hospitality doing restaurant work. Strachan had started drumming at the age of 12, receiving tuition from Frets and Stix music shop in Reynella. At age 15, he began in an Adelaide band, The Runaways, playing covers of 1950s and 1960s songs – similar to future The Living End founders Chris Cheney and Scott Owen, whose earlier group, The Runaway Boys was a cover band in Melbourne in 1992. In 1993 Strachan formed Poxsii Barccs with Gary Hopper on lead vocals, Paul Inglis on lead guitar and Toby Martin on bass guitar and backing vocals.
In 1994 the group moved to Melbourne. In 1996 he formed the rock trio, with John Baxter and Denny Brereton. In 1998 Strachan's former bandmate, Paul Inglis replaced Brereton on bass guitar, in 2001 the band folded after releasing one self-titled EP and two singles; as a member of Alcotomic, Strachan shared songwriting credits with Inglis on 13 tracks. Strachan was in Latrobe Valley-based pop rockers, P76, with Leigh Thomas on guitar and vocals, Danny McDonald on guitar and vocals, Tim Mills on bass guitar. By 2000 he had joined Melbourne alternate rockers, with Maryke Stapleton on vocals and Matt Handley on guitar. Early in 2002 Andy Strachan was introduced to alternate rockers, The Living End, upon the departure of their previous drummer Travis Demsey in February. While Strachan filled in on drums with the group – they played new material under the pseudonym The Longnecks – they continued auditions for a new drummer. Strachan reflected that the early shows as The Longnecks "were more nerve-wracking than the big shows...
There's always going to be guys in the crowd going,'I can't wait to see him fuck up'. But I was lucky in that Chris and Scott never treated me as'that ring-in bloke'". On the 20th March 2002, it was announced on The Living End website that he had joined the line-up, his first release with the group was an extended play, One Said to the Other in January 2003, followed by their third studio album, Modern Artillery, in October. For the album, Strachan shared songwriting credits on "Short Notice" with Owen. Allmusic's Johnny Loftus picked it as one of the album's best tracks, "1977 Upstarts colors won't wilt in the face of crackly drum programming and vocal filters. It's a representative song for a problematic yet still promising album stuck between engineered formula and real deal rock". Modern Artillery peaked at number three on the ARIA Albums Chart, while, in February 2006, their next studio album, State of Emergency reached number one. Strachan won the 2006 Jack Award for Australia's Best Drummer.
The Living End's next album, White Noise peaked at number two while their July 2011 album, The Ending Is Just the Beginning Repeating reached number three. After their 2011 album The Ending Is Just The Beginning Repeating, The Living End took some time off from writing and recording. In this time, with help and encouragement from Woody Annison, Strachan recorded and released a 6-song EP under the name The Pants Collective; this EP was released on 30 May 2014. By 2007 Andy Strachan was married to Jacki and from 2008 they were living in Barwon Heads. Thelivingend.com.au alcotomic.com
Bendigo is a city in Victoria, located near the geographical centre of the state and 150 kilometres north west of the state capital, Melbourne. As of June 2016, Bendigo had an urban population of 95,587, making it the fourth-largest inland city in Australia and fourth-most populous city in the state, it is the administrative centre for the City of Greater Bendigo, which encompasses both the urban area and outlying towns spanning an area around 3,000 km2 and over 111,000 people. The discovery of gold in the soils of Bendigo during the 1850s made it one of the most significant Victorian-era boomtowns in Australia. News of the finds intensified the Victorian gold rush, bringing an influx of migrants to the city from around the world within a year and transforming it from a sheep station to a major settlement in the newly proclaimed Colony of Victoria. Once the alluvial gold had been mined out, mining companies were formed to exploit the rich underground quartz reef gold. Since 1851, about 780,000 kilograms of gold have been extracted from Bendigo's goldmines, making it the highest producing goldfield in Australia in the 19th century and the largest gold-mining economy in eastern Australia.
It is notable for its Victorian architectural heritage. The city took its name from the Bendigo Creek and its residents from the earliest days of the gold rush have been called "Bendigonians". Although the town flourished in its beginnings as a result of the discovery of gold, it experienced a reversal of fortune in the early 20th century. However, its growth accelerated in the postwar years and has continued to increase since; the original inhabitants of the Mount Alexander area that includes Greater Bendigo were the Dja Dja Wurrung people, who exploited the rich local hunting grounds. These grounds were noticed by white settlers, who established the first of many vast sheep runs in 1837; the Mount Alexander North sheep run was bordered by a creek that came to be known as Bendigo, after a local shepherd nicknamed for the English bare-knuckle prizefighter William Abednego Thompson. Gold was discovered in the area in September 1851, just after the other significant goldfields in neighbouring Castlemaine, from where many diggers migrated, bringing the total to 40,000 in less than a year.
In 1853, a massive protest was held over the cost of the licence fee for prospectors, though it passed off peacefully, due to good diplomacy by police and miners’ leaders. From being a tent city, the boomtown grew into a major urban centre with many grand public buildings; the municipality became a borough in 1863 known as Sandhurst until 1891, but always unofficially as Bendigo. The railway had reached here by 1862, stimulating rapid growth, with flour mills, woollen mills, quarries, eucalyptus oil production, food production industries, timber cutting; when the alluvial gold ran out, the gold fields evolved into major mines with deep shafts to mine the quartz-based gold. Bendigo was declared a city in 1871. Rapid population growth brought a water shortage solved with a new viaduct that harnessed the Coliban River; the architect William Charles Vahland left an important mark on Bendigo during this period. He is credited with the popular cottage design with verandahs decorated in iron lace, a style, soon adopted right across the state of Victoria.
Vahland designed more than 80 buildings, including the Alexandra Fountain, arguably the most prominent monument in Bendigo, with its granite dolphins, unicorns and allegorical figures. A tram network was in use by 1890. After a temporary drop in population, renewed growth occurred from the 1930s, as the city consolidated as a manufacturing and regional service centre, though gold mining continued until 1954. Recent growth has been most concentrated in areas such as Epsom, Kangaroo Flat and Strathfieldsaye. In 1994, the City of Bendigo was abolished and merged with the Borough of Eaglehawk, the Huntly and Strathfieldsaye shires, the Rural City of Marong to form the larger City of Greater Bendigo; the population of the city increased from around 78,000 in 1991 to about 100,617 in 2012. Bendigo is one of the fastest-growing regional centres in Victoria; the city is surrounded by components of the Greater Bendigo National Park, as well as the Bendigo Box-Ironbark Region Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for swift parrots and other woodland birds.
A dozen species of insect-eating bats and the pollinating grey-headed flying fox inhabit the area. Bendigo has a dry temperate climate with warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters. Under the Köppen-Geiger classification, it lies on a humid subtropical/oceanic transitional climate zone, due to its location being on the boundary of the hot, sultry inland areas to the north and the cool, damp Southern Ocean to the south. Bendigo gets 109.9 clear days annually. The mean minimum temperature in January is 14.3 °C and the maximum 28.7 °C, although temperatures above 35 °C are reached. The highest temperature recorded was 45.4 °C, during the early 2009 southeastern Australia heat wave. There is a disputed recording of 47.4 °C. The mean minimum temperature in July is 3.5 °C and winter minima below 0 °C are recorded 28 nights per year on average. Mean maximum winter temperatures in July are 12.1 °C. Most of the city's annual rainfall of 582.1 millimetres falls between September. Snowfalls are unknown.
Four on the Floor (EP)
Four on the Floor is the fourth EP by Australian rock band The Living End. It was a limited edition release in 2003, six years after their previous EP Second Solution / Prisoner of Society, the best selling Australian single of the 1990s, spent a record-breaking 69 weeks on the ARIA Top 50. "Blinded" "Fond Farewell" "No Reaction" "Live It Up"
Hellbound is the debut EP by Australian rock band The Living End. "Trace of Doubt" "Hellbound" "Tabletop Show" "The Living End" "Strange" "Headlines" "Mispent Youth" "So Lonely" "Do What I Do" The EP was recorded at Whirled Records, Victoria, Australia, in 1995 except for "Headlines", recorded at Toybox Studios in 1994. Some editions of the release feature the title'The' and'End' in blue, rather than white; the original art features a white square to the right of Chris' head, this has been removed on releases. Hellbound was first released through Shock records re-released through MDS and re-released again through EMI; the first editions of Hellbound feature a ninth bonus track, "Do What I Do". Contrary to popular belief, Chris does not hate the song, but it was taken off the CD for pressings; the EP was re-released remastered as part of a double CD pack in 2005 distributed by EMI. The artwork for both albums is altered on this release
Southbound is an arts and music festival. A variety of Australian and international artists perform at this event; the festival occurs annually around New Years, at the Sir Stewart Bovell Park in Busselton, Western Australia. Southbound began as a single day music festival in 2005, located at Sir Stewart Bovell Park in Busselton, Western Australia. In 2006 the event expanded. In 2007, campers were allowed to camp the night before the festival, with special acoustic performances that same night; the 2010 event expanded into a 3-day festival for campers. The 2015 event was cancelled the night before the event after bushfires in the Waroona area closed both the South Western Highway and Forrest Highway causing traffic to detour between Perth and Busselton. Main Roads Western Australia's advice to organisers was that the only other viable alternative route may be restricted. After requests from patrons, event organisers made arrangements to allow ticket refunds to be donated to relief efforts, donated food intended for catering at Southbound to bushfire relief.
The festival was revived as a bush-fire benefit concert held at HBF Stadium on Sunday 10 January. ArtBound started as a showcase of works from the local art community. EcoBound displayed how recyclable materials and alternative energy were implemented to reduce the environmental impact of the festival. Solar power and biodiesel were used to meet energy needs. StageBound gave unsigned artists an opportunity to perform at Southbound. A requirement of these artists was that they were from the south west regional areas of Western Australia. Sunday 2 January 2005: Pete Murray, Eskimo Joe, Machine Gun Fellatio, The Thrills, Little Birdy, Veruca Salt, Rhibosome, James De La Cruz, Sharif Galal, Dakota Star, The Panda Band, Spencer Tracy, The Fuzz, Red Jezebel, Phil’s Finest Hour Monday 2 January 2006: The Dandy Warhols, Ian Brown, Hoodoo Gurus, Pete Murray, Xavier Rudd, The Shins, End Of Fashion, The Beautiful Girls, Eric Bibb, Dexter, Dallas Crane, The Grates, True Live, The Panics, TZU, The Vasco Era, Sharif Galal, Dan Stinton, Dan The Man, Adima, Em Dee, As a Weapon Friday 5 January 2007: John Butler Trio, Michael Franti, Matt Costa, The Audreys, Blue King Brown & Dallas Frasca.
Saturday 6 January 2007: John Butler Trio, Michael Franti, Matt Costa, The Audreys, The Preytells, Blue King Brown, Dallas Frasca, Basement Jaxx, Modest Mouse, Eskimo Joe, Hilltop Hoods, The Bees, You Am I, Jamie Lidell, Saul Williams, The Sleepy Jackson, Little Birdy, Youth Group, The Presets, The Black Seeds, Josh Pyke, The Vasco Era, The Panda Band, The Exploders & The Flairz. Friday 4 January 2008: The Waifs, The Beautiful Girls and Angus and Julia Stone Saturday 5 January 2008: The Words Kings of Leon, Black Rebel Motorcycle Club, Groove Armada, The Waifs, The Go! Team, José González, Built to Spill, Girl Talk, Lior, Midnight Juggernauts, Neville Staple’s Specials, The Mess Hall and Julia Stone, The Beautiful Girls, Augie March, The Pipettes, Bonde Do Role, Operator Please, Institut Polaire, The Herd, The Panics & The Dirty Secrets. First announcement 13 August. Friday 2 January 2009: The Hives, Pete Murray, Architecture In Helsinki, Donavon Frankenreiter, Birds of Tokyo, Bliss n Eso, End of Fashion, TZU, Wolf & Cub, Grafton Primary, The Drones, South Rakkas Crew, C. W. Stoneking, The Autumn Isles and Harlequin League.
Liam Finn was a late withdrawal from the lineup. Saturday 3 January 2009: Franz Ferdinand, The Kooks, The Cat Empire, Pete Murray, Sharon Jones and the Dap Kings, Gomez, Tegan And Sara, The Grates, Blue King Brown, Atmosphere featuring Brother Ali, A-Trak, Eli ‘Paperboy’ Reed and the True Loves, Jamie Lidell, Mystery Jets, Lykke Li, Murs, SoKo, Late of the Pier, Ash Grunwald, Cut Off Your Hands and Will, Violent Soho, Tame Impala, The John Steel Singers, The Shiny Brights and Will stoker and the embers. Pete Murray was the only artist to perform on both Saturday. First announcement 6 August. Yeah Yeah Yeahs, Hilltop Hoods, Grizzly Bear, Xavier Rudd, Rodrigo y Gabriella, Paul Dempsey, The Temper Trap, Sarah Blasko, Midnight Juggernauts, Little Birdy, Major Lazer, Seasick Steve, Emiliana Torrini, White Rabbits, Art vs. Science, Yves Klein Blue, Liam Finn, Andrew Bird, Lisa Mitchell, Lyrics Born, The View, Future Of The Left, Kaki King, Patrick Watson, King Khan & The Shrines, DJ Yoda, Philadelphia Grand Jury, One Tiger Down plus more to be announced.
Interpol, Joan Jett and the Blackhearts, The National, The Living End, Public Enemy, Klaxons and Julia Stone, Tame Impala, The Rapture, Cold War Kids, Sleigh Bells, Hot Hot Heat, 6s and 7s, A-Trak, Ash Grunwald, Chris Baio, Big Scary, Birds of Tokyo, Bliss N Eso, Boom! Bap! Pow!, Boy & Bear, Carus Thompson, Charlie Parr, Children Collide, Cloud Control. Daara J, Dan Kelly, Dan Sultan, Edan the Dee-Jay, Eskimo Joe, Ghost Hotel, Grace Woodroofe, Jonathan Boulet, Kitty Daisy and Lewis and the Diamonds, Paul Kelly, Sally Seltmann, Scotch of St James, Split Seconds, The Bamboos, The Beautiful Girls, The Brow Horn Orchestra, The Chemist, The Chevelles, The Cool Kids, The Cuban Brothers, The Growl, The Jezabels, The Middle East, The Morning Benders, The Novocaines, The Silents, The Soft Pack, Tijuana Cartel and Jean, World's End Press, Yacht Club DJs, Young Revelry, Kimbra, An Horse, CSS, The Head and the Heart and John Butler Trio. Saturday