Boston University Terriers men's ice hockey
The Boston University Terriers men’s ice hockey program is one of the most storied teams in NCAA Division I hockey, playing its first game in 1918 and winning five national championships, while making twenty-two appearances in the Frozen Four. BU has won twelve major conference tournament championships as well as 30 titles in the historic Beanpot tournament featuring the four major Boston collegiate hockey teams. BU played in the Eastern College Athletic Conference from 1961 to 1984, winning five tournament championships. Men’s ice hockey is the most popular sport at Boston University and has a large fan base on campus and among BU alumni nationwide; the Terriers have won five national championships, are the only eastern team to win back-to-back NCAA titles. They won their first title in 1971 and repeated in 1972, with both titles won under head coach Jack Kelley. BU won their other three titles under head coach Jack Parker, in 1978, 1995, 2009. In 1972, 1995, 2009, BU won the "triple crown," consisting of the Beanpot, conference tournament and NCAA championships.
In 1995 and 2009, the Terriers won the Hockey East regular season title, giving the team four major trophies in a single season. The Terriers have appeared in the Frozen Four twenty-two times and were the runners-up on five occasions. BU has made it to the NCAA Tournament an additional ten times without advancing to the Frozen Four, in 1984, 1986, 1992, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007,2012 and 2015. Runners-up in 1950, 1967, 1991, 1994, 1997, 2015 BU competed in the ECAC from 1961 to 1984, winning six regular-season titles and five tournament championships. BU has competed in the Hockey East conference since the 1984–85 season, winning nine regular-season titles and eight tournament championships. Boston University is sometimes jokingly referred to as “Beanpot University” because of its success in the annual mid-season hockey tournament called the Beanpot; this anticipated single-elimination tournament is contested by Boston University, Northeastern University, Harvard University, Boston College, with the winner receiving the coveted Beanpot trophy and bragging rights over its Boston rivals.
The four-team tournament is played on the first two Mondays of February at the TD Garden. Of the 62 Beanpots played since the 1952–1953 season, Boston University has been victorious on 30 occasions; the Terriers' last win came in 2015 as they defeated Northeastern University 4–3 in Overtime in the final round. List of Beanpot championships: 1958, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1978, 1979, 1982, 1986, 1987, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2015 BU's season started off with a banner-raising ceremony to commemorate the previous season's Beanpot, Hockey East and NCAA championship victories, but it was a disappointing year for the Terriers overall. BU lost six of its first eight games, the team finished with an 18–17–3 record, not good enough to secure a berth in the NCAA tournament; the season's second half was better than the first, with BU defeating Boston College in a unique game played outdoors at Fenway Park, one of nine wins in a span of 12 games.
But the Terriers lost to BC in the title game of the Beanpot tournament and to Maine in the semifinals of the Hockey East tournament, putting an end to BU's defense of its national championship. The Terriers ended the season as national champions with a 35–6–4 record, setting a team high for games won, they finished the season ranked #1 in both the USCHO.com/CBS College Sports Poll and the USA Today/USA Hockey Magazine Poll, earning the #1 overall seed in the 2009 NCAA championship. BU won a school record 7 championships: the Ice Breaker Invitational, the Denver Cup, the Beanpot, the Hockey East regular season title, the Hockey East tournament, the NCAA Northeast Regional, the National Championship; the team's success was aided by a strong freshman class and the decisions of senior defenseman Matt Gilroy and sophomore forward Colin Wilson to stick with the team instead of taking offers to go pro. Following victories against the Ohio State Buckeyes, the UNH Wildcats, the University of Vermont Catamounts, they defeated the Miami RedHawks 4–3 in OT to capture their first National Championship since 1995.
BU trailed 3–1 with one minute left in the game, but scored 2 goals in 42 seconds to tie the score and force sudden death overtime. Sophomore defenseman Colby Cohen scored the game-winning goal on a shot that deflected off a Miami player; the championship game brought the senior class to 100 wins in four seasons. Longtime head coach Jack Parker, a former Terrier, achieved his 800th win in the January 30th game against Merrimack College, he became only the third college hockey coach to do so, the first to have all 800 wins be with the same team. In the Beanpot, the Terriers beat Harvard University 4–3 in the first round and Northeastern University 5–2 in the championship round. In the Hockey East tournament, they defeated Maine in the quarterfinals, Boston College in the semifinals, UMass Lowell in the championship game. Down by one goal in the third period against BC, the Terriers scored three goals in 44 seconds – a tournament record. BU defeated Lowell 1–0, with goaltender Kieran Millan earning tournament MVP honors with the shutout.
BU was ranked #1 in the country for most of the season, thanks in part to non-conference victories over powerhouses such as Michigan, North Dakota, Michigan State and Denver. But Northeastern held the top spot in Hockey East play for most of 2008–09, thanks to a better conference record. BU overtook Northeastern on the
The Anaheim Ducks are a professional ice hockey team based in Anaheim, California. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League. Since their inception, the Ducks have played their home games at the Honda Center; the club was founded in 1993 by The Walt Disney Company as the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim, a name based on the 1992 film The Mighty Ducks. Disney sold the franchise in 2005 to Henry and Susan Samueli, who along with then-general manager Brian Burke changed the name of the team to the Anaheim Ducks before the 2006–07 season; the Ducks have made the playoffs 14 times and won six Pacific Division titles, two Western Conference championships and one Stanley Cup. The Mighty Ducks of Anaheim were founded in 1993 by The Walt Disney Company; the franchise was awarded by the NHL in December 1992, along with the rights to a Miami team that would become the Florida Panthers. An entrance fee of $50 million was required, half of which Disney would pay directly to the Los Angeles Kings in order to "share" Southern California.
On March 1, 1993, at the brand-new Anaheim Arena – located a short distance east of Disneyland and across the Orange Freeway from Angel Stadium – the team got its name, inspired by the 1992 Disney movie The Mighty Ducks, based on a group of misfit kids who turn their losing youth hockey team into a winning team. Philadelphia-arena management specialist Tony Tavares was chosen to be team president, Jack Ferreira, who helped create the San Jose Sharks, became the Ducks' general manager; the Ducks selected Ron Wilson to be the first head coach in team history. The Ducks and the expansion Florida Panthers team filled out their rosters in the 1993 NHL Expansion Draft and the 1993 NHL Entry Draft. In the former, a focus on defense led to goaltenders Guy Hebert and Glenn Healy being the first picks, followed by Alexei Kasatonov and Steven King. In the latter, the Ducks selected as the fourth overall pick Paul Kariya, who only began play in 1994 but would turn out to be the face of the franchise for many years.
The resulting roster had the lowest payroll of the NHL at only $7.9 million. Led by captain Troy Loney, the Ducks' finished the season 33–46–5, a record-breaking number of wins for an expansion team, which the Florida Panthers achieved; the Ducks sold out 27 of 41 home games, including the last 25, filled the Arrowhead Pond to 98.9% of its season capacity. Ducks licensed merchandise shot to number one in sales among NHL clubs, helped by their presence in Disney's theme parks and Disney Stores; the lockout-shortened 1994–95 NHL season saw the debut of Paul Kariya, who would play 47 of the team's 48 games that year, scoring 18 goals and 21 assists for 39 points. The Ducks had another respectable season, going 16–27–5. 1995–96 would mark a big change for the team for second-year superstar Paul Kariya. During the season, he was chosen to play for the Western Conference in the 1996 NHL All-Star Game as the lone Ducks representative. At the time of his selection, Kariya was ranked 14th in league scoring with 51 points over 42 games, although the Ducks were overall a low-scoring team.
A mid-season blockbuster deal with the Winnipeg Jets improved the franchise. The Ducks sent Chad Kilger, Oleg Tverdovsky and a third-round pick to the Jets in return for Marc Chouinard, a fourth-round draft pick and right winger Teemu Selanne. Following the trade, Ducks center Steve Rucchin commented, "Paul had a lot of pressure on him... He singlehandedly won some games for us this year... Now that we have Teemu, there's no way everybody can just key on Paul." These three players formed one of the most potent lines of their time. Although the trade proved to be an important effort in the team, they still finished short of the playoffs, losing the eight spot in the Western Conference to the Winnipeg Jets based on the number of wins. During the 1996–97 season, Kariya became team captain following Randy Ladouceur's retirement in the off-season, led the Ducks to their first post-season appearance after recording the franchise's first winning record of 36–33–13, good enough for home ice in the first round as the fourth seed against the Phoenix Coyotes.
The Ducks trailed 3–2 going into Phoenix for Game 6. Kariya scored in overtime to force the franchise's first Game 7. However, in the second round, they lost to the eventual Stanley Cup champions the Detroit Red Wings in a four-game sweep. After the season, Ron Wilson was fired after saying. Pierre Page succeeded him; the Ducks started out in 1997–98, in part because Kariya missed the first 32 games of the season in a contract dispute. He came back in December, but on February 1, he suffered a season-ending concussion when the Chicago Blackhawks' Gary Suter cross-checked him in the face. With Kariya playing only a total of 22 games that season, the Ducks missed the playoffs and fired Page; the Ducks followed that season up by finishing sixth in the Western Conference in 1998–99 with new head coach Craig Hartsburg. However, they were swept by Detroit again, this time in the first round. In the 1999–2000 season, the Ducks finished with the same amount of points as the previous season, but a much more competitive Western Conference had them miss the playoffs by four points behind rival San Jose Sharks.
Despite this, the Mighty Ducks scored more goals than the conference champion Dallas Stars. In the following season, 2000–01, the Ducks ended up performing worse, as Paul Kariya and Teemu Selanne's point production declined from the previous season – Kariya went from 86 points to 67 points and Selanne went fr
The Dallas Stars are a professional ice hockey team based in Dallas. They are members of the Central Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League; the team was founded during the 1967 NHL expansion as the Minnesota North Stars, based in Bloomington, Minnesota. Before the beginning of the 1978–79 NHL season, the team merged with the Cleveland Barons after the league granted them permission due to each team's respective financial struggles; the franchise relocated to Dallas for the 1993–94 NHL season. The Stars played out of Reunion Arena from their relocation until 2001, when the team moved less than 1.5 miles into the American Airlines Center. The Stars have won eight division titles in Dallas, two Presidents' Trophies as the top regular season team in the league, the Western Conference championship twice, in 1998–99, the Stanley Cup. Joe Nieuwendyk won the Conn Smythe Trophy as the most valuable player of the playoffs that year. In 2000, Neal Broten was inducted into the United States Hockey Hall of Fame.
In 2009, Brett Hull became the first Dallas Stars player inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame, followed by Ed Belfour and Joe Nieuwendyk in 2011 and Mike Modano in 2014. In 2010, brothers Derian and Kevin Hatcher were inducted to the United States Hockey Hall of Fame; the Minnesota North Stars began play in 1967 as part of the league's six-team expansion. Home games were played at the newly constructed Metropolitan Sports Center in Bloomington, Minnesota. Successful both on the ice and at the gate, the North Stars fell victim to financial problems after several poor seasons in the mid-1970s. In 1978, the North Stars were purchased by the owners of the Cleveland Barons, the Gund brothers, George III and Gordon. With both teams on the verge of folding, the league permitted the two failing franchises to merge; the merged team continued as the Minnesota North Stars, but assumed the Barons' place in the Adams Division in order to balance out the divisions, while the Seals/Barons franchise records were retired.
The merger brought with it a number of talented players, the North Stars were revived—they reached the Stanley Cup Finals in 1981, where they lost in five games to the New York Islanders. However, by the early 1990s, declining attendance and the inability to secure a new downtown revenue-generating arena led ownership to request permission to move the team to the San Francisco Bay Area in 1990; the league rejected the request and instead agreed to award an expansion franchise, the San Jose Sharks, to the Gund brothers. The North Stars were sold to a group of investors that were looking to place a team in San Jose, although one of the group's members, Norman Green, would gain control of the team. In the following season, the Minnesota North Stars made it to the Stanley Cup Finals, only to lose to the Pittsburgh Penguins. After the 1991 season, the North Stars suffered through poor profitability; the team's fortunes were further impeded by the terms of the settlement with the Gund brothers, in which they were permitted to take a number of North Stars players to San Jose.
New owner Norman Green explored the possibility of moving the team to Anaheim, however the league decided instead to place the expansion Mighty Ducks there in 1992. In their final two seasons in Minnesota, the team adopted a new logo which omitted the "North" from "North Stars", leading many fans to anticipate the team heading south. In 1993, amid further attendance woes and bitter personal controversy, Green obtained permission from the league to move the team to Dallas, for the 1993–94 season, with the decision announced on March 10, 1993. Green was convinced by former Dallas Cowboys quarterback Roger Staubach that Dallas would be a suitable market for an NHL team; the league, to quell the controversy, promised the fans of Minnesota a return in the future with a new franchise. The Stars would move into Reunion Arena, built in 1980, the downtown arena occupied by the National Basketball Association's Dallas Mavericks. With the league changing the names of the conferences and divisions, the newly relocated Stars were placed in the Central Division of the Western Conference, played their first game in Dallas on October 5, 1993, a 6–4 win against the Detroit Red Wings.
In that game, Neal Broten scored the first Stars goal in Dallas. Dallas was an experiment for the league. At that time, the Stars would be one of the three southern-most teams in the league, along with the newly-created Tampa Bay Lightning and Florida Panthers, as the leagues's first real ventures into southern non-traditional hockey markets. Though the Stars were still unknown in the area, word of the team spread and the immediate success of the team on the ice, as well as Mike Modano's career best season helped spur the team's popularity in Dallas; the Stars set franchise bests in wins and points in their first season in Texas, qualifying for the 1994 playoffs. The Stars further shocked the hockey world by sweeping the St. Louis Blues in the first round, but lost to the eventual Western Conference Champion Vancouver Canucks in the second round; the Stars' success in their first season, along with American superstar Mike Modano's spectacular on ice performances would be an integral part of the Stars' eventual franchise success in the immediate years to come.
The immediate success of the Stars was helped by a long history of second-tier hockey in the area. The minor league Central Hockey League had two teams in the area, the Fort Worth Texans and the Dallas Blackhawks for 40 years before the Stars arrival; these two t
2004–05 NHL lockout
The 2004–05 NHL lockout was a lockout that resulted in the cancellation of what would have been the 88th season of play of the National Hockey League. It was the first time the Stanley Cup was not awarded since 1919, the first time a major professional sports league in North America canceled a complete season because of a labor dispute, the second time after the 1994–1995 MLB strike that the postseason of a major professional sports league in North America was canceled; the lockout lasted 10 months and 6 days starting September 16, 2004, the day after the collective bargaining agreement between the NHL and the NHL Players Association that resolved the 1994–95 lockout expired. The lockout of the 2004–2005 season resulted in 1,230 unplayed games; the negotiating teams reached an agreement on July 13, 2005, the lockout ended 9 days on July 22, after both the NHL owners and players ratified the CBA. The NHL, led by Commissioner Gary Bettman, attempted to convince players to accept a salary structure linking player salaries to league revenues, guaranteeing the clubs what the league called cost certainty.
According to an NHL-commissioned report prepared by former U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission chairman Arthur Levitt, prior to 2004–05, NHL clubs spent about 76 percent of their gross revenues on players' salaries – a figure far higher than those in other North American sports – and collectively lost US$273 million during the 2002–03 season. On July 20, 2004, the league presented the NHLPA with six concepts to achieve cost certainty; these concepts are believed to have ranged from a hard, or inflexible, salary cap similar to the one used in the National Football League, to a soft salary cap with some capped exceptions like the one used in the National Basketball Association, to a centralized salary negotiation system similar to that used in the Arena Football League and Major League Soccer. According to Bettman, a luxury tax similar to the one used in Major League Baseball would not have satisfied the league's cost certainty objectives. Most sports commentators saw Bettman's plan as reasonable, but some critics pointed out that a hard salary cap without any revenue sharing was an attempt to gain the support of the big market teams, such as Toronto, Detroit, the New York Rangers and Philadelphia, teams that did not support Bettman during the 1994–95 lockout.
The NHLPA, under executive director Bob Goodenow, disputed the league's financial claims. According to the union, "cost certainty" is little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which it had vowed never to accept; the union rejected each of the six concepts presented by the NHL, claiming they all contained some form of salary cap. The NHLPA preferred to retain the existing "marketplace" system where players individually negotiate contracts with teams, teams have complete control of how much they want to spend on players. Goodenow's mistrust of the league was supported by a November 2004 Forbes report that estimated the NHL's losses were less than half the amounts claimed by the league. Several players criticized the contracts. One example was the 2002 Bobby Holik contract in which the New York Rangers signed him to five years for $45 million. After two years, his contract was bought out by the Rangers: "In the new world we live in, Bobby was just paid too much," according to Glen Sather, the Rangers' president.
Although the NHL's numbers were disputed, there was no question that several franchises were losing money, as several had declared bankruptcy. Other franchises had held "fire sales" of franchise players, such as the Washington Capitals; some small-market teams, such as the Pittsburgh Penguins and the remaining small-market Canadian teams, were hoping for a lockout, since those teams would make more money by losing a season, with the Edmonton Oilers publicly announcing that they would fold outright if there wasn't a lockout. The league did not have large TV revenues in the US, so the NHL was reliant on attendance revenues more than other leagues. After the lockout of the 2004–2005 season, NHL teams made on average only 3 million dollars from television revenues. In addition in May of the 2004–2005 lockout, ESPN formally denied the option to show NHL games on the network due to low ratings in previous seasons. Many NHL teams had low attendance totals in preceding seasons. Prior to the lockout, in late 2003 the union proposed a system that included revenue sharing, a luxury tax, a one-time five percent rollback in player salaries, reforms to the league's entry level system.
The league rejected this proposal immediately because it maintained the status quo in favor of the players. Shortly before the lockout commenced in 2004, the NHLPA offered another proposal to the league, believed to be similar to their earlier proposal; the league again rejected the union offer, claiming the union's new proposal was worse than the offer they rejected in 2003. At this point, negotiations stopped until early December, when the NHLPA made a anticipated proposal based on a luxury tax that increased the proposed one-time rollback in players' salaries from 5 to 24 percent; the NHL rejected the offer and countered with a proposal that the union rejected. In late January 2005, near what the hockey media believed to be the point of no return for the 2004–05 season, discussions were held by the negotiators from both sides, excluding Bettman and Goodenow; the NHL was represented by Executive Vice President Bill Daly, outside counsel Bob Batterman, NHL Board of Governors Chairman Harley Hotchkiss, who co-owns the Calgary Flames.
The NHLPA was represented by President Trevor Linden, Senior Director Ted Saskin, associate counsel Ian Pulver. After four meetings, the sides remained dea
1992–93 NHL season
The 1992–93 NHL season was the 76th regular season of the National Hockey League. Each player wore a patch on their jersey throughout the 1992–93 regular season and playoffs to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Stanley Cup, it proved, at the time, to be the highest-scoring regular season in NHL history, as a total of 7,311 goals were scored over 1,008 games for an average of 7.25 per game. Twenty of the twenty-four teams scored three goals or more per game, only two teams, the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Chicago Blackhawks, allowed fewer than three goals per game. Only 68 shutouts were recorded during the regular season. A record twenty-one players reached the 100-point plateau, while a record fourteen players reached the 50-goal plateau—both records still stand as of the 2018–19 NHL season; the Montreal Canadiens won their league-leading 24th Cup by defeating the Los Angeles Kings four games to one. As of 2018, this is the last time; this was the final season of the Wales and Campbell Conferences, the Adams, Patrick and Smythe divisions.
Both the conferences and the divisions would be renamed to reflect geography rather than the league's history for the following season. This was the last year in which the playoff structure bracketed and seeded teams by division; this season saw two new clubs join the league: the Tampa Bay Lightning. The Senators were the second Ottawa-based NHL franchise and brought professional hockey back to Canada's capital, while the Tampa Bay franchise strengthened the NHL's presence in the American Sun Belt, which had first started with the birth of the Los Angeles Kings in 1967; this was the final season of play for the Minnesota North Stars, before relocating to Dallas, the following season. All teams wore a commemorative patch this year celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Stanley Cup. Gil Stein was appointed NHL President in the summer of 1992, on an interim basis. On February 1, 1993, Gary Bettman became the first NHL Commissioner. With the expiration of Gil Stein's tenure on July 1, 1993, the position of President was merged into the position of Commissioner.
On March 28, 1993, through a brokered deal with ESPN, ABC begins the first of a two year deal with the National Hockey League to televise six regional Sunday afternoon broadcasts. This marked the first time that regular season National Hockey League games were broadcast on American network television since 1974–75. Schedule length changed to 84 games. Two games in each team's schedule to be played in non-NHL cities. Instigating a fight results in a game misconduct penalty. Substitutions disallowed for coincidental minor penalties. Minor penalty for diving introduced. Teemu Selanne of the Winnipeg Jets shattered the rookie scoring record by scoring 76 goals and 56 assists for 132 points this season, he was named the winner of the Calder Memorial Trophy as the NHL Rookie of the Year, his goals and points marks remain the NHL rookie records as of 2018. The New York Rangers missed the playoffs; this marked the first time since the President's Trophy had been introduced that the previous season's top team missed the next year's playoffs.
For the first time in his NHL career, Wayne Gretzky did not finish in the top three in scoring. A back injury limited Gretzky to 45 games. Note: W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, GF = Goals for, GA = Goals against, Pts = Points As a part of the 1992 strike settlement, the NHL and Bruce McNall's Multivision Marketing and Public Relations Co. organized 24 regular season games in 15 cities that did not have a franchise, providing as a litmus test for future expansion. Four of the cities chosen – Phoenix, Atlanta and Miami – were the sites of expansion or relocations, although neither Cleveland nor Cincinnati received NHL franchises, there would be one placed in Columbus, located halfway between the two cities. Two arenas that hosted neutral-site games had hosted NHL teams before: Atlanta's The Omni and Cleveland's Richfield Coliseum; the Hartford-St. Louis game was scheduled to be played on December 29, 1992, in Birmingham, Alabama. Manon Rheaume became the first woman to play for a major sports league in North America as she tended goal for the Tampa Bay Lightning in an exhibition game on September 23, 1992, against the St. Louis Blues.
The Ottawa Senators and Tampa Bay Lightning were two new teams to be added to the league, bringing the league to 24 teams. Both teams would win their opening games and sit atop their respective Divisions, which led to Harry Neale jokingly proclaiming before the end of Ottawa's first win that both the Senators and Lightning would reach the Stanley Cup finals in May. October 1992: Gil Stein named NHL President. February 1993: Gary Bettman named NHL Commissioner. Record set for most 50-goal scorers in one season. February 10, 1993: In a 13–1 drubbing of the San Jose Sharks, Calgary Flames goaltender Jeff Reese set NHL records for most points and most assists by a goaltender in one game, with three; the 1993 Stanley Cup playoffs marked the 100th anniversary of the Stanley Cup. Pittsburgh Penguins set the NHL record for longest win streak at 17 games. Conversely, the San Jose Sharks tied the NHL record for longest losing streak at 17 games. June 30, 1992: Eric Lindros traded from Quebec to Philadelphia fo
2002 Winter Olympics
The 2002 Winter Olympics the XIX Olympic Winter Games and known as Salt Lake 2002, was a winter multi-sport event, celebrated from 8 to 24 February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, United States. 2,400 athletes from 78 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout 165 sporting sessions. The 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2002 Paralympic Games were both organized by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee. Utah became the fifth state in the United States to host the Olympic Games and the 2002 Winter Olympics were the last Olympics to be held in the United States until the 2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles; these were the first Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The opening ceremony was held on February 8, 2002, sporting competitions were held up until the closing ceremony on February 24, 2002. Production for both ceremonies was designed by Seven Nielsen, music for both ceremonies was directed by Mark Watters. Salt Lake City became the most populous area to have hosted the Winter Olympics, although the two subsequent host cities' populations were larger.
Following a trend, the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were larger than all prior Winter Games, with 10 more events than the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. Norway won the most gold medals; the Salt Lake Games faced a bribery scandal and some local opposition during the bid, as well as some sporting and refereeing controversies during the competitions. From sporting and business standpoints, this was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours; the Games were financially successful raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues; the Games were a major factor in the political rise to power of Mitt Romney, elected Governor of Massachusetts in 2002, was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 2012 and has served as the junior United States Senator from Utah since 2019.
Salt Lake City was chosen over Canada. Salt Lake City had come in second during the bids for the 1998 Winter Olympics, awarded to Nagano and had offered to be the provisional host of the 1976 Winter Olympics when the original host, Colorado, withdrew; the 1976 Winter Olympics were awarded to Innsbruck, Austria. 1Because of the no-commercialization policy of the Olympics, the Delta Center, now the Vivint Smart Home Arena, was labeled as the "Salt Lake Ice Center". The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics at US$2.5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 24% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Salt Lake City 2002 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of US$51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. A total of 78 National Olympic Committees sent athletes to the 2002 Olympics. Cameroon, Hong Kong, Nepal and Thailand participated in their first Winter Olympic Games; the 2002 Winter Olympics featured 78 medal events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline. In the following calendar for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day.
The yellow boxes represent days. The number in each box represents the number of finals. All dates are in Mountain Standard Time * Host nation Several medals records were tied, they included: Norway tied the Soviet Union at the 1976 Winter Olympics for most gold medals at a Winter Olympics, with 13. Germany set a record for most total medals at a Winter Olympics, with 36; the United States set a record for most gold medals at a home Winter Olympics, with 10, tying Norway at the 1994 Winter Olympics. The opening ceremonies included Grammy Award-winning artist LeAnn Rimes singing "Light the Fire Within", the official song of the 2002 Olympics; the Grammy Award-winning Mormon Tabernacle Choir performed the "Star-Spangled Banner", national anthem of the United States, for the opening ceremonies. John Williams composed a five-minute work for orchestra and chorus, "Call of the Champions", that served as the official theme of the 2002 Winter Olympics, his first for a Winter Oly
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t