The Union of European Football Associations is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia. It is one of six continental confederations of world footballs governing body FIFA, UEFA consists of 55 national association members. Until 1959 the main headquarters were located in Paris, and later in Bern, in 1995, UEFA headquarters were transferred to Nyon, Switzerland. Henri Delaunay was the first general secretary and Ebbe Schwartz the first president, UEFA was founded on 15 June 1954 in Basel, Switzerland after consultation between the Italian, French, and Belgian associations. The European football union began with 25 members, that number doubled by the early 1990s, UEFA membership coincides for the most part with recognition as a sovereign country in Europe, although there are some exceptions. Some UEFA members are not sovereign states, but form part of a recognized sovereign state in the context of international law. Some UEFA members are transcontinental states, countries which had been members of the Asian Football Confederation were also admitted to the European football association, particularly Israel and Kazakhstan. Additionally some UEFA member associations allow teams from outside their associations main territory to take part in their domestic competition, saarland Football Union 1954–1956 German football association of the German Democratic Republic 1954–1990 Football Federation of the Soviet Union 1954–1991, in 1992 became Russian Football Union. The newly independent 14 Soviet Republics created their own football associations, Football Association of Yugoslavia 1954–1992, became Football Association of Serbia and Montenegro. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Slovenia became independent, Football Association of Serbia and Montenegro 1992–2006, became Football Association of Serbia. Montenegro, which became independent, created its own football association, the main competition for mens national teams is the UEFA European Football Championship, started in 1958, with the first finals in 1960, and known as the European Nations Cup until 1964. It is also called UEFA or the EURO, UEFA also runs national competitions at Under-21, Under-19 and Under-17 levels. For womens national teams, UEFA operates the UEFA Womens Championship for senior sides as well as Womens Under-19. UEFA also organized the UEFA-CAF Meridian Cup with CAF for youth teams in an effort to boost youth football, UEFA launched the UEFA Regions Cup, for semi-professional teams representing their local region, in 1999. In futsal there is the UEFA Futsal Championship and UEFA Futsal Under-21 Championship, the Italian, German, Spanish and French mens national teams are the sole teams to have won the European football championship in all categories. A second, lower-ranked competition is the UEFA Europa League and this competition, for national knockout cup winners and high-placed league teams, was launched by UEFA in 1971 as a successor of both the former UEFA Cup and the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. A third competition, the UEFA Cup Winners Cup, which had started in 1960, was absorbed into the UEFA Cup in 1999, in womens football UEFA also conducts the UEFA Womens Champions League for club teams. The competition was first held in 2001, and known as the UEFA Womens Cup until 2009, the UEFA Super Cup pits the winners of the Champions League against the winners of the Europa League, and came into being in 1973
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association is the international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer. FIFA is responsible for the organisation of major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930. FIFA was founded in 1904 to oversee international competition among the associations of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden. Headquartered in Zürich, its membership now comprises 211 national associations, although FIFA does not control the rules of football, it is responsible for both the organization of a number of tournaments and their promotion, which generate revenue from sponsorship. In 2013, FIFA had revenues of over 1.3 billion U. S. dollars, for a net profit of 72 million and those among these officials who were also indicted in the U. S. are expected to be extradited to face charges there as well. Many officials were suspended by FIFAs ethics committee including Sepp Blatter, in early 2017 reports became public about FIFA president Gianni Infantino attempting to prevent the re-elections of both chairmen of the ethics committee during the FIFA congress in May 2017. The need for a body to oversee association football became apparent at the beginning of the 20th century with the increasing popularity of international fixtures. The French name and acronym are used even outside French-speaking countries, the founding members were the national associations of Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Also, that day, the German Association declared its intention of affiliating through a telegram. The first president of FIFA was Robert Guérin, Guérin was replaced in 1906 by Daniel Burley Woolfall from England, by then a member of the association. Membership of FIFA expanded beyond Europe with the application of South Africa in 1909, Argentina in 1912, Canada and Chile in 1913, and the United States in 1914. During World War I, with players sent off to war and the possibility of travel for international fixtures severely limited. Post-war, following the death of Woolfall, the organisation was run by Dutchman Carl Hirschmann and it was saved from extinction, but at the cost of the withdrawal of the Home Nations, who cited an unwillingness to participate in international competitions with their recent World War enemies. The Home Nations later resumed their membership, the FIFA collection is held by the National Football Museum at Urbis in Manchester, England. The first World Cup in the world was in 1930 in Montevideo, FIFA is headquartered in Zürich, and is an association established under the Law of Switzerland. FIFAs supreme body is the FIFA Congress, a made up of representatives from each affiliated member association. Each national football association has one vote, regardless of its size or footballing strength, the Congress assembles in ordinary session once every year, and extraordinary sessions have been held once a year since 1998. The congress makes decisions relating to FIFAs governing statutes and their method of implementation and application, only the Congress can pass changes to FIFAs statutes
International Football Association Board
The International Football Association Board is the body that determines the Laws of the Game of association football. IFAB is known to take a conservative attitude regarding changes to the Laws of the Game. It is a body from FIFA, though FIFA is represented on the board. As a legacy of association footballs origins in the British Isles, amendments to the Laws require a three-quarter supermajority vote, meaning that FIFAs support is necessary but not sufficient for a motion to pass. Each UK association has one vote and FIFA has four, IFAB deliberations must be approved by three-quarters of the vote, which translates to at least six votes. Thus, FIFAs approval is necessary for any IFAB decision, as of 2016, all members must be present for a binding vote to proceed. The Board meets twice a year, once to decide on possible changes to the governing the game of Football. The first meeting is called the Annual General Meeting and the second is the Annual Business Meeting, in FIFA World Cup years, the AGM is held at FIFAs offices, otherwise, it rotates between Northern Ireland, Wales, England and Scotland in that order. Four weeks before the AGM, the member associations must send their written proposals to the secretary of the host association, FIFA then prints a list of suggestions that are distributed to all other associations for examination. The AGM is held either in February or March and the ABM is held between September and October, in cases of necessity, the Board can meet in a Special Meeting in addition to the two ordinary annual meetings. As of December 2012, the last Special Meeting was hosted by FIFA in Zurich on 5 July 2012, as well as permanent changes to the Laws, IFAB also authorise trials of potential amendments. Though the rules of football had largely been standardised by the early 1880s and this posed a problem with international matches and when matches were played, the rules of whoever was the home team were used. While this solution was workable, it was hardly ideal, the conference created the first international competition, the British Home Championship, and proposed the establishment of a permanent board to regulate the laws of the game. Therefore, the first meeting of IFAB took place at the FAs offices at Holborn Viaduct in London on Wednesday 2 June 1886, the FA, SFA, FAW and IFA each had equal voting rights. The growing popularity of the game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives to IFAB in 1913. Initially, they only had two votes and decisions required a majority to pass, meaning that the UK associations could still change the laws against FIFAs wishes if they all voted together. In 1958, the Board agreed on its current voting system, since Irish partition in 1921, the IFA has evolved to become the organising body for football in Northern Ireland. Football in the Republic of Ireland is now organised by the Football Association of Ireland, history of IFAB, including minutes of the meetings Soccer South Bay Referee Association FIFA/IFAB paper on the role of the IFAB FIFA
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. The 2011 census of Scotland showed that a total of 57,375 people in Scotland could speak Gaelic at that time, the census results indicate a decline of 1,275 Gaelic speakers from 2001. A total of 87,056 people in 2011 reported having some facility with Gaelic compared to 93,282 people in 2001, only about half of speakers were fully literate in the language. Nevertheless, revival efforts exist and the number of speakers of the language under age 20 has increased, Scottish Gaelic is neither an official language of the European Union nor the United Kingdom. Outside Scotland, a group of dialects collectively known as Canadian Gaelic are spoken in parts of Atlantic Canada, mainly Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. In the 2011 census, there were 7,195 total speakers of Gaelic languages in Canada, with 1,365 in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island where the responses mainly refer to Scottish Gaelic. About 2,320 Canadians in 2011 also claimed Gaelic languages as their mother tongue, with over 300 in Nova Scotia, aside from Scottish Gaelic, the language may also be referred to simply as Gaelic. In Scotland, the word Gaelic in reference to Scottish Gaelic specifically is pronounced, outside Ireland and Great Britain, Gaelic may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic should not be confused with Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, from the late 15th century, however, it became increasingly common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a language from Irish. Gaelic in Scotland was mostly confined to Dál Riata until the 8th century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth, by 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct, completely replaced by Gaelic. An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, however, however, though the Pictish language did not disappear suddenly, a process of Gaelicisation was clearly underway during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point, probably during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become fully Gaelicised Scots, by the 10th century, Gaelic had become the dominant language throughout northern and western Scotland, the Gaelo-Pictic Kingdom of Alba. Its spread to southern Scotland, was even and totalizing. Place name analysis suggests dense usage of Gaelic in Galloway and adjoining areas to the north and west as well as in West Lothian, less dense usage is suggested for north Ayrshire, Renfrewshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was ever widely spoken, the area shifted from Cumbric to Old English during its long incorporation into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster. It is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic, the Celtic language which was restricted to most of the Highlands. The language developed during the Middle English period as a distinct entity, although a number of paradigms for distinguishing between languages and dialects do exist, these often render contradictory results. Broad Scots is at one end of a linguistic continuum. Scots is often regarded as one of the ancient varieties of English, alternatively, Scots is sometimes treated as a distinct Germanic language, in the way Norwegian is closely linked to, yet distinct from, Danish. In the 2011 Scottish census, a question on Scots language ability was featured, native speakers sometimes refer to their vernacular as braid Scots or use a dialect name such as the Doric, or the Buchan Claik. The old-fashioned Scotch, an English loan, occurs occasionally, especially in Northern Ireland, the term Lallans, a variant of the Modern Scots word lawlands, is also used, though this is more often taken to mean the Lallans literary form. Scots in Ireland is known in circles as Ulster-Scots or Ullans. Scots is a contraction of Scottis, the Older Scots and northern version of late Old English Scottisc, before the end of the 15th century, English speech in Scotland was known as English, whereas Scottish referred to Gaelic. From 1495 the term Scottis was increasingly used to refer to the Lowland vernacular and Erse, meaning Irish, the Gaelic of Scotland is now usually called Scottish Gaelic. Northumbrian Old English had been established in what is now southeastern Scotland as far as the River Forth by the seventh century and it remained largely confined to this area until the thirteenth century, continuing in common use while Gaelic was the language of the Scottish court. Scots also includes loan words resulting from contact with Gaelic, Early medieval legal documents include a body of Gaelic legal and administrative loans. Contemporary Gaelic loans are mainly for geographical and cultural features, such as ceilidh, loch, from the thirteenth century Early Scots spread further into Scotland via the burghs, proto-urban institutions which were first established by King David I. The growth in prestige of Early Scots in the century. By the sixteenth century Middle Scots had established orthographic and literary norms largely independent of those developing in England, from 1610 to the 1690s during the Plantation of Ulster large numbers of Scots-speaking Lowlanders, some 200,000, settled there. In the core areas of Scots settlement, Scots outnumbered English settlers by five or six to one, Modern Scots is used to describe the language after 1700 when southern Modern English was generally adopted as the literary language though Scots remained the vernacular. In Scotland, Scots is spoken in the Scottish Lowlands, the Northern Isles, Caithness, Arran, in Ulster it is spoken in the Counties of Down, Antrim, Londonderry and Donegal. Dialects include Insular Scots, Northern Scots, Central Scots, Southern Scots, many speakers are either diglossic and/or able to code-switch along the continuum depending on the situation in which they find themselves
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Scottish Rugby Union
The Scottish Rugby Union, or Aonadh Rugbaidh na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic, is the governing body of rugby union in Scotland. It is the second oldest Rugby Union, having founded in 1873. The SRU oversees the league system, known as the Scottish League Championship. The SRU is headed by the President and Chairman, with Mark Dodson acting as the Chief Executive Officer, the Scottish Football Union was founded on Monday 3 March 1873 at a meeting held at Glasgow Academy, Elmbank Street, Glasgow. Eight clubs were represented at the foundation, Glasgow Academicals, Edinburgh Academical Football Club, University of St Andrews Rugby Football Club, Royal High School FP, Merchistonians, Edinburgh University RFC, and Glasgow University. Five of these clubs were, at the time of founding the Scottish Football Union, although the RFU now represents exclusively English clubs, in its first few years it had members from outside England, there being no other national union. West of Scotland, Glasgow Academicals and Edinburgh University had joined the RFU in 1871 and Edinburgh Academicals and these five renounced membership of the RFU to join the SFU. The SFU was a member of the International Rugby Football Board, now known as World Rugby, in 1886 with Ireland. In 1924 the SFU changed its name to become the Scottish Rugby Union, International games were played at Inverleith from 1899 to 1925 when Murrayfield was opened. The four traditional districts—the South, Edinburgh, Glasgow and the North & Midlands —were given the go-ahead to take part in Europe, for the first two seasons, players were still released to play for their clubs in domestic competition, but eventually the districts became full-time operations. Then financial difficulties—the SRUs high debt, partly as a result of the redevelopment of Murrayfield—called for retrenchment, after two seasons, financial difficulties forced the SRU to merge the four teams into two. Edinburgh merged with the Border Reivers to form a team to be known as Edinburgh Reivers, Glasgow merged with Caledonian to form a team to be known as Glasgow Caledonian. The Borders was resurrected in 2002 and joined the season of the Celtic League. As a consequence Edinburgh Reivers became simply Edinburgh Rugby and Glasgow became Glasgow Rugby, in 2005, all three teams adopted new names. The Borders readopted the name Border Reivers, Edinburgh became Edinburgh Gunners, but would revert to Edinburgh in 2006, furthermore, the SRU planned to have a world class rugby side for each city or large town in Scotland, when financial circumstances permitted. In 2007, The Borders team was disbanded yet again as a result of continuing financial difficulties, in the same year, the SRU began organising the Scotland Sevens, first held in Edinburgh and later in Glasgow. For several years, it was the event in the annual Sevens World Series. On 21 November 2009 Scotland beat Australia 9–8 after 17 attempts in 27 years, in the Season 2010–11 the SRU had a contractual dispute with the Season Ticket Holders of Edinburgh Rugby
Hampden Park is a football stadium in the Mount Florida area of Glasgow, Scotland. The 51, 866-capacity venue serves as the stadium of football in Scotland. It is also used for concerts and other sporting events. There were two 19th century stadia called Hampden Park, built on different sites, a stadium on the present site was first opened on 31 October 1903. Hampden was the biggest stadium in the world when it was opened and this was increased further between 1927 and 1937, reaching a peak of 150,000. The record attendance of 149,415, for a Scotland v England match in 1937, is the European record for a football match. Tighter safety regulations meant that the capacity was reduced to 81,000 in 1977, the stadium has been fully renovated since then, with the most recent work being completed in 1999. The stadium houses the offices of the Scottish Football Association and Scottish Professional Football League, Hampden has hosted prestigious sporting events, including three Champions League finals, two Cup Winners Cup finals and a UEFA Cup final. Hampden is a UEFA category four stadium and it is served by the nearby Mount Florida, Queens Park, the oldest club in Scottish football, have played at a venue called Hampden Park since October 1873. The first Hampden Park was overlooked by a terrace named after Englishman John Hampden. Queens Park played at the first Hampden Park for 10 years beginning with a Scottish Cup tie on 25 October 1873, the ground hosted the first Scottish Cup Final, in 1874, and a Scotland v England match in 1878. The club moved to the second Hampden Park,150 yards from the original, a lawn bowling club at the junction of Queens Drive and Cathcart Road marks the site of the first Hampden. The second Hampden Park opened in October 1884 and it became a regular home to the Scottish Cup Final, but Celtic Park shared some of the big matches including the Scotland v England fixture in 1894. In the late 1890s, Queens Park requested more land for development of the second Hampden Park and this was refused by the landlords, which led to the club seeking a new site. Henry Erskine Gordon agreed to sell 12 acres of land off Somerville Drive to Queens Park in November 1899, james Miller designed twin grandstands along the south side of the ground with a pavilion wedged in between. The natural slopes were shaped to form banks of terracing, designed by Archibald Leitch, construction of the new ground took over three years to complete, during construction, a disaster occurred at Ibrox in which part of the wooden terraces collapsed. In response, the terraces at Hampden were firmly set in the earthwork, Third Lanark A. C. took over the second Hampden Park in 1903 and renamed it Cathkin Park. The club rebuilt the ground from scratch due to a failure to agree a fee for the whole stadium, Third Lanark went out of business in 1967 and Cathkin Park is now a public park with much of the original terracing still evident
Scottish Football Museum
The Scottish Football Museum is the Scottish Football Leagues National Museum of football, located in Hampden Park in Glasgow. Although the FA Cup competition is older, its original cup has been lost, in appalling weather Renton won 4–1. The Scottish Football Museum offers an expansive and informative tour of Hampden Park where visitors get a similar to players on match day. Visitors are able to visit the underground roadway, team changing rooms, visitors are able to walk down the tunnel to the unveiling of the Hampden crowd. Visitors get access to 2,500 exhibits in all of the 14 display gallery’s along with the chance to score a goal from the Hampden penalty spot. Visitors also get the chance to see the Scottish Hall of Fame and are able to climb the stairs to the cup presentation area in Hampden’s stands. C, players who took part in the first match ever played at the ground. There is also another Kilmarnock shirt which was worn in the 1960s by legendary Kilmarnock player, saturday,30 November 1872, for the first time ever two national countries took to the field, Scotland and England. Both bordering nations are renowned for being the oldest international football teams in the world, a crowd of only 4,000 arrived that day to watch the historic event. 140 years on and football has become the most popular sport in the world where the 2010 World cup reached more than 3.2 billion people worldwide. This exhibition celebrates the unimaginable growth for the world of football from where we once were, where we are today, and how Scotland has its place in the start of football history. Many of his works were based on the fortunes of the two professional clubs based in Edinburgh, Hearts and Hibs, but also included other clubs across the country as well as the national team and these cartoons formed a basis for the exhibition presented at the museum. The Scottish Football Hall of Fame honours the great players, managers and officials who have contributed to Scotlands football reputation with their skills, spirit. Today, there are 83 football players in the Hall of Fame, the Hall of Fame is characterised as a must-see for every person that loves football and whoever is involved in football. Every year, supporters and figures from within football propose some worthy entrants before the decision for the list of the players. Scottish Football Association Scottish Football Museum Glasgow Museums & Art Galleries Scottish Football Hall of Fame
Scotland national football team
The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. It competes in the two professional tournaments, the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship. Scotland, as a constituent country of the United Kingdom, is not a member of the International Olympic Committee, the majority of Scotlands home matches are played at the national stadium, Hampden Park. Scotland is the joint oldest national team in the world, alongside England. Scotland has a rivalry with England, whom they played annually from 1872 until 1989. The teams have met six times since then, most recently in November 2016. Scotland have qualified for the FIFA World Cup on eight occasions and the UEFA European Championship twice, the team have achieved some noteworthy results, such as beating the 1966 FIFA World Cup winners England 3–2 at Wembley Stadium in 1967. Archie Gemmill scored what has been described as one of the greatest World Cup goals ever in a 3–2 win during the 1978 World Cup against the Netherlands, in their qualifying group for UEFA Euro 2008, Scotland defeated 2006 World Cup runners-up France 1–0 in both fixtures. Scotland supporters are known as the Tartan Army. The Scottish Football Association operates a roll of honour for every player who has more than 50 appearances for Scotland. Kenny Dalglish holds the record for Scotland appearances, having played 102 times between 1971 and 1986, Dalglish scored 30 goals for Scotland and shares the record for most goals scored with Denis Law. Scotland and England are the oldest national teams in the world. Teams representing the two sides first competed at the Oval in five matches between 1870 and 1872, the two countries contested the first official international football match, at Hamilton Crescent in Partick, Scotland, on 30 November 1872. The match ended in a goalless draw, all eleven players who represented Scotland that day played for Glasgow amateur club Queens Park. Over the next forty years, Scotland played matches exclusively against the other three Home Nations—England, Wales and Ireland, the British Home Championship began in 1883, making these games competitive. The encounters against England were particularly fierce and a rivalry quickly developed, Scotland lost just two of their first 43 international matches. It was not until a 2–0 home defeat by Ireland in 1903 that Scotland lost a match to an other than England. This run of success meant that Scotland would have topped the Elo ratings
The Scottish Football Association Challenge Cup, commonly known as the Scottish Cup, is an annual association football knock-out cup competition for mens football clubs in Scotland. The competition was first held in 1873–74, entry is open to all clubs with full or associate membership of the Scottish Football Association. The competition is called the William Hill Scottish Cup for sponsorship reasons and it was first presented to Queens Park, who won the final match of the inaugural tournament in March 1874. The current holder is Hibernian, who won the tournament for the time by defeating Rangers 3–2 in the 2016 final. The tournament starts at the beginning of the Scottish football season in August or September, the Scottish Cup Final is usually the last game of the season, taking place at the end of May. Participating teams enter the tournament at different stages depending on their league ranking, the lowest ranked clubs enter the tournament at the first round whilst the highest ranked, those that compete in the Scottish Premiership, enter at the fourth round stage. The competition is a knock-out tournament, in each round of games the teams are paired at random, with the first team drawn listed as the home team. Every game lasts 90 minutes plus any additional stoppage time, the winner of each game advances to the next round, whilst the loser is eliminated from the tournament. If a game ends in a draw, the fixture is replayed at the ground of the other team at a later date. If the replay also ends in a draw,30 minutes of time is played followed by a penalty shoot-out if there is still no clear winner. In the semi-final and final rounds, if the ends in a draw there is no replay. The competition has a staggered entry system, Scottish League One and six Scottish Championship clubs started in the third round, while the remaining four Championship clubs and all 12 Scottish Premiership clubs entered in the fourth round. Any club that is a full or associate member of the Scottish Football Association is entitled to compete in the tournament, every team that plays in the Scottish Professional Football League is therefore eligible. Between 1895 and 2007, clubs that were SFA members but not competitors in the professional football leagues could only qualify for the tournament by winning the Scottish Qualifying Cup. Clubs that are not members of the SFA may still qualify for the tournament by winning the Highland League, Lowland League, three junior clubs, Banks O Dee, Girvan and Linlithgow Rose are also SFA members and therefore qualify automatically. From 2015, the winners of the Scottish Amateur Cup are also eligible to qualify, players that are registered with a competing club are eligible to play. However, players are not entitled to play for more than one club during the same tournament, each club names eleven players and up to five substitutes before every match. In order to play in the match, a player must have also been registered to compete in the semi-final round for the same club
Queen's Park F.C.
Queens Park Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Glasgow. Queens Park is the oldest association football club in Scotland, having founded in 1867. Queens Park is also the only Scottish football club to have played in the FA Cup Final, the clubs home is a Category 4 stadium, the all-seated Hampden Park in South East Glasgow, which is also the home of the Scottish national team. With 10 titles, Queens Park has won the Scottish Cup the third most times of any club, behind Rangers and Celtic, gentlemen from the local YMCA took part in football matches in the local Glasgow area which gave the club its name. During the inaugural meeting, debate raged over the clubs name, proposals included, The Celts, The Northern and Morayshire. Perhaps such choice of names suggest a Highland influence within the new club, after much deliberation, Queens Park was adopted and carried, but only by a majority of one vote. Although Queens was not the first club in Britain, that going to Edinburgh and John Hopes Football Club, formed in 1824. Opposition first came in the form of a now defunct Glaswegian side called Thistle F. C. on 30 November 1872, Scotland faced England at the West of Scotland Cricket Club ground at Hamilton Crescent. For the one and only time all eleven Scots players were from Queens Park and they wore blue jerseys,4,000 spectators watched Scotland play with a 2–2–6 formation and England with a 1–1–8 line-up. Queens Park formed the Scottish Football Association on 13 March 1873, the match against Dumbreck on 25 October was the first match to be played at Hampden Park. It was also the first match which saw Queens Park players wear their black and white hooped jerseys. David Wotherspoon, a Queens Park player and committee member, has credited with the introduction of the black. Most importantly, it was the first Scottish Cup tie and Scottish competitive match for the club, in the final, Queens defeated Clydesdale 2–0 at Hampden. Success in the Scottish Cup followed in the two years with final victories over Renton and Third Lanark. In drawing 2–2 with Clydesdale in the 1875 semi-final, Queens conceded their first ever goals, defeat for the club was first experienced with a 2–1 defeat to Vale of Leven in the 5th round in December 1876. Third Lanark and Rangers eliminated the Spiders before Queens reclaimed the cup in 1880 with a win over Thornliebank, Dumbarton were beaten in the final in successive years. In 1881, Queens had to them twice after Dumbarton successfully appealed that the crowd at Kinning Park had encroached following a 2–1 defeat. Dumbarton got revenge in 1883 but Queens won again in 1884 without even having to play the final after Vale of Leven refused to play on the date stipulated by the SFA, in the early days of Englands FA Cup, Scottish clubs were often invited to compete
Vale of Leven F.C.
Vale of Leven Football Club are an association club based in the town of Alexandria, Scotland, in the Vale of Leven area of West Dunbartonshire. Nicknamed the Vale and formed in 1939, they play at Millburn Park and they play in the Scottish Junior Football Association, West Region, and wear blue and white strips. In the early days of Scottish football, Vale of Leven, Vale won the Scottish Cup three times in succession. In 1878 they travelled down to England and beat the FA Cup winners, The Wanderers, the Wanderers had the advantage that the game was played under the English throw-in rule, but the Vales Scottish passing game proved superior to the English game of individual dribbling. The club also won the Celtic Society Cup in shinty in 1879, Vale of Leven was a founder member of the Scottish Football League when it was formed in 1890. By this time, the club was being eclipsed by the stars from Glasgow. In their second season failed to win a single game. Rather than face re-election for the time, the club withdrew. Between 1893 and 1902 the Vale played only friendly matches and in cup competition before joining the Scottish Football Combination, in 1905 they applied successfully for readmission to the Scottish League when the Second Division was extended with two additional places. They finished as runners-up in 1907 and in 1909 but did not receive the votes they needed to be elected to the First Division, as the following decade wore on, Vale of Leven struggled and regularly finished near the foot of the table. When the Second Division was suspended in 1915, Vale joined the Western League, after World War I ended Vale of Leven returned to the Scottish League for the third time as members of the reformed Second Division. After a decent fourth-place finish in their first season, the club was relegated to the new Third Division in 1924 and this ill-fated competition was abandoned in 1926 when it became clear that the cost of meeting match guarantees and additional travel expenses were beyond the means of its members. Despite the church name, Vale Ocoba appeared to be a flag of convenience for the Vale of Leven Football & Athletic Club struck off the SFAs roll. Original club colours, Dark blue shirts, dark blue shorts, disaster struck however when the start of World War II obliged the league to be suspended due to restrictions on travel by December 1939. Technically, the current club is unattached to the senior club. Scottish Junior football has a number of clubs that were forced to fold as Senior sides due to financial reasons or as a result of the collapse of the old Scottish Division Three in the late 1920s. This is more prevalent on the West Coast where no non-amateur Senior league exists any longer, the most recent example of this trend has been the former Junior turned Senior turned Junior again side Clydebank. Vale of Leven should not be confused with the slightly differently named East of Scotland League club Vale of Leithen
Third Lanark A.C.
Third Lanark Athletic Club was a football club that existed for 95 years between 1872 and 1967, in Glasgow, Scotland. Third Lanark was known as Thirds, the Warriors, the Redcoats, the fans invariably started to sing Hi Hi Hi. as a battle cry to encourage the team to victory during the clubs matches. There was a house called The Hi Hi Bar at the southern end of Crown Street in the Gorbals area of Glasgow. One of the successful clubs in early Scottish Football, Third Lanark was not the first major club to be compulsorily liquidated and dissolved. Former Scottish Cup winners Renton and near neighbours Vale of Leven suffered similar fates and it was refounded in 1996 with forming Under-18s were formed by Jim Weir. Finally Third Lanark fielded a team, in 2007, to coincide with the 40th anniversary of Third Lanark’s withdrawal from Senior Scottish football. Third Lanark started as the team of the Third Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers. The team was founded on 12 December 1872 at a meeting of the Third Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers in the Regimental Orderly Room in Howard Street. The soldiers, inspired by the first ever international friendly which had taken two weeks previously, decided to form their own team. Several of the Scotland team in match, made up solely of Queens Park players, had been part of the regiment, including Billy Dickson, Billy MacKinnon. A later meeting decided that the kit should be, A cowl – one end blue, the other yellow. Blue trousers or knickerbockers with blue stockings, the players used an old drill field on Victoria Road to train. The club was a member of the Scottish Football League. The name was changed to Third Lanark AC in 1903, when links with the military were severed. The club won the Scottish League championship in 1903–04, as well as the Scottish Cup in 1889 and 1905, the last day of the 1960–61 season saw Third Lanark reach a historic landmark. The club beat Hibernian 6–1 at Cathkin Park to reach 100 goals for the season, the following season saw Thirds take part in European competition for the first and only time when they faced Rouen of France home and away in the Anglo-Franco-Scottish Friendship Cup. Rouen won 4–0 at Cathkin on 7 November 1961 and 2–1 in France on 9 May 1962, only four years after that successful 1960–61 season, the clubs terminal agony began. There followed another two seasons of mediocrity and discontent, Third Lanark recorded their lowest-ever home League attendance of 297 spectators on 15 April 1967 for the visit of Clydebank
Kilmarnock Football Club, commonly known as Killie, is a Scottish football team based in the town of Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire. Lee McCulloch is the manager of the side, after Lee Clark left in February 2017. The club has won many honours since its formation in 1869, the club is also one of only a few Scottish clubs to have played in all three European competitions. Killie is the oldest football club in the Scottish Premiership, and are also the oldest professional club in the country, home matches are played at Rugby Park, an 17,889 capacity all seater stadium situated in the town itself. Kilmarnock took part in the first ever match in the Scottish Cup against the now defunct Renton in 1873. On 5 January 1869 the club was founded during a meeting at Robertsons Temperance Hotel on Portland Street. Originally they played a more similar to rugby and these origins are reflected to this day by the name of the clubs home ground – Rugby Park. The difficulty in organising fixtures under this code and the influence of Queens Park soon persuaded them to adopt the association code instead. At this time, the club played games in a number locations including Holm Quarry, the Grange on Irvine Road, furthermore, Kilmarnock sent a letter stating their willingness to form the Scottish Football Association. Kilmarnock also competed in the inaugural Scottish Cup tournament in 1873–74 and their 2–0 defeat against Renton in the First Round on 18 October 1873 is thought to have been the first match ever played in the competition. Kilmarnock joined the Scottish League in 1895 and after winning consecutive Second Division titles were elected to the top flight for the first time in 1899, in 1920 Kilmarnock won the Scottish Cup for the first time beating Albion Rovers at Hampden. This was followed soon by their success in 1929 where the beat massive favourites Rangers 2–0 at the national stadium in front of a crowd of 114,708 people. The clubs greatest success was in 1965 under the management of Willie Waddell, on the final day of the season, they travelled to face Hearts at Tynecastle requiring a victory by two goals to nil to win the league at their opponents expense. A memorable 2–0 win saw Kilmarnock crowned Scottish League champions for the first and this capped a period of tremendous consistency which had seen them occupy runners-up spot in four of the previous five seasons. The club is one of only a few Scottish clubs to have played in all three European competitions. Kilmarnock reached the 2007 Scottish League Cup Final, but suffered a 5–1 defeat in the final by Hibernian, after selling Steven Naismith to Rangers for a club-record fee in August 2007, Killie struggled in the 2007–08 Scottish Premier League, finishing in 11th place with 40 points. In January 2010, Kilmarnock were second bottom of the 2009–10 Scottish Premier League, on 11 January 2010, Jim Jefferies left the club by mutual consent and Jimmy Calderwood was appointed manager. Kilmarnock then achieved a first win in nine years against Celtic, continued poor form, however, meant a final day showdown at Rugby Park with Falkirk for SPL survival
The Football Association
The Football Association, also known simply as the FA, is the governing body of association football in England, and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is the oldest football association in the world and is responsible for overseeing all aspects of the amateur, the FA sanctions all competitive football matches within its remit at national level, and indirectly at local level through the County Football Associations. It runs numerous competitions, the most famous of which is the FA Cup, the FA is a member of both UEFA and FIFA and holds a permanent seat on the International Football Association Board which is responsible for the laws of the game. As the first football association, it not use the national name English in its title. The FA is based at Wembley Stadium, London, the FA is a member of the British Olympic Association, meaning that the FA has control over the mens and womens Great Britain Olympic football team. All of Englands professional football teams are members of the Football Association, although it does not run the day-to-day operations of the Premier League, it has veto power over the appointment of the League Chairman and Chief Executive and over any changes to league rules. The English Football League, made up of the three professional divisions below the Premier League, is self-governing, subject to the FAs sanctions. Another set of rules, the Sheffield Rules, was used by a number of clubs in the North of England from the 1850s, eleven London football clubs and schools representatives met on 26 October 1863 to agree on common rules. The founding clubs present at the first meeting were Barnes, Civil Service, Crusaders, Forest of Leytonstone, many of these clubs are now defunct or play rugby union. Civil Service FC, who now plays in the Southern Amateur League, is the one of the original eleven football clubs still in existence. There are only three institutions which have been members of the F. A. since 1863, those being Civil Service, Forest School and Kings College. Central to the creation of the Football Association and modern football was Ebenezer Cobb Morley and he was a founding member of the Football Association in 1863. In 1862, as captain of Barnes, he wrote to Bells Life newspaper proposing a governing body for the sport led to the first meeting at The Freemasons Tavern that created the FA. He was the FAs first secretary and its president and drafted the Laws of the Game generally called the London Rules at his home in Barnes. As a player, he played in the first ever match in 1863, the first version of the rules for the modern game was drawn up over a series of six meetings held in The Freemasons Tavern from October till December. Of the clubs at the first meeting, Crusaders, Surbiton and Charterhouse did not attend the subsequent meetings, replaced instead by the Royal Navy School, Wimbledon School, at the final meeting, F. M. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA, the term soccer dates back to this split to refer to football played under the association rules. The Richmond side were obviously unimpressed by the new rules in practice because they helped form the Rugby Football Union in 1871
Scotland national football team manager
The role of a Scotland national football team manager was first established in May 1954, when Andy Beattie was appointed. Beattie took charge of six matches before and during the 1954 FIFA World Cup, twenty-two men have occupied the post since its inception, with Beattie and Jock Stein occupying it in two different spells. Five of those managers were in caretaker or interim roles, Craig Brown held the position for the longest to date, a tenure of 9 years, comprising two major tournaments and a total of 71 matches. No manager has progressed beyond the first group stage of a major competition, Beattie, Walker, Willie Ormond, Ally MacLeod, Stein, Ferguson, Andy Roxburgh and Brown have all managed the team at major competitions. Ian McColl, Ormond and MacLeod all won the British Home Championship outright, the team has not qualified for a major competition since 1998. Walter Smith and Alex McLeish achieved better results, with the ranking improving to a high of 13 in October 2007. George Burley and Craig Levein both had worse results with the team and were eventually sacked, Levein was replaced on a caretaker basis by Billy Stark, before Gordon Strachan was named as Leveins permanent replacement in January 2013. The Scotland manager has sole responsibility for all elements of the Scotland team. Among other activities, this includes selecting the team squad. The manager has input in selecting the coaching staff, for example, in 2008 manager George Burley helped to recruit Terry Butcher, a former teammate at Ipswich Town, as his assistant. The Scotland manager may also involve himself in wider issues beyond the on-the-field team issues, in the period before a manager was appointed, the team was picked by the international selection committee of the Scottish Football Association. This committee was made up of officials from Scottish clubs, who had responsibility for picking their own sides, there were large inconsistencies in selection, however, and players were often picked without some or all of the selectors having watched them play. The process of appointing a new Scotland manager is undertaken by the main SFA board, after a review was conducted by former First Minister of Scotland Henry McLeish, the SFA board structure was streamlined considerably in 2011. Professional game and non-professional game boards govern their respective areas of football, there are seven members on the main board, consisting of four SFA office bearers, one representative each from the professional game and non-professional game boards and one independent member. As of September 2013, these positions are occupied by Stewart Regan, Campbell Ogilvie, Alan MacRae, Rod Petrie, Peter Lawwell, the non-professional game position is presently vacant. All but one of the 22 people to manage Scotland had played the game professionally, the exception is Dawson Walker, who was placed in interim charge of the team while Matt Busby was recovering from the effects of the Munich air disaster. Of the 21 Scotsmen to hold the post of manager, ten were never capped for the senior Scotland team as a player, of the 11 that played for Scotland, six earned at least 10 caps, McColl, Docherty, McLeish, Burley, Levein and Strachan. Four also served as Scotland captains, Docherty, McLeish, Levein, Berti Vogts, the only foreign manager to hold the post, earned 96 caps for West Germany and was part of their 1974 World Cup winning side
There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were at first made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire, nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not Head of state, occasionally, honorary appointees are, incorrectly, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bill Gates or Bob Geldof, for example. In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War, when first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was divided into Military. The Orders motto is For God and the Empire, at the foundation of the Order, the Medal of the Order of the British Empire was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the British Empire Medal, in addition, the BEM is awarded by the Cook Islands and by some other Commonwealth nations. The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, and appoints all members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three, Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales, Queen Mary, and the current Grand Master, the Duke of Edinburgh. The Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross,845 Knights and Dames Commander, and 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the number of members of the fourth and fifth classes. Foreign recipients, as members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, and so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, and second-lowest of knighthood. Because of this, Dame Commander is awarded in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor, for example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges become Knights Bachelor. The Order has six officials, the Prelate, the Dean, the Secretary, the Registrar, the King of Arms, the Bishop of London, a senior bishop in the Church of England, serves as the Orders Prelate. The Dean of St Pauls is ex officio the Dean of the Order, the Orders King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, as are many other heraldic officers. From time to time, individuals are appointed to a higher grade within the Order, thereby ceasing usage of the junior post-nominal letters
Scotland national football B team
The Scotland national football B team, controlled by the Scottish Football Association, is run occasionally as a second team for the Scotland national football team. During the period when Berti Vogts was manager of the national team, a national B team is designed to give games to players who are being considered for call-up to the full national squad. Generally, the plays in friendly matches against other international B teams. These games are played at smaller venues than the full national team play at. The team is sometimes referred to as the Scotland Future team. The team competed in the Futures Cup in 2002–03 and 2005–06, since the end of the 2005–06 Future Cup, there have been four official B internationals played by Scotland. The first Scotland B game was held on 11 November 1952 and was a 0–0 draw with France B in Toulouse, as of May 2013, the Scotland B side have played 27 games. The most recent match was against Northern Ireland on 6 May 2009, the squad selection was restricted by two Scottish Premier League games being scheduled for the following day, and an upcoming Old Firm match. George Boyd was added to the squad after his eligibility to play for Scotland was confirmed, six players withdrew from the original squad and four players were added to fill the gaps left behind. Scotland B won the match 3–0 thanks to goals by Andy Webster, George Boyd, Scottish FA - Futures Team ScottishFA. co. uk. Contains full results archive Scotland B Team fitbastats. com
Scotland national under-21 football team
As a European under-21 team, Scotland compete in the UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship, which is usually held every other year. The team has qualified for the stages of these Championships on six occasions. There is no global tournament for national teams. Performance in the European Championship determines qualification for football at the Summer Olympics, Scotland played under-23 international matches, mainly friendlies against England and Wales, from 1955 until 1975. Scotland first entered the UEFA competition for national teams in 1975–76. Scotland reached the quarter-finals, but were eliminated on a penalty shootout by the Netherlands, an under-21 team then came into existence, replacing the under-23 team, when UEFA reduced the age limit. Scotland under-21s have reached the last four of the European tournament three times, while appearing in the finals on three other occasions. The team qualified for the 1992 Summer Olympics and 1996 Summer Olympics, similar to the full national side, however, the under-21 team has not qualified for a finals tournament since the late 1990s. The under-21 team reached the round for the 2004 and 2011 tournaments. *Denotes draws include knockout matches decided by a penalty shootout, bronze background color indicates third or fourth-place finish. Archie Knox left his post as Scotlands National Youth Teams Coach on 30 August 2007 to take up a full-time with Bolton Wanderers as coaching co-ordinator, Maurice Malpas took temporary charge. In January 2008 the SFA appointed a new coach in Billy Stark. Stark resigned from the position in November 2014, as of 16,59,27 March 2017 Note, Club represents the permanent clubs during the players time in the Under-21 team. Those players in bold are still eligible to play for the team at the moment, as of 17,01,27 March 2017 Note, Club represents the permanent clubs during the players time in the Under-21s. Those players in bold are still eligible to play for the team at the moment, the team is for players born in the year 21 years before the starting year of each tournament. As each tournament normally takes two years to complete, players can continue to play for the team after their 22nd birthday. For example, Theo Walcott was eligible to play for England under-21s in the 2011 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship. As long as they are eligible, players can play at any level, making it possible to play for the under-21s, senior side and it is now also possible to play for one country at youth level and another country at senior level
Scotland national under-19 football team
The team, which is controlled by the Scottish Football Association, acts as a feeder team to the Scotland national football team. Scotlands best performance at a European Championship Finals occurred in 1982, beating Czechoslovakia 3–1 in the final, the team was then managed by Andy Roxburgh and Walter Smith, who would both go on to manage the senior side. Scotland defeated rivals England in the round and finished top of Group 4. In the semi-finals, Scotland beat Poland 2–0, Scotland reached the semi-finals of the 1978 tournament, where they lost on penalties to Yugoslavia. Scotland topped Group two – which included Germany and Italy – to qualify for the semi-final, having beaten Denmark in the qualifying round. Scotland were also runners-up in 2006 when, under the guidance of manager Archie Gemmill and coach Tommy Wilson and this performance guaranteed Scotlands participation at the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, representing their first appearance for 20 years. In the 2007 tournament, Scotland qualified top of a group including Bosnia-Herzegovina, Estonia, the matches were played in early-October. Scotland won all three games which ensured qualification to the round of qualification along with Germany, which is the second qualifying round. For the elite round of the 2009 tournament Scotland played Slovakia, Bosnia, under the guidance of Billy Stark, the young Scots earned 2–1 and 3–0 victories against Slovakia and Bosnia respectively. However, they lost out to hosts, England, in the last game by 2–1, for the elite round of the 2010 tournament Scotland had a disappointing campaign. They got off to a start, beating Montenegro, however defeats to Belgium and hosts Croatia followed. Draws also include penalty shootouts, regardless of the outcome, the following players were named in the squad for 2017 UEFA European Under-19 Championship qualification matches in October 2016. Uefa Under-19 website Contains full results archive
Scotland national under-17 football team
The team represents Scotland in international Under-17 competitions such as the European Championship. The team has qualified for two European Championship final tournaments, in 2008 and 2014, the team achieved its best result in 2014 by progressing to the semi-final. As of April 2014, the squad was coached by Scot Gemmill, the team used to be coached by Dean Gorre. Steven Pressley took temporary control of the team in October 2015, *Draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks. The following players were selected for the 2016 UEFA European Under-17 Championship in Azerbaijan, the following players were selected for the 2016 UEFA European Under-17 Football Championship qualifiers. Scotland national football team Scotland national under-21 football team SFA UEFA Under-17 website
Scotland women's national football team
The Scotland womens national football team represents Scotland in international womens football competitions. Since 1998, the team has been governed by the Scottish Football Association, Scotland has never participated in the FIFA Womens World Cup, but qualified for their first UEFA Womens Euro in 2017. The team is currently ranked 21st in the FIFA Womens World Rankings, church documents recorded women playing football in Carstairs, Lanarkshire, in 1628. Scotland first played an international match in May 1881. Womens football struggled for recognition during this period and was banned by the football authorities in 1921. Club sides who were interested in using their grounds for football were subsequently denied permission by the Scottish Football Association. The sport continued on a basis until the 1970s, when the ban was lifted. In 1971 UEFA instructed its members to control of womens football within their territories. The motion was passed 31–1, but Scotland was the member to vote against it. Football in Scotland has traditionally seen as a working class. Scotlands first official match, a 3–2 defeat to England, took place in November 1972, the team was managed by Rab Stewart. The 1921 ban on football was lifted in 1974. The SFA assumed direct responsibility for Scottish womens football in 1998, Scotland have participated in most international competitions since the ban was removed. The teams standing has improved significantly in recent years, reaching a high of 19th place in the FIFA Womens World Rankings in March 2014. They reached their first major tournament finals when they qualified for UEFA Womens Euro 2017, *Draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks. Scotland womens internationals have been televised by BBC Alba and broadcast by BBC Radio Scotland, BBC Radio Scotland presenter Tam Cowan was temporarily taken off the air in 2013, after he criticised the use of Fir Park for womens internationals in his Daily Record column. This is due to a preponderance of stupid male journalists, according to Montgomery, the first official match played by the Scotland womens team was hosted by the Ravenscraig Stadium, an athletics facility in Greenock. The team now plays its home games at club stadiums
Scottish Professional Football League
The Scottish Professional Football League is the national mens association football league in Scotland. The league was formed in June 2013 following a merger between the Scottish Premier League and the Scottish Football League, a Scottish football league system was first created in 1890, when the Scottish Football League was formed. Traditionally the league had a two divisional structure between which clubs were promoted and relegated at the end of each season. By the mid-1970s, this organisation was perceived to be stagnant and this system came into force for the 1975–76 season. This setup continued until the 1994–95 season, when a four divisional structure was introduced, along with a new Third Division, with all four divisions consisting of ten clubs. On 8 September 1997, the Premier Division clubs decided to split from the Scottish Football League and form the Scottish Premier League, following the example of the English Premier League. This decision was fuelled by a desire by the top clubs in Scotland to control more of the revenue generated by the game, SFL revenues had been divided proportionally between clubs in all four divisions. The SPL clubs retained all of its revenues, except for an annual payment to the SFL. A review, led by former First Minister of Scotland Henry McLeish, was conducted by the Scottish Football Association, McLeish recommended that Scottish football should have a single league body and that the top flight should be reduced to 10 clubs. The proposal to change the top flight numbers did not proceed because of opposition from four SPL clubs, talks continued about the proposed league merger. A proposal for a merged league body with a 12–12–18 structure was advanced in April 2013 and this plan failed when two SPL clubs voted against. The SPL clubs unanimously agreed a merger plan a few weeks later. The SFL submitted a counter-proposal allowing for more revenues to be given to third and fourth tier clubs, but this was rejected by the SPL, an indicative vote of SFL clubs in May suggested that the SPL plan would be formally rejected. Some of the First Division clubs threatened to break away from the SFL, the SPL suggested it would welcome the First Division clubs if they decided to leave the SFL. A formal vote of SFL clubs was taken on 12 June,23 clubs voted in favour, one more than was needed for the proposal to succeed. The merger was agreed on 28 June and football was first played under the new structure in the 2013–14 season. On 24 July 2013 the names of the four SPFL divisions were announced – Scottish Premiership, Scottish Championship, Scottish League One, the SPFL is operated as a corporation and is owned by the 42 member clubs. Each club is a shareholder, with each having a vote on such as rule changes
The term referee originated in association football. Originally the team captains would consult each other in order to resolve any dispute on the pitch. Eventually this role was delegated to an umpire, each team would bring their own partisan umpire allowing the team captains to concentrate on the game. Later, the referee, a neutral official was added. The referee did not take his place on the pitch until 1891, in this case, the role of the linesmen is limited to indicating out of play and cannot decide off side. An umpire is an official in the sport of Australian rules football, games are overseen by one to three field umpires, two to four boundary umpires, and two goal umpires. A game of bandy is officiated by a referee, the authority and enforcer of the rules, the referee may be assisted by one or two assistant referees. On any question, the umpire has the final call. In international basketball and in basketball, the referee is the lead official in a game. In the National Basketball Association, the official is referred to by the term crew chief. In boxing a referee is the person who enforces the rules during the fight, in cricket, the match referee is an off-field official who makes judgements concerning the reputable conduct of the game and hands out penalties for breaches of the ICC Cricket Code of Conduct. On-field decisions relevant to the play and outcome of the game itself are handled by two umpires, although an off-field third umpire may help with certain decisions. In cue sports, such as billiards and snooker, matches are presided over by a referee, the referee will determine all matters of fact relating to the rules, maintain fair playing conditions, call fouls, and take other action as required by these rules. A commissaire is an official in competitive cycling, a fencing match is presided over by a referee. An umpire in field hockey is a person with the authority to make decisions on a field in accordance with the laws of the game. Each match is controlled by two umpires, where it is typical for umpires to aid one another and correct each other when necessary. Referees for international events are trained by the International Skating Union, there are two levels of referee, International Referee and ISU Referee, with ISU Referees ranking higher. In Synchronized Ice Skating, there are two Referees, one, sits with the Judges as with ordinary competition and operates a touch screen computer, inputing deductions and marking the skaters
The Celtic Football Club is a professional football club based in Glasgow, Scotland, which plays in the Scottish Premiership. The club was founded in 1887 with the purpose of alleviating poverty in the immigrant Irish population in the East End of Glasgow and they played their first match in May 1888, a friendly match against Rangers which Celtic won 5–2. Celtic established itself within Scottish football, winning six league titles during the first decade of the 20th century. The club enjoyed their greatest successes during the 1960s and 70s under Jock Stein when they won nine league titles. Celtic have won the Scottish League Championship on 48 occasions, most recently in the 2016–17 season, the Scottish Cup 36 times, Celtic also reached the 1970 European Cup Final, and the 2003 UEFA Cup Final. Celtic have a fierce rivalry with Rangers, and the clubs have become known as the Old Firm. The two clubs have dominated Scottish football, winning 102 league titles between them since the inception of the Scottish League in 1890. The clubs fanbase was estimated in 2003 as being around nine million worldwide, an estimated 80,000 fans travelled to Seville for the 2003 UEFA Cup Final. The club has the nickname, The Bhoys. However, according to the Celtic press office, the established club was known to many as the bold boys. A postcard from the early 20th century that pictured the team, the extra h imitates the spelling system of Gaelic, wherein the letter b is often accompanied by the letter h. On 28 May 1888, Celtic played their first official match against Rangers, Neil McCallum scored Celtics first ever goal. Celtics first kit consisted of a shirt with a green collar, black shorts. The original club crest was a green cross on a red oval background. In 1889 Celtic reached the final of the Scottish Cup, this was their first season in the competition, Celtic again reached the final of the Scottish Cup in 1892, but this time were victorious after defeating Queens Park 5–1 in the final, the clubs first major honour. Several months later the moved to its new ground, Celtic Park. In 1895, Celtic set the League record for the highest home score when they beat Dundee 11–0, in 1897, the club became a Private limited company and Willie Maley was appointed as the first secretary-manager. Between 1905 and 1910, Celtic won the Scottish League Championship six times in a row, in both 1907 and 1908 Celtic also won the Scottish Cup, this was the first time a Scottish club had ever won the Double
It is one of three SPFL clubs in the city, the others being their Edinburgh derby rivals Hearts and Edinburgh City. Hibernian was founded in 1875 by Irish immigrants, but support for the club is now based on rather than ethnicity or religion. The Irish heritage of Hibernian is still reflected, however, in its name, colours, the name of the club is usually shortened to Hibs. The team are also called The Hibees and The Cabbage, a shortening of the slang for Hibs of Cabbage and Ribs, by fans of the club. Home matches are played at the Easter Road stadium, in use since 1893, Hibernian have played in the second tier of the Scottish football league system, known as the Scottish Championship, since being relegated in 2014. Hibernian have won the Scottish league championship four times, most recently in 1952, three of those four championships were won between 1948 and 1952, when the club had the services of The Famous Five, a notable forward line. The club have won the Scottish Cup three times, in 1887,1902 and 2016, Hibs have also won the Scottish League Cup three times, in 1972,1991 and 2007. The club was founded in 1875 by Irishmen from the Cowgate area of Edinburgh, the name is derived from Hibernia, the Roman name for Ireland. James Connolly, the famous Irish Republican leader, was a Hibs fan, there was some sectarian resistance initially to an Irish club participating in Scottish football, but Hibs established themselves as a force in Scottish football in the 1880s. Hibs were the first club from the east coast of Scotland to win a major trophy and they went on to defeat Preston North End, who had won the 1887 FA Cup, in a friendly match described as the Association Football Championship of the World Decider. Mismanagement over the few years led to Hibs becoming homeless. A lease on the Easter Road site was acquired in late 1892, despite this interruption, the club today views the period since 1875 as one continued history and therefore counts the honours won between 1875 and 1891, including the 1887 Scottish Cup. The club were admitted to the Scottish Football League in 1893, a significant change at this time was that players were no longer required to be members of the Catholic Young Mens Society. Hibs are not seen today as being an Irish or Roman Catholic institution, for instance, the Irish harp was only re-introduced to the club badge when it was last re-designed in 2000. This design reflects the three pillars of the identity, Ireland, Edinburgh and Leith. Geography rather than religion is now seen as the reason for supporting Hibs. Hibs had some success after being reformed, winning the 1902 Scottish Cup, after this, however, the club endured a long barren spell. The club lost its placing in the league, and were relegated for the first time in 1931, the notorious Scottish Cup drought began as they reached three cup finals, two in consecutive years, but lost each of them
Highland Football League
The Scottish Highland Football League is a part-time professional senior football league in the north of Scotland. The league, which is the level within Scottish football, is a full member of the Scottish Football Association. It currently consists of 18 teams from the Scottish Highlands as well as the lowlands of Moray, until the reorganisation of Scottish football during the 2012–13 season, the league was historically one of the senior leagues in Scottish football. The others being the Scottish Premier League and Scottish Football League, along with the East of Scotland, since the 2014–15 season, the league is a feeder division for SPFLs Scottish League Two. The Highland Football League champions play the winners of the Lowland Football League for a chance to face the bottom club in League Two, all current league members are full members of the Scottish Football Association so qualify automatically for the following seasons first round of the Scottish Cup. The league champions and the team receive a bye into the cups second round. Since 2014, the league champion team has also gained a place in the Scottish Challenge Cup. The leagues current sponsorship deal is with the Aberdeen-based Press & Journal media group, each team in the league plays each other twice during a season – once at home, once away, for a total of 34 matches. The standard league scoring system of 3 points for a win and 1 for a draw is applied, with ties in the league table broken by goal difference. The champions are presented with the League trophy and a flag, either immediately after the match which secures the victory, as the region is prone to severe weather in winter, postponements have sometimes caused the conclusion of the season to be delayed. Various proposals which would have reduced the number of matches a team would play, were considered, instead, clubs now play both a Saturday and a Wednesday fixture most weeks from August through October, taking advantage of milder weather at the start of the season. The original league consisted of seven teams, Inverness Thistle, Caledonian, Clachnacuddin, Forres Mechanics, Inverness Union, Inverness Citadel, Ross County were an eighth original member, but resigned membership in November 1893. The inaugural champions were Inverness Thistle, of the original teams, two are still playing in the league today and two merged to become current Scottish League club Inverness Caledonian Thistle. Many of the clubs have performed well when competing against SFL clubs in the Scottish Cup. However, from the 1990s onwards, the HFL has been a victim of its own success, the league has been somewhat weakened in recent years by the departure of many former members who have subsequently joined the SFL. This happened in 1994 when Caledonian, Inverness Thistle and Ross County left and this was the state of affairs till 2000 when Elgin City and Peterhead were elected into the SFL. In 2002 Inverurie Loco Works were elected into the HFL to give it a membership of 15 clubs. In 2008, North Region Junior League sides Formartine United and Turriff United both submitted bids to join the Highland League, following in the footsteps of past Junior League side Inverurie Locos, Banks O Dee and Strathspey Thistle also applied
Lowland Football League
The Scottish Lowland Football League is a football league operating in southern and central Scotland. 16 teams currently compete in the league with teams drawn from the Scottish Lowlands area of Scotland, since 2015 it has been known as the Ferrari Packaging Lowland League for sponsorship reasons. Additionally, the bottom placed club will face relegation to the 2015–16 East of Scotland Football League or South of Scotland Football League depending on their geographical location. Consequently, it now stands at a new Level 5 on the Scottish football pyramid, on a par with the Highland League, as a creation of the Scottish Football Association, the Lowland League is a full member of the same organisation. The league would be composed of teams drawn from the South of Scotland, East of Scotland and junior leagues, who met on 17 June 2013 to elect between them the founder-members of the new league. While most clubs were invited to submit bids to join, Preston Athletic, Spartans, while 27 clubs had registered their interest, the Lowland League received 17 applications to join. Subsequent seasons have seen the number of participating clubs increase, Two clubs, Edinburgh University and BSC Glasgow, were admitted to the league for the 2014–15 season. They were joined the season by Cumbernauld Colts. Civil Service Strollers and Hawick Royal Albert joined the league in June 2016, the 2016-17 season was the first time that founding members left the league. The same season saw the first team relegated into the league from Scottish League Two – East Stirlingshire. * Team promoted to Scottish League Two, on 24 September 2013, the Scottish Sun newspaper was revealed to be the first sponsor of the league. Since 2015, the league has been sponsored by Ferrari Packaging on a two-year agreement, official website of the Lowland Football League
East of Scotland Football League
The East of Scotland Football League is a league of football teams from south-east Scotland, which was formed in 1923. The league sits at level 6 on the system, on a par with the South of Scotland Football League and is proposed to act as a feeder to the Lowland Football League. Its clubs are drawn from the Edinburgh, Lothians and Scottish Borders areas. A total of 16 teams will compete in 2015–16, drawn from the 29 members of the sister organisation and this will be subject to the club meeting the sufficient licensing criteria to satisfy the terms of promotion. In 2013, a new Lowland League was formed covering all of Scotland, teams who also joined include Dalbeattie Star and Threave Rovers, who both subsequently left to rejoin the SoSFL and then the Lowland League. While the EoSFL oversees the leagues and League Cup competitions, the East of Scotland Football Association is an independent body. Most of the sit on both bodies, and the Executive Committee is a joint organisation. The current President of the EoSFA is Morain Scott, while the President of the EoSFL is Tom Allison, the secretary of both organisations is John Greenhorn. There are 29 members of the East of Scotland Football Association, the first teams of these four members have little involvement in EoSFA competitions. Youth teams of Hearts and Hibernian contest the East of Scotland Shield, while Berwick Rangers, the first teams of the Lowland League members contest EoSFA cups. The EoSFL and EoSFA are full members of the Scottish Football Association, the EoSFLs former two-tier format was abolished for the 2015–16 season, to be replaced with a single fifteen-team division. For 2016–17, the league consists of twelve teams, knock-out tournament, with replays until the semi-Finals and final. South Challenge Cup, This competition, new from the 2007–08 season and it is a straight knock-out tournament. The King Cup, Open to all EoSFA members not playing in the SPFL, the King Cup final is traditionally the last game of the season. East of Scotland Qualifying Leagues, A new competition from the 2011–12 season, Open to all 24 EoSFA members playing in the EoSFL. A pre-season warm-up competition, these clubs are split into four groups of six, East of Scotland League Cup, Group winners and runners-up from the East of Scotland Qualifying Leagues enter this straight knock-out competition. The East of Scotland Qualifying Cup, currently sponsored by Image Printers, all 20 EoSFA members playing in the EOSFL enter. The finalists join the first teams of Berwick Rangers and Livingston in the East of Scotland Cup, the 4 EoSFA members in the national leagues used to all enter, but now the Hearts and Hibernian reserve teams contest the East of Scotland Shield - albeit intermittently
Burntisland Shipyard A.F.C.
Burntisland Shipyard Amateur Football Club are a Scottish football club based at the Recreation Ground in the town of Burntisland, Fife. This fund allowed for the establishment of a club, bowls club. The recreation club then bought a ground and built a pavilion at it to facilitate the playing of cricket in the summer months and they joined the Lothian Amateur Football League, and in 1929 they were allowed to enter the Scottish Cup at the qualifying stages. It is this fact made them notable, as they remained one of the few clubs outwith the senior ranks allowed to participate in the Scottish Cup. They were one of four clubs in this category along with Glasgow University, Golspie Sutherland, qualification for the Scottish Cup proper happened on few occasions, they first qualified in 1935–36, when they hosted Dumbarton in a first round tie. They held the league side to a creditable 2–2 draw in front of 600 fans on 25 January 1936 and they qualified for the cup once again in 1938–39, and hosted Celtic on 21 January 1939. They were defeated 8–3 in front of a crowd of 2,000 and their next qualification to the Scottish Cup was in 1994–95. They managed to defeat St Cuthbert Wanderers by a score of 6–2 in a second round tie held in Burntisland on 7 January 1995, with reorganisation of the Scottish Cup in 2007, the team were allowed to enter at the first round stage from the 2007–08 Scottish Cup. Burntisland Shipyard were admitted into the East of Scotland Football Association, Manager, Myles Allan Assistant Manager, Jason McCrindle Goalkeeper Coach, James Lock Secretary, Andrew Beveridge Treasurer, Sandra Beveridge Burntisland Shipyard Official Website
Coldstream Football Club are a Scottish football club from Coldstream in the Scottish Borders. The team plays in the East of Scotland Football League and play their matches at Home Park. The teams strip is all blue, the club was formed in 1895 and is the longest-serving member of the East of Scotland Football League. As a licensed member club of the Scottish Football Association, Coldstream are eligible to play in the Scottish Cup
Hawick Royal Albert F.C.
Hawick Royal Albert Football Club are a Scottish football club who play home matches in the town of Hawick but who train in, and source all of their players from, the Lothians. The club were founded in 1947 and competes in the Lowland Football League, before the East of Scotland League was split into two divisions, Hawick Royal Albert won it three times and finished runners-up once. The club reached the final of the Scottish Qualifying Cup South on three occasions, winning it twice, before it was abolished in 2007. Hawick Royal Albert now qualifies automatically for the Scottish Cup as a member of the Scottish Football Association, the club plays its home matches at Albert Park in Hawick and is managed by Dean Shanks. Hawick Royal Albert were formed in 1947 after breaking away from Hawick Railway F. C. who were founded a year earlier. The club name is derived from another Scottish football club, Royal Albert, who are based in Larkhall, where William Bunton, the other co-founder was Harry Weir. Royal Albert was a ship, which the club is named after. Hawick Royal Albert first competed in the Border Amateur League, which it won in the 1947–48 season, the club joined the East of Scotland Football League, a senior non-league competition for the 1953–54 season. In its first year, the club was ranked 11th from fifteen, before the season was declared null, two seasons later, the club finished runner-up behind Eyemouth United. In 1966, the applied to join Scotlands main national league competition – the Scottish Football League – when it was seeking to increase its membership by one. Hawick Royal Albert applied for election along with Gala Fairydean, remaining in the East of Scotland League, they won the competition for the first time in the 1966–67 season, and defended the title the following year. As a result of winning the league, the qualified for the Scottish Cup for the first time as a member of the Scottish Football Association. This replay match was played at Borough Briggs, the home of Elgin City FC, the following season they won 8–2 on aggregate against Tarff Rovers in the Scottish Qualifying Cup South final to qualify for the Scottish Cup again. The club went on to win two preliminary matches to reach the first round proper, losing 3–0 away to St Johnstone in January 1968. The club finished third in the East of Scotland League in 1969–70 and 1972–73, ferranti Thistle, which later became Livingston, was the club elected. In 1980 and 1981, the reached the Scottish Qualifying Cup South final in successive years, losing to Whitehill Welfare and beating Gala Fairydean respectively. In the 1987–88 season, the East of Scotland League was split into two divisions of ten clubs, the Premier Division and First Division, Hawick Royal Albert competed in the first season of the Premier Division, but finished 9th and were relegated to the First Division. From the 2007–08 season, the Scottish Qualifying Cup was abolished which was the way for non-league clubs
Linlithgow Rose F.C.
Linlithgow Rose Football Club are a Scottish junior association football club from Linlithgow, West Lothian, who play in the East Region Super League. Linlithgow also finished as runners-up in 1974,2003 and 2013, formed in 1889, their home games have been played, since 1949, at Prestonfield. With a maximum capacity of 3,500 spectators, the attendance at the ground is 3,626 for a game against Petershill. Linlithgow won the Scottish Junior Cup in 2007 against Kelty Hearts, the winning goal being scored by the town hero Mark Whyte with a header from a free-kick in the last minute of extra-time. The game was played at East End Park in front of 5,000 Rose fans, Linlithgow then won the Scottish Junior Cup again in 2010 with a second half strike from Kevin Donnelly. They also managed to win The East Of Scotland Cup in June 2010 against Musselburgh which Linlithgow won 2–1, Linlithgow finished a close second in the league to near rivals Boness United in the 2009–10 season. Due to a reform in the SFA, Linlithgow Rose took part in the 2007–08 Scottish Cup, on 24 November 2007, they beat Dalbeattie Star 1–0 in the third round thanks to a goal from Stuart McArthur in the second minute of the game. They progressed into the round where they were drawn against Queen of the South. Queen of the South won the tie 4–0, Queen of the South later progressed to the final, before losing 3–2 to Rangers. The Rose also progressed into the round of the 2007–08 Scottish Junior Cup after beating Boness United 1–0 on 1 December 2007. However they were knocked out in the next round, jim Sinnet, who was one of the most successful managers in the clubs history, resigned during the 2007–08 season. Former Dumbarton and Forfar boss Brian Fairley was later appointed as his successor, dave Baikie was appointed on 24 April 2009. Bradley replaced Baikie as manager in December 2011, over a period of 13 months, Linlithgow went on an unbeaten run of 49 games, only to lose to Auchinleck Talbot in the 2013 Scottish Junior Cup Final. The club went on to history by going undefeated for the full season of 2012–13. In January 2016, Linlithgow became the first junior team to reach the last 16 of the Scottish Cup after beating Forfar Athletic, mcGlynn resigned as manager in October 2016, with his assistant Todd Lumsden, being given the role of manager on October 21st 2016. As of 5 January 2017 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Michaels Cup, 1996–97, 1998–99, 2001–02, 2002–03, 2003–04 Brown Cup, 1964–65, 1966–67, 1974–75, 1984–85, 1994–95, 1995–96, 2001–02 Official website
Preston Athletic F.C.
Preston Athletic Football Club are a Scottish senior non-league football club based in the town of Prestonpans, East Lothian. They were formerly members of the East of Scotland Football League and were founding members of the Lowland Football League, the club are nicknamed the Panners and play their home matches at Pennypit Park. The team normally play in dark blue, founded in 1945, they were originally a junior club, only entering the senior ranks in 1994, when they joined the East of Scotland Football League. The club has ambitions of progressing to a higher level. As a full member of the Scottish Football Association, Preston are eligible to enter the Scottish Cup and they first qualified for the competition proper in 2002–03, losing 1–0 at home to Hamilton Academical in the First Round. Preston Athletic were one of five clubs to prepare an application for entry into the Scottish Football League following Gretna relinquishing their league status on 3 June 2008 and they were unsuccessful after losing out to Annan Athletic. The other unsuccessful clubs were Cove Rangers, Edinburgh City and Spartans