It is one of three SPFL clubs in the city, the others being their Edinburgh derby rivals Hearts and Edinburgh City. Hibernian was founded in 1875 by Irish immigrants, but support for the club is now based on rather than ethnicity or religion. The Irish heritage of Hibernian is still reflected, however, in its name, the name of the club is usually shortened to Hibs. The team are called The Hibees and The Cabbage, a shortening of the slang for Hibs of Cabbage and Ribs, by fans of the club. Home matches are played at the Easter Road stadium, in use since 1893, Hibernian have played in the second tier of the Scottish football league system, known as the Scottish Championship, since being relegated in 2014. Hibernian have won the Scottish league championship four times, most recently in 1952, three of those four championships were won between 1948 and 1952, when the club had the services of The Famous Five, a notable forward line. The club have won the Scottish Cup three times, in 1887,1902 and 2016, Hibs have won the Scottish League Cup three times, in 1972,1991 and 2007.
The club was founded in 1875 by Irishmen from the Cowgate area of Edinburgh, the name is derived from Hibernia, the Roman name for Ireland. James Connolly, the famous Irish Republican leader, was a Hibs fan, there was some sectarian resistance initially to an Irish club participating in Scottish football, but Hibs established themselves as a force in Scottish football in the 1880s. Hibs were the first club from the east coast of Scotland to win a major trophy and they went on to defeat Preston North End, who had won the 1887 FA Cup, in a friendly match described as the Association Football Championship of the World Decider. Mismanagement over the few years led to Hibs becoming homeless. A lease on the Easter Road site was acquired in late 1892, despite this interruption, the club today views the period since 1875 as one continued history and therefore counts the honours won between 1875 and 1891, including the 1887 Scottish Cup. The club were admitted to the Scottish Football League in 1893, a significant change at this time was that players were no longer required to be members of the Catholic Young Mens Society.
Hibs are not seen today as being an Irish or Roman Catholic institution, for instance, the Irish harp was only re-introduced to the club badge when it was last re-designed in 2000. This design reflects the three pillars of the identity, Ireland and Leith. Geography rather than religion is now seen as the reason for supporting Hibs. Hibs had some success after being reformed, winning the 1902 Scottish Cup, after this, the club endured a long barren spell. The club lost its placing in the league, and were relegated for the first time in 1931, the notorious Scottish Cup drought began as they reached three cup finals, two in consecutive years, but lost each of them
Scotland national football team
The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. It competes in the two professional tournaments, the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship. Scotland, as a constituent country of the United Kingdom, is not a member of the International Olympic Committee, the majority of Scotlands home matches are played at the national stadium, Hampden Park. Scotland is the joint oldest national team in the world, alongside England. Scotland has a rivalry with England, whom they played annually from 1872 until 1989. The teams have met six times since then, most recently in November 2016. Scotland have qualified for the FIFA World Cup on eight occasions and the UEFA European Championship twice, the team have achieved some noteworthy results, such as beating the 1966 FIFA World Cup winners England 3–2 at Wembley Stadium in 1967. Archie Gemmill scored what has been described as one of the greatest World Cup goals ever in a 3–2 win during the 1978 World Cup against the Netherlands, in their qualifying group for UEFA Euro 2008, Scotland defeated 2006 World Cup runners-up France 1–0 in both fixtures.
Scotland supporters are known as the Tartan Army. The Scottish Football Association operates a roll of honour for every player who has more than 50 appearances for Scotland. Kenny Dalglish holds the record for Scotland appearances, having played 102 times between 1971 and 1986, Dalglish scored 30 goals for Scotland and shares the record for most goals scored with Denis Law. Scotland and England are the oldest national teams in the world. Teams representing the two sides first competed at the Oval in five matches between 1870 and 1872, the two countries contested the first official international football match, at Hamilton Crescent in Partick, Scotland, on 30 November 1872. The match ended in a goalless draw, all eleven players who represented Scotland that day played for Glasgow amateur club Queens Park. Over the next forty years, Scotland played matches exclusively against the other three Home Nations—England and Ireland, the British Home Championship began in 1883, making these games competitive.
The encounters against England were particularly fierce and a rivalry quickly developed, Scotland lost just two of their first 43 international matches. It was not until a 2–0 home defeat by Ireland in 1903 that Scotland lost a match to an other than England. This run of success meant that Scotland would have topped the Elo ratings
Vale of Leven F.C.
Vale of Leven Football Club are an association club based in the town of Alexandria, Scotland, in the Vale of Leven area of West Dunbartonshire. Nicknamed the Vale and formed in 1939, they play at Millburn Park and they play in the Scottish Junior Football Association, West Region, and wear blue and white strips. In the early days of Scottish football, Vale of Leven, Vale won the Scottish Cup three times in succession. In 1878 they travelled down to England and beat the FA Cup winners, The Wanderers, the Wanderers had the advantage that the game was played under the English throw-in rule, but the Vales Scottish passing game proved superior to the English game of individual dribbling. The club won the Celtic Society Cup in shinty in 1879, Vale of Leven was a founder member of the Scottish Football League when it was formed in 1890. By this time, the club was being eclipsed by the stars from Glasgow. In their second season failed to win a single game. Rather than face re-election for the time, the club withdrew.
Between 1893 and 1902 the Vale played only friendly matches and in cup competition before joining the Scottish Football Combination, in 1905 they applied successfully for readmission to the Scottish League when the Second Division was extended with two additional places. They finished as runners-up in 1907 and in 1909 but did not receive the votes they needed to be elected to the First Division, as the following decade wore on, Vale of Leven struggled and regularly finished near the foot of the table. When the Second Division was suspended in 1915, Vale joined the Western League, after World War I ended Vale of Leven returned to the Scottish League for the third time as members of the reformed Second Division. After a decent fourth-place finish in their first season, the club was relegated to the new Third Division in 1924 and this ill-fated competition was abandoned in 1926 when it became clear that the cost of meeting match guarantees and additional travel expenses were beyond the means of its members.
Despite the church name, Vale Ocoba appeared to be a flag of convenience for the Vale of Leven Football & Athletic Club struck off the SFAs roll. Original club colours, Dark blue shirts, dark blue shorts, disaster struck however when the start of World War II obliged the league to be suspended due to restrictions on travel by December 1939. Technically, the current club is unattached to the senior club. Scottish Junior football has a number of clubs that were forced to fold as Senior sides due to financial reasons or as a result of the collapse of the old Scottish Division Three in the late 1920s. This is more prevalent on the West Coast where no non-amateur Senior league exists any longer, the most recent example of this trend has been the former Junior turned Senior turned Junior again side Clydebank. Vale of Leven should not be confused with the slightly differently named East of Scotland League club Vale of Leithen
Scotland national football team manager
The role of a Scotland national football team manager was first established in May 1954, when Andy Beattie was appointed. Beattie took charge of six matches before and during the 1954 FIFA World Cup, twenty-two men have occupied the post since its inception, with Beattie and Jock Stein occupying it in two different spells. Five of those managers were in caretaker or interim roles, Craig Brown held the position for the longest to date, a tenure of 9 years, comprising two major tournaments and a total of 71 matches. No manager has progressed beyond the first group stage of a major competition, Walker, Willie Ormond, Ally MacLeod, Ferguson, Andy Roxburgh and Brown have all managed the team at major competitions. Ian McColl and MacLeod all won the British Home Championship outright, the team has not qualified for a major competition since 1998. Walter Smith and Alex McLeish achieved better results, with the ranking improving to a high of 13 in October 2007. George Burley and Craig Levein both had worse results with the team and were eventually sacked, Levein was replaced on a caretaker basis by Billy Stark, before Gordon Strachan was named as Leveins permanent replacement in January 2013.
The Scotland manager has sole responsibility for all elements of the Scotland team. Among other activities, this includes selecting the team squad. The manager has input in selecting the coaching staff, for example, in 2008 manager George Burley helped to recruit Terry Butcher, a former teammate at Ipswich Town, as his assistant. The Scotland manager may involve himself in wider issues beyond the on-the-field team issues, in the period before a manager was appointed, the team was picked by the international selection committee of the Scottish Football Association. This committee was made up of officials from Scottish clubs, who had responsibility for picking their own sides, there were large inconsistencies in selection and players were often picked without some or all of the selectors having watched them play. The process of appointing a new Scotland manager is undertaken by the main SFA board, after a review was conducted by former First Minister of Scotland Henry McLeish, the SFA board structure was streamlined considerably in 2011.
Professional game and non-professional game boards govern their respective areas of football, there are seven members on the main board, consisting of four SFA office bearers, one representative each from the professional game and non-professional game boards and one independent member. As of September 2013, these positions are occupied by Stewart Regan, Campbell Ogilvie, Alan MacRae, Rod Petrie, Peter Lawwell, the non-professional game position is presently vacant. All but one of the 22 people to manage Scotland had played the game professionally, the exception is Dawson Walker, who was placed in interim charge of the team while Matt Busby was recovering from the effects of the Munich air disaster. Of the 21 Scotsmen to hold the post of manager, ten were never capped for the senior Scotland team as a player, of the 11 that played for Scotland, six earned at least 10 caps, McColl, Docherty, McLeish, Burley and Strachan. Four served as Scotland captains, Docherty, McLeish, Berti Vogts, the only foreign manager to hold the post, earned 96 caps for West Germany and was part of their 1974 World Cup winning side
Preston Athletic F.C.
Preston Athletic Football Club are a Scottish senior non-league football club based in the town of Prestonpans, East Lothian. They were formerly members of the East of Scotland Football League and were founding members of the Lowland Football League, the club are nicknamed the Panners and play their home matches at Pennypit Park. The team normally play in dark blue, founded in 1945, they were originally a junior club, only entering the senior ranks in 1994, when they joined the East of Scotland Football League. The club has ambitions of progressing to a higher level. As a full member of the Scottish Football Association, Preston are eligible to enter the Scottish Cup and they first qualified for the competition proper in 2002–03, losing 1–0 at home to Hamilton Academical in the First Round. Preston Athletic were one of five clubs to prepare an application for entry into the Scottish Football League following Gretna relinquishing their league status on 3 June 2008 and they were unsuccessful after losing out to Annan Athletic.
The other unsuccessful clubs were Cove Rangers, Edinburgh City and Spartans
Lowland Football League
The Scottish Lowland Football League is a football league operating in southern and central Scotland. 16 teams currently compete in the league with teams drawn from the Scottish Lowlands area of Scotland, since 2015 it has been known as the Ferrari Packaging Lowland League for sponsorship reasons. Additionally, the bottom placed club will face relegation to the 2015–16 East of Scotland Football League or South of Scotland Football League depending on their geographical location. Consequently, it now stands at a new Level 5 on the Scottish football pyramid, on a par with the Highland League, as a creation of the Scottish Football Association, the Lowland League is a full member of the same organisation. The league would be composed of teams drawn from the South of Scotland, East of Scotland and junior leagues, who met on 17 June 2013 to elect between them the founder-members of the new league. While most clubs were invited to submit bids to join, Preston Athletic, while 27 clubs had registered their interest, the Lowland League received 17 applications to join.
Subsequent seasons have seen the number of participating clubs increase, Two clubs, Edinburgh University and BSC Glasgow, were admitted to the league for the 2014–15 season. They were joined the season by Cumbernauld Colts. Civil Service Strollers and Hawick Royal Albert joined the league in June 2016, the 2016-17 season was the first time that founding members left the league. The same season saw the first team relegated into the league from Scottish League Two – East Stirlingshire. * Team promoted to Scottish League Two, on 24 September 2013, the Scottish Sun newspaper was revealed to be the first sponsor of the league. Since 2015, the league has been sponsored by Ferrari Packaging on a two-year agreement, official website of the Lowland Football League
Highland Football League
The Scottish Highland Football League is a part-time professional senior football league in the north of Scotland. The league, which is the level within Scottish football, is a full member of the Scottish Football Association. It currently consists of 18 teams from the Scottish Highlands as well as the lowlands of Moray, until the reorganisation of Scottish football during the 2012–13 season, the league was historically one of the senior leagues in Scottish football. The others being the Scottish Premier League and Scottish Football League, along with the East of Scotland, since the 2014–15 season, the league is a feeder division for SPFLs Scottish League Two. The Highland Football League champions play the winners of the Lowland Football League for a chance to face the bottom club in League Two, all current league members are full members of the Scottish Football Association so qualify automatically for the following seasons first round of the Scottish Cup. The league champions and the team receive a bye into the cups second round.
Since 2014, the league champion team has gained a place in the Scottish Challenge Cup. The leagues current sponsorship deal is with the Aberdeen-based Press & Journal media group, each team in the league plays each other twice during a season – once at home, once away, for a total of 34 matches. The standard league scoring system of 3 points for a win and 1 for a draw is applied, with ties in the league table broken by goal difference. The champions are presented with the League trophy and a flag, either immediately after the match which secures the victory, as the region is prone to severe weather in winter, postponements have sometimes caused the conclusion of the season to be delayed. Various proposals which would have reduced the number of matches a team would play, were considered, clubs now play both a Saturday and a Wednesday fixture most weeks from August through October, taking advantage of milder weather at the start of the season. The original league consisted of seven teams, Inverness Thistle, Clachnacuddin, Forres Mechanics, Inverness Union, Inverness Citadel, Ross County were an eighth original member, but resigned membership in November 1893.
The inaugural champions were Inverness Thistle, of the original teams, two are still playing in the league today and two merged to become current Scottish League club Inverness Caledonian Thistle. Many of the clubs have performed well when competing against SFL clubs in the Scottish Cup. However, from the 1990s onwards, the HFL has been a victim of its own success, the league has been somewhat weakened in recent years by the departure of many former members who have subsequently joined the SFL. This happened in 1994 when Caledonian, Inverness Thistle and Ross County left and this was the state of affairs till 2000 when Elgin City and Peterhead were elected into the SFL. In 2002 Inverurie Loco Works were elected into the HFL to give it a membership of 15 clubs. In 2008, North Region Junior League sides Formartine United and Turriff United both submitted bids to join the Highland League, following in the footsteps of past Junior League side Inverurie Locos, Banks O Dee and Strathspey Thistle applied
St Mirren F.C.
St Mirren Football Club is a Scottish professional football club based in Paisley, founded in 1877. The team plays in the Scottish Championship, having been relegated from the Scottish Premiership in 2014–15, the team has two nicknames, the Buddies and the Saints. St Mirren have won the Scottish Cup three times,1926,1959 and 1987, and the Scottish League Cup in 2013, the club has played in European competition four times, UEFA Cup Winners Cup in 1987–88 and the UEFA Cup in 1980–81, 1983–84 and 1985–86. The clubs home ground since 2009 is St Mirren Park, an 8,023 capacity all seater ground on Greenhill Road, the clubs former ground from 1894 until 2009 was called St Mirren Park, but was more commonly known as Love Street. St Mirren was formed as a club which included, among other sports, cricket. The increasing popularity of football ensured that by 1877 the members had decided to play football and 1877 is the football clubs official foundation date. They are named after Saint Mirin, the founder of a church at the site of Paisley Abbey, there is a street in Paisley named St Mirren Street.
St Mirren played their first match on 6 October 1877, defeating Johnstone Britannia 1–0 at Shortroods, two years later, the club moved to another ground, Thistle Park, Greenhills. St Mirrens first Scottish Cup match came on 4 September 1880, the following year, the Buddies reached their first cup final but were beaten 3–1 by Thornliebank in the Renfrewshire Cup. In 1883 however the scores were reversed with the Saints winning the Renfrewshire Cup and it is in 1883 that move to their third home, that of West March, defeating Queens Park in the first game. In 1885, St Mirren played their first match against Morton, the 1890 season was an historic season for St Mirren, as they became founder members of the Scottish Football League along with fellow Paisley club Abercorn. Of the 11 founder clubs, only 4 survive in the current league system and it was during the match against Morton at Cappielow in this year, that St Mirren played one of the first night games under light from oil lamps. St Mirren moved to Love Street in 1894 and reached their first Scottish Cup final in the 1907–08 season but were defeated 5–1 by Celtic, the Buddies went on to lift the trophy in 1926,1959 and 1987.
In 1922, St Mirren were invited to play in the Barcelona Cup invitational tournament to celebrate the inauguration of Les Corts and they won the tournament by beating Notts County in the final. In the 1979–80 season, St Mirren achieved their equal highest-ever finish in the top-flight finishing third behind Aberdeen and that season Saints became the first and last Scottish club to win the Anglo-Scottish Cup, defeating Bristol City in a two-legged final. The following season, St Mirren competed in European competition for the first time, IF Elfsborg in Sweden, followed by a 0–0 draw in the second leg. The next round saw them play French team Saint-Étienne, although St Mirrens home leg ended up a 0–0 draw, Saint-Étienne pulled off a 2–0 victory in the second leg to put St Mirren out of the cup. In 2001, St Mirren finished bottom of the Premier League despite losing one of their final seven matches
Scottish Football Museum
The Scottish Football Museum is the Scottish Football Leagues National Museum of football, located in Hampden Park in Glasgow. Although the FA Cup competition is older, its original cup has been lost, in appalling weather Renton won 4–1. The Scottish Football Museum offers an expansive and informative tour of Hampden Park where visitors get a similar to players on match day. Visitors are able to visit the underground roadway, team changing rooms, visitors are able to walk down the tunnel to the unveiling of the Hampden crowd. Visitors get access to 2,500 exhibits in all of the 14 display gallery’s along with the chance to score a goal from the Hampden penalty spot. Visitors get the chance to see the Scottish Hall of Fame and are able to climb the stairs to the cup presentation area in Hampden’s stands. C, players who took part in the first match ever played at the ground. There is another Kilmarnock shirt which was worn in the 1960s by legendary Kilmarnock player, saturday,30 November 1872, for the first time ever two national countries took to the field and England.
Both bordering nations are renowned for being the oldest international football teams in the world, a crowd of only 4,000 arrived that day to watch the historic event. 140 years on and football has become the most popular sport in the world where the 2010 World cup reached more than 3.2 billion people worldwide. This exhibition celebrates the unimaginable growth for the world of football from where we once were, where we are today, and how Scotland has its place in the start of football history. Many of his works were based on the fortunes of the two professional clubs based in Edinburgh and Hibs, but included other clubs across the country as well as the national team and these cartoons formed a basis for the exhibition presented at the museum. The Scottish Football Hall of Fame honours the great players and officials who have contributed to Scotlands football reputation with their skills, spirit. Today, there are 83 football players in the Hall of Fame, the Hall of Fame is characterised as a must-see for every person that loves football and whoever is involved in football.
Every year and figures from within football propose some worthy entrants before the decision for the list of the players. Scottish Football Association Scottish Football Museum Glasgow Museums & Art Galleries Scottish Football Hall of Fame
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. At higher levels of play the referee may be assisted by an official who supervises the teams technical areas. Referees remuneration for their services varies between leagues, Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials, the local national organisation determines the manner of training and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches. The referees powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game, as per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play. However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur.
Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge and socks, since then, most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor, FIFA allows referees to wear five colours, red, yellow and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear shorts, black socks. The badge, which displays the referees license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a wallet with pen and paper. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen runs out, referees utilize two watches so that they can use one to calculate time lost for stoppages for the purposes of added time. In matches with goal-line technology, the referee will have on their person a device to receive the systems alerts, Referees use a whistle to help in match control.
The whistle is sometimes needed to stop, start or restart play but should not be used for all stoppages, fIFAs Laws of the Game document gives guidance as to when the whistle should and should not be used. Overuse of the whistle is discouraged since, as stated in the Laws, the whistle is an important tool for the referee along with verbal and eye communication. Before the introduction of the whistle, referees indicated their decisions by waving a white handkerchief, the whistles that were first adopted by referees were made by Joseph Hudson at Mills Munitions in Birmingham, England. The Acme Whistle Company first began to mass-produce pea whistles in the 1870s for the Metropolitan Police Force, Referees in football are first described by Richard Mulcaster in 1581
South of Scotland Football League
The South of Scotland Football League is a senior football competition based in the south of Scotland. This will be subject to the meeting the sufficient licensing criteria to satisfy the terms of promotion. A league of the name briefly existed during the early days of competitive football. The competition was abandoned and no championship was awarded. The first season saw the league played in two sections and West, but it has played as a single league ever since. Teams play each other on a home and away basis, in seasons where league membership has been low, clubs have played each other four times, instead of the usual twice. Recent changes in membership have been, Stranraer Athletic withdrew from the league at the end of the 2007–08 season. Annan Athletic withdrew their team from the league at the end of the 2008–09 season, so that they could concentrate on the SFL Under-19 League. Stranraer withdrew their team from the league at the end of the 2011–12 season. Dalbeattie Star and Threave Rovers withdrew from the league at the end of the 2012–13 season to join the newly formed Scottish Lowland Football League.
After 44 Seasons in the Dumfries and District Amateur Football League, three new teams Dumfries YMCA, Edusport Academy and Upper Annandale were elected to the league for the 2014–15 Season. Threave Rovers rejoined in 2016 after resigning their membership of the Lowland League while Fleet Star withdrew from the league, who were saved from folding last season by a merger with Lochmaben Amateurs, have taken the Lochmaben name and moved to Lockerbie. For the 2016–17 season, the league will feature the following 14 clubs, the club was to be called Crichton Royal, but the suffix has never been used. Dumfries was formed by the merger of Dumfries High School Former Pupils and Dumfries Amateurs. | Heston Rovers Youth merged with Dumfries in 2008, Annan Athletic, Dalbeattie Star and Threave Rovers have all run teams in the East of Scotland League. From the 2008–09 season, Annan Athletic has played in the Scottish Football League, Dalbeattie Star and Threave Rovers joined the newly formed Scottish Lowland Football League for the 2013–14 season.
In 1950, the membership had been reduced to just seven clubs. To compensate for the lack of fixtures, the League Cup was introduced, the final is usually contested by the winners of two mini-leagues, but has been played as a straight knock-out competition. There was no separate League Cup competition between 1962–1968 and 1973–1975, instead the trophy was awarded to the runner-up in the League