SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Scottish Football League

The Scottish Football League was a league featuring professional and semi-professional football clubs from Scotland. From its foundation in 1890 until the breakaway Scottish Premier League was formed in 1998, the SFL represented the top level of football in Scotland. After 1998, the SFL represented levels 2 to 4 of the Scottish football league system. In June 2013, the SFL merged with the SPL to form the Scottish Professional Football League; the SFL was associated with a title sponsor from the 1985–86 season. As this sponsor has changed over the years the league was known in turn as the Fine Fare League, B&Q League, Bell's Scottish Football League and as the Irn-Bru Scottish Football League; the SFL organised two knock-out cup competitions, the Scottish League Cup and the Scottish Challenge Cup. Organised football in Scotland began in 1873 with the formation of the Scottish Football Association. During the next 15 years or so, clubs would play friendly matches, Scottish Cup ties and local cup ties.

The Football League containing clubs from the North West and Midlands of England, was formed in 1888. This had been done in response to the professionalisation of football in England in 1885, with the regular diet of league fixtures replacing the haphazard arrangement of friendlies. Many Scottish players, known as the Scotch Professors, moved to the English league clubs to receive the high salaries on offer; this prompted Scottish clubs into thinking about forming their own league. In March 1890, the secretary of Renton wrote to thirteen other clubs inviting them to discuss the organisation of a league. All of the clubs accepted the invitation, except Clyde. Amateur club Queen's Park, who were the oldest organised club in Scotland and had played a key role in the development of football, were opposed to the league because it would lead to professionalism and eliminate many of the smaller clubs; these concerns were to prove well-founded, as six of the founder members would leave the league before 1900.

The Scottish Football League was inaugurated on 30 April 1890. The first season of competition, 1890–91, commenced with 11 clubs because St Bernard's were not elected; the eleven original clubs in membership were Abercorn, Celtic, Dumbarton, Heart of Midlothian, Renton, St Mirren, Third Lanark and Vale of Leven. Renton were expelled after five games of the 1890–91 season for playing against St Bernard's, found guilty of concealed professionalism. Renton raised an action against the SFA in the Court of Session and won, which meant that their SFA and SFL memberships were restored. In the 1890–91 season and Dumbarton were level at the top of the league on 29 points; the teams drew 2–2 in a play-off match, but no further thought had been given to separating teams by another method and the championship was shared. Goal average was introduced for the 1921–22 season and replaced by goal difference for the 1971–72 season; the league proved to be successful, in 1893 a Second Division was formed by the inclusion of a number of clubs in the Scottish Football Alliance.

Promotion was based on a ballot of clubs. The onset of World War I saw the Second Division but not the First Division being suspended, not restarting again until 1921 when the Central Football League was absorbed as a new division with automatic promotion. In 1923, the League decided to introduce a Third Division; the Western League was used as its backbone but the new set-up lasted only three years before it collapsed under heavy financial losses. From 1926 until 1946, the League reverted to two divisions with many of the third tier clubs joining the Scottish Football Alliance. Post-World War II reforms saw the League resume with three divisions, renamed'A','B' and'C' with the last section including reserve sides. In 1949, the'C' Division was expanded to two sections -- South-East; the withdrawal of the reserves from'C' Division in 1955 saw a return to two divisions with the 5 first teams in Division C being given automatic promotion. There were 18 clubs in Division A and 19 in Division B. In 1956 the divisions were renamed Division 1 and Division 2.

Clydebank were elected to Division 2 as the 20th club in 1966, but following the demise of Third Lanark in 1967, the Second Division kept operating with just 19 clubs. This change of structure split the league into three divisions, Premier and Second Divisions; this permitted more frequent fixtures between the top clubs. A new club entered Meadowbank Thistle; this three-divisional structure of 38 clubs continued until 1994. After a couple of decades, the league again reorganised, with four divisions of 10 clubs, as Inverness Caledonian Thistle and Ross County were elected to round out the league. At the same time, the SFL adopted the system of three points for a win. In 1998 the Premier Division clubs split from the league to form the Scottish Premier League; the remaining leagues, of ten clubs each, kept their names and the Premier Division was not reconstituted, leaving First and Third Divisions. Part of the agreement was that the SPL would expand to 12 clubs in 2000; the SFL took in two new members to replace the two clubs lost to the SPL.

Highland League clubs Elgin City and Peterhead were admitted, increasing the total number of clubs in the Scottish footb

Constitutional Court of Ukraine

The Constitutional Court of Ukraine is the sole body of constitutional jurisdiction in Ukraine. The Constitutional Court of Ukraine interprets the Constitution of Ukraine in terms of laws and other legal acts; the Court initiated its activity on October 18, 1996. The first Court ruling was made on May 13, 1997. On urgent matters the Constitutional Court rules within weeks, but on matters deemed less urgent it can take months. Decisions of the Constitutional Court are binding and cannot be appealed. In 2016 access to the Constitutional Court was broadened. Since all individuals and companies where there are grounds to claim that a final court judgment contradicts the Constitution can file a complaint at the court. A complaint may only be filed after all other remedies have been exhausted in the regular Ukrainian courts; the amended Constitution of Ukraine now provides for access to the Constitutional Court of Ukraine to all individuals and companies where there are grounds to claim that a final court judgment contradicts the Constitution.

A complaint may only be filed after all other remedies have been exhausted in the regular Ukrainian courts. The authority of the Constitutional Court is derived from Ukraine's Constitution - Chapter XII The Court: on the appeal of the President, no less than 45 members of the parliament, the Supreme Court of Ukraine, the Ombudsman, or the Crimean parliament, assesses the constitutionality of: laws and other legal acts of the parliament acts of the President acts of the Cabinet legal acts of the Verkhovna Rada of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea interprets the Constitution and laws of Ukraine on the appeal of the President or the Cabinet, provides opinions on the conformity with the Constitution of international treaties on the appeal of the parliament, provides an opinion on the observance of the procedure of impeachment of the President provides an opinion on the compliance of a bill on introducing amendments to the Constitution with the restrictions imposed by the Constitution; the Court's rulings are final and can not be appealed.

Laws and other legal acts, or their separate provisions, that are deemed unconstitutional, lose legal force. The Court is composed of 18 judges, appointed in equal shares by the President, the parliament, the Congress of Judges. A judge must be a citizen of Ukraine and must have: attained the age of forty; the President and parliament are required to fill a vacant position within one month and the Congress of judges has three months to do so. But the appointment comes into effect only after oath of the new judge in the parliament; the Chairman of the Court is elected by secret ballot for a single three-year term from and by the members of the Court. The current Chairman, Anatoliy Holovin. In the 2000s attempts to bribe and blackmail Constitutional Court judges in order to get a favourable ruling were reported. President's quota: Volodymyr Kampo since August 4, 2006 Dmytro Lylak since August 4, 2006 Viktor Shyshkin since August 4, 2006 Yurij Baulin since June 3, 2007 Sergij Vdovichenko since June 3, 2007 Yurij Nikitin since June 3, 2007 Parliament's quota:Dismissed in 2014 Congress of judges' quota: Vasyl Bryntsev since August 4, 2006 Vyacheslav Dzhun' since August 4, 2006 Anatoliy Didkivskyy since August 4, 2006 Ivan Dombrovskyy since August 4, 2006.

Stated: The associated explanatory report under the sub-heading of Pressure on the courts expressed concern that In emphasis the report stated On April 30, on the eve of the Constitutional Court's ruling on the legality of the president's decree dismissing Ukraine's parliament, President Yushchenko, in defiance of the PACE resolution of April 19 intervened in the operation of Ukraine's Constitutional Court by summarily dismissing two Constitutional Court Judges, Syuzanna Stanik and Valeriy Pshenychnyy, for allegations of "oath treason." His move was overturned by the Constitutional Court and the judges were returned by a temporary restraining order iss

Del Mar station

Del Mar is an at-grade light rail station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located off of Del Mar Boulevard between Raymond Avenue and Arroyo Parkway in Pasadena, California; the station is served by the Gold Line and is situated next to the historic Pasadena Amtrak/Santa Fe Depot building. This station features; this station has a parking lot with 290 reserved paid parking spaces and an open bike room with 26 bike spaces. As of 2015, the bike room has not been well-maintained and many of the racks are damaged or broken. Situated on the southern edge of Old Town Pasadena, Del Mar Station features the original Pasadena Santa Fe Depot and is home to many condos and apartments, it is one of the Gold Line stations near the Rose Parade route on Colorado Boulevard and is used by people coming to see the parade and UCLA Football games at the Rose Bowl. During the 2028 Summer Olympics, the station will serve spectators traveling to and from the Rose Bowl. Gold Line service hours are from 5:00 AM until 12:15 AM daily.

Art Center College of Design – via ARTS Bus Line 51 Central Park Los Angeles Music Academy Old Town Pasadena Shopping and Dining District Pasadena Antique Center Pasadena Center and Civic Auditorium Pasadena Ice Skating Rink Pasadena Humane Society & SPCA Santa Fe Depot Metro Local: 177, 256, 260, 686, 687 Metro Express: 501 Metro Rapid: 762 Pasadena ARTS: 10, 20, 51, 52 Los Angeles County Metro Rail Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority Los Angeles Metro Rail rolling stock Media related to Del Mar station at Wikimedia Commons Station home page