National Museum of Flight
The National Museum of Flight is Scotland's national aviation museum, at East Fortune Airfield, just south of the village of East Fortune, Scotland. It is one of the museums within National Museums Scotland; the museum is housed in the original wartime buildings of RAF East Fortune, a well preserved World War II airfield. As a result of this the entire site is a scheduled ancient monument with no permanent structures added by the museum; the hangars, control tower and stores were designated as Category B listed buildings by Historic Scotland, but this designation was removed in 2013 as they were covered by the stricter scheduling. The collections date back to 1909 when the Royal Scottish Museum acquired Percy Pilcher's Hawk glider; this was the first aircraft collected by any museum in the United Kingdom. The same year the museum acquired models of the Wright Model A and Blériot XI. During the early 1920s several aero engines were added to the collection, including a 1910 33 hp Wright engine donated by Orville Wright.
In 1968 a Slingsby Gull sailplane was acquired. In 1971 the museum was given a Supermarine Spitfire XVI by the Ministry of Defence; this was stored in a hangar at East Fortune. The following year a Hawker Sea Hawk, de Havilland Sea Vampire and de Havilland Sea Venom were received from RNAS Lossiemouth; the growth in the aircraft collection led to the decision to open a Museum of Flight at East Fortune, with the public admitted for the first time on 7 July 1975. The displays included several aircraft on loan, including de Havilland Dragon Rapide, BA Swallow and Fairey Delta 2 WG774. In 1979 a temporary exhibition about the R34 airship was mounted, followed by Fighters of the RFC and RAF, 1914 to 1940 the following year; the 1981 temporary exhibition was The Flight of Rudolf Hess 1941. The museum expanded in 1981 as a result of the sale by auction of much of the Strathallan Collection of aircraft; the museum purchased five aircraft. Of these, the Cygnet and Provost were the first aircraft to make their final flights to join the museum.
That same year, the de Havilland Comet flew in to the museum, as did the Avro Vulcan in 1984. Another significant expansion took place with the donation of much of the British Airways Collection of aircraft in 2006; this collection was displayed at the Royal Air Force Museum Cosford. The museum acquired the BAC 1-11, Vickers Viscount, Boeing 707 forward fuselage and Hawker Siddeley Trident cockpit. Visitors are able to look into the flight deck of the Trident; this is in addition to walking through the de Havilland Comet and Jetstream 31 fuselage which were in the museum collections. A £3.6 million project, completed in 2016, installed heating and insulation for the first time to two hangars that were built in 1940. The museum collections have expanded into one of the most important in the UK, covering all aspects of aviation including military and recreational; the museum is significant in that it is the only UK national museum still collecting the history of commercial aviation. This resulted in the museum putting their Boeing 707 fuselage section on display from April 2010, with a collection of BOAC crew and passenger artefacts, including a 1960s stewardess uniform.
A list of the aircraft in the collection is given on the museum website. The aircraft on display are: Aero S-103, Czechoslovakian licence-built version of the MiG-15 Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde G-BOAA; this is displayed as "Scotland's Concorde" and is the focus of "The Concorde Experience" which opened on 16 March 2005 Armstrong Whitworth Meteor NF.14, operated by the Ferranti Flying Unit at Edinburgh Airport Avro Anson C.19 Avro Vulcan B.2A which carried out two of the Operation Black Buck missions during the Falklands War BAC 1-11 in British Airways livery Beagle Terrier Beech 18, in Loganair livery Boeing 707 forward fuselage in BOAC livery, the centrepiece of "The Jet Age" exhibition Bristol Beaufighter TF. X, under restoration Bristol Fairchild Bolingbroke British Aerospace Jetstream 31 Britten-Norman Islander de Havilland Comet 4C in Dan-Air livery de Havilland Dove in Civil Aviation Authority Flying Unit livery. de Havilland Dragon de Havilland Puss Moth de Havilland Sea Venom de Havilland Tiger Moth Druine Turbulent English Electric Canberra forward fuselage English Electric Lightning F.2A Ferranti Phoenix UAV General Aircraft Cygnet, flown twice by Guy Gibson, leader of the Dambusters Raid Hawker Siddeley Harrier, the oldest surviving Harrier Hawker Siddeley Trident 1C cockpit section Hawker Sea Hawk Ikarus C42 G-SJEN Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet rocket fighter, the fastest aircraft of World War II Miles M.18 Montgomerie-Parsons two-seat autogyro Panavia Tornado F.3 Piper Comanche G-ATOY Myth Too, flown round the world twice by Sheila Scott Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer SEPECAT Jaguar Katrina Jane Spartan Cruiser III forward fuselage Supermarine Spitfire XVI Vickers Viscount, in British European Airways liveryIn addition the museum has a large collection of hang-gliders and sailplanes, but none of these are on display.
The rest of the collections, only some of which are on display, include: a large number of aero engines aircraft parts avionics (including radars built by Ferranti i
Duff House is a Georgian estate house in Banff, Scotland. Now in the care of Historic Scotland, it is part of the National Galleries of Scotland and is a Category A listed building; the house is built of ashlar in three storeys to a square plan on a raised basement with advanced corner towers. The house and the associated Fife gates, walled garden, Collie lodge, ice house, Bridge Gates House and the Eagles Gate lodge are designated as Category A listed group of buildings. Duff House was built between 1735 and 1740 for William Duff of Braco, it was intended to have flanking pavilions linked by colonnaded quadrants but these were never completed. David Bryce Junior was commissioned to provide a 3-storey pavilion and corridor block, but this was damaged by a bomb in 1941 and subsequently demolished; the Earls of Fife moved out of Duff House in 1903, gifting the property to Banff Burgh in 1906. Since Duff House has been in turn a palm court hotel, a sanatorium, a prisoner of war camp and a barracks but still sits in a designed landscape, albeit with addition of a golf course.
Since 1995 it has been part of the National Galleries of Scotland. Duff House website
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
Heart of Midlothian F.C.
Heart of Midlothian Football Club known as Hearts, is a Scottish professional football club based in the Gorgie area of Edinburgh, that plays in the Scottish Premiership, the top tier in Scottish football. Hearts are the oldest football club in the Scottish capital, as they were formed in 1874 by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly, whose name was influenced by Walter Scott's novel The Heart of Midlothian; the modern club crest is based on the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the city's Royal Mile and the team's colours are predominantly maroon and white. Hearts play at Tynecastle Park, where home matches have been played since 1886. After renovating the ground into an all-seater stadium following the findings of the Taylor Report in 1990, the stadium now has a capacity of just over 20,000 following the completion of a newly rebuilt main stand in 2017, their current training facilities are based at the Oriam, Scotland's national performance centre for sport, where they run their youth academy.
Heart of Midlothian have won the Scottish league championship four times, most in 1959–60, when they retained the Scottish League Cup to complete a League and League Cup double – the only club outside of the Old Firm to achieve such a feat. The club's most successful period was under former player turned manager Tommy Walker from the early 1950s to mid 1960s. Between 1954 and 1962 they won two league titles, one Scottish Cup, four Scottish League Cups, finished inside the league's top four positions for 11 consecutive seasons between 1949–50 and 1959–60. Jimmy Wardhaugh, Willie Bauld and Alfie Conn Sr. known affectionately as the Terrible Trio, were famed forwards at the start of this period with wing half linchpins Dave Mackay and John Cumming. Wardhaugh was part of another notable Hearts attacking trinity in the 1957–58 league winning side. Along with Jimmy Murray and Alex Young, they set the record for the number of goals scored in a Scottish league winning campaign. In doing so, they became the only side to finish a season with a goal difference exceeding 100.
Hearts have won the Scottish Cup eight times, most in 2012 after a 5–1 victory over Hibernian, their local rivals. All four of Hearts' Scottish League Cup triumphs came under Walker, most a 1–0 victory against Kilmarnock in 1962, their most recent Scottish League Cup Final appearance was in 2013, where they lost 3–2 to St Mirren. In 1958, Heart of Midlothian became the third Scottish and fifth British team to compete in European competition at the time; the club reached the quarter-finals of the 1988–89 UEFA Cup, losing out to Bayern Munich 2–1 on aggregate. The club was formed by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club; the group of friends bought a ball before playing local rules football at the Tron from where they were directed by a local policeman to The Meadows to play. Local rules football was a mix of association football. In December 1873 a match was held between XIs selected by Mr Thomson from Queens Park and Mr Gardner from Clydesdale at Raimes Park in Bonnington.
This was the first time. Members from the dance club viewed the match and in 1874 decided to adopt the association rules; the new side was Heart of Mid-Lothian Football Club. The exact date of the club's formation was never recorded; the earliest mention of Heart of Midlothian in a sporting context is a report in The Scotsman newspaper from 20 July 1864 of The Scotsman vs Heart of Mid-Lothian at cricket. It is not known if this was the same club who went on to form the football club, but it was common for football clubs in those days to play other sports as well; the club took its name from historic county Midlothian, dating from the Middle Ages, as well as the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the Royal Mile, which marks the historic entrance to The Old Tolbooth jail, demolished in 1817 but was kept fresh in the mind by Walter Scott's novel The Heart of Midlothian. Led by captain Tom Purdie the club played its matches in the East Meadows and in 1875 Hearts became members of the Scottish Football Association and were founder members of the Edinburgh Football Association.
By becoming members of the SFA Hearts were able to play in the Scottish Cup for the first time. Hearts played against 3rd Edinburgh Rifle Volunteers on October 1875 at Craigmount Park in Edinburgh; the game ended in a scoreless draw. A replay was held at the Meadows which again finished 0–0. Under rules at the time both clubs progressed to the next round with Hearts losing out to Drumpellier in the next round. In the 1884–85 season, clubs in Scotland struggled to attract players, who were attracted to play in England, due to the games professional status there. After an 11–1 win in the Scottish Cup over Dunfermline a protest was raised against the club for fielding two professional players. Hearts were suspended by the SFA for two years; this was the first suspension of an SFA club. After a change of the clubs' committee the club was readmitted. Hearts had considerable success in the early years of the Scottish Football League, winning the league championship in 1895 and 1896, they won four Scottish Cups in a 15-year period from 1891 to 1906.
The team played against Sunderland in the 1894–95 World Championship, but lost with a 5–3 score. Hearts did win the World Championship title in 1902, beating Tottenham Hotspur 3–1 in Tynecastle Park, after a 0–0 in London few month earlier. In November 1914, Heart of Midlothian comfortably led the First Division, having started
The Riverside Museum is the current location of the Glasgow Museum of Transport, at Pointhouse Quay in the Glasgow Harbour regeneration district of Glasgow, Scotland. The building opened in June 2011. On 18 May 2013, the museum was announced as the Winner of the 2013 European Museum of the Year Award, it received 1,131,814 visitors in 2017. The Riverside Museum building was designed by engineers Buro Happold; the internal exhibitions and displays were designed by Event Communications. The purpose-built Museum replaced the previous home for the city's transport collection, at the city's Kelvin Hall, was the first museum to be opened in the city since the St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art in 1993; the location of the museum is on the site of the former A. & J. Inglis Shipyard within Glasgow Harbour, on the north bank of the River Clyde and adjacent to its confluence point with the River Kelvin; this site enabled the Clyde Maritime Trust's SV Glenlee and other visiting craft to berth alongside the museum.
Of the £74 million needed for the development of the Riverside Museum, Glasgow City Council and the Heritage Lottery Fund have committed £69 million. The Riverside Museum Appeal is a charitable trust established to raise the final £5 million in sponsorship and donations from companies and individuals for the development of the museum; the Riverside Museum Appeal Trust is recognised as a Scottish Charity SC 033286. Major patrons of the project include: BAE Systems Surface Ships, Weir Group, Rolls-Royce plc, FirstGroup, Strathclyde Partnership for Transport, Caledonian MacBrayne, Arnold Clark and Southern Energy, Bank of Scotland and Optical Express. On 13 November 2007 the Lord Provost of Bob Winter cut the first turf. During the summer of 2008, foundational work was carried out, with massive underground trenches created to house the services for the building. By late September 2008, the steel framework of the structure was taking shape. During 2010 the cladding of the building was put in place and internal fitting-out work continued along with external landscaping works.
The building was structurally completed by late autumn 2010 and work continued to prepare the Riverside Museum for its opening on 21 June 2011. The main contractors for the project were BAM Construct UK Ltd with a range of trade subcontractors including the services installations being delivered by BBESL's team of Jordan Kerr, Gordon Ferguson & Jamie Will and FES, project management being the responsibility of Capita Symonds and Buro Happold providing Resident Engineering Services; the building was completed on 20 June 2011 and the next day it opened to the public. As well as housing many of the existing collections of the Glasgow Museum of Transport, the city has acquired additional items to enhance the experience: L. S. Lowry: Cranes and Ships, Glasgow Docks – acquired at Christie's in November 2005 for £198,400, the painting is on display at the Kelvin Hall; the 1947 work was bought with the help of Glasgow businessman Willie Haughey of City Refrigeration Holdings, a £20,000 grant from the National Art Collections Fund.
SAR Class 15F 4-8-2 steam locomotive, No.3007 - built by the Glasgow-based North British Locomotive Company at its Polmadie Works in 1945, the locomotive was bought in late 2006 from Transnet. It was on display in George Square for a short time in 2007, as part of the effort to raise the £5million public contribution funding. Since opening the Riverside Museum has received positive reviews; however its layout continues to be criticised by visitors. Visitor reviews indicate that this has been disappointing for car enthusiasts and for Glaswegians with fond memories of visiting the Transport Museum at its previous location, which displayed the exhibits at ground level allowing visitors to see the cars up close and look inside them. In 2013, the museum had 740,276 visitors during the year. In 2015, the annual number of visitors had increased to 1,131,814, making it the fifth most popular attraction in Scotland. Culture in Glasgow Scottish Tramway and Transport Society Glasgow Corporation Tramways - history of trams in Glasgow A. & J. Inglis shipyard at Pointhouse Quay, where more than 500 ships have been built Titan Clydebank Scottish Maritime Museum Summerlee, Museum of Scottish Industrial Life Media related to Riverside Museum at Wikimedia Commons Official website Riverside Museum - Clyde Waterfront project details
Glasgow Science Centre
Glasgow Science Centre is a visitor attraction located in the Clyde Waterfront Regeneration area on the south bank of the River Clyde in Glasgow, Scotland. Queen Elizabeth II opened Glasgow Science Centre on 5 June 2001, it is one of Scotland's most popular paid-for visitor attractions. It is a purpose-built science centre composed of three principal buildings: Science Mall, Glasgow Tower and an IMAX cinema; the Scottish tourist board, VisitScotland, awarded Glasgow Science Centre a five star rating in the visitor attraction category. As well as its main location, Glasgow Science Centre manages the visitor centre at Whitelee Wind Farm, which opened to the public in 2009; the largest of the three main, titanium-clad buildings takes a crescent shape structure and houses a Science Mall. In architectural terms it represents the canted hull of a ship, a reference to the adjacent'canting basin', where vessels were brought to have the marine growth removed from their hulls. Internally, there are three floors of over 250 science-learning exhibits.
As is usual for science centres, the exhibits aim to encourage interaction, can be used or played with as part of the informal learning experience the centre aims to deliver. The building was designed by BDP. On Floor 1, amongst the many interactive exhibits that demonstrate scientific principles, visitors can access a Science Show Theatre and the Glasgow Science Centre Planetarium; the planetarium contains a Zeiss optical-mechanical projector that projects images of the night sky onto a 15m diameter dome. There is an area aimed at young children, called The Big Explorer. On Floor 2, visitors can explore opportunities in STEM careers in the My World of Work Live interactive exhibition space. There is The Lab used as an educational workshop space. Floor 3 was refurbished in 2012 and reopened to the public on 28 March 2013, it now houses an interactive exhibition about human health and wellbeing in the 21st century, called BodyWorks. Visitors are invited to consider their bodies and lifestyle from a new perspective through 115 interactive exhibits, research capsules and live laboratory experiences.
The Ground Floor of the Science Mall contains the ticket desk, gift shop, a cloakroom. There are a number of flexible room spaces on the Ground Floor that are used for a variety of educational and corporate purposes: an education space called The Egg. Access to Glasgow Tower for the public is via the Ground Floor; the Glasgow Tower was designed to be the tallest freely-rotating tower in the world. It was plagued by problems since then, it has been closed for over 80% of its life, was closed from August 2010 until July 2014. The IMAX cinema was the first IMAX cinema to be built in Scotland; the single auditorium seats 370 in front of a rectangular screen measuring 80 feet by 60 feet and has the capability to show 3D films as well as standard 2D films in IMAX format. It opened to the public in October 2000, premiered the first film, entitled "Dolphins", several months prior to the opening of the two other buildings. On 6 September 2013, Cineworld agreed a 10-year lease to operate the IMAX cinema and opened a Starbucks on site.
Opened to the public in June 2001, Glasgow Science Centre is part of the ongoing redevelopment of Pacific Quay, an area, once a cargo port known as Prince's Dock. The redevelopment started with the Glasgow Garden Festival in 1988; as with the other National Garden Festivals, the 100 acres Glasgow site was intended to be sold off for housing development, but due to a housing slump in 1987, the developers were unable to develop the land as they intended, the majority of the site remained derelict for years. Parts were redeveloped for the Science Centre and Pacific Quay, including new headquarters for BBC Scotland and Scottish Television, opened in 2007; the Clydesdale Bank Tower was dismantled and re-erected in Rhyl in North Wales, however its spiritual successor came in the form of the Glasgow Tower as part of Science Centre complex, which stands on the same spot. The architects of the Glasgow Science Centre were Building Design Partnership, however the Glasgow Tower was designed by the architect Richard Horden with engineering design by Buro Happold.
It was built at a cost of around £75 million, including £10 million for the Glasgow Tower, with over £37 million coming from the Millennium Commission. In June 2004, it was announced that about a fifth of the workforce were to be made redundant following the creation of a funding deal with the Scottish Executive. In June 2008, the leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats, Nicol Stephen, stated that Glasgow Science Centre was facing a 40% cut in government funding. Prime Minister Gordon Brown commented on this issue during Prime Minister's Questions saying, "It's unfortunate in Glasgow that as a result of the SNP, funding has been cut, they will live to regret that". Although funding for the Scottish Science Centres as a whole has increased, it is now being split between four centres using a formula based on visitor numbers, Glasgow is the only centre to face a reduction in budget; this led to the announcement in July 2008 that 28 full-time jobs were to be cut as a direct consequence of the cuts "in order to secure Glasgow Science Centre's future", according to the Chief Executive, Kirk Ramsay.
Glasgow Science Centre is located in the Pacific Quay area, as such, is surrounded by the media centres that form the Digital Media Quarter, a Scottish Enterprise development initiative, With the opening of the new STV headquarters in June 2006 and the beginning of broadcast programming from BBC Pacific Qua
Hampden Park is a football stadium in the Mount Florida area of Glasgow, Scotland. The 51,866-capacity venue serves as the national stadium of football in Scotland, it is the normal home venue of the Scotland national football team and amateur Scottish league club Queen's Park F. C. and hosts the latter stages of the Scottish Cup and Scottish League Cup competitions. It is used for music concerts and other sporting events, such as when it was reconfigured as an athletics stadium for the 2014 Commonwealth Games. There were two 19th century stadia called Hampden Park, built on different sites. A stadium on the present site was first opened on 31 October 1903. Hampden was the biggest stadium in the world when it was opened, with a capacity in excess of 100,000; this was increased further between 1927 and 1937, reaching a peak of 150,000. The record attendance of 149,415, for a Scotland v England match in 1937, is the European record for an international football match. Tighter safety regulations meant that the capacity was reduced to 81,000 in 1977.
The stadium has been renovated since with the most recent work being completed in 1999. The stadium houses the offices of the Scottish Football Association and Scottish Professional Football League. Hampden has hosted prestigious sporting events, including three European Cup / Champions League finals, two Cup Winners' Cup finals and a UEFA Cup final. Hampden is a UEFA category four stadium and it is served by the nearby Mount Florida and King's Park railway stations. Queen's Park, the oldest club in Scottish football, have played at a venue called Hampden Park since October 1873; the first Hampden Park was overlooked by a nearby terrace named after Englishman John Hampden, who fought for the roundheads in the English Civil War. Queen's Park played at the first Hampden Park for 10 years beginning with a Scottish Cup tie on 25 October 1873; the ground hosted the first Scottish Cup Final, in 1874, a Scotland v England match in 1878. The club moved to the second Hampden Park, 150 yards from the original, because the Cathcart District Railway planned a new line through the site of the ground's western terrace.
A lawn bowling club at the junction of Queen's Drive and Cathcart Road marks the site of the first Hampden. The second Hampden Park opened in October 1884, it became a regular home to the Scottish Cup Final, but Celtic Park shared some of the big matches including the Scotland v England fixture in 1894. In the late 1890s, Queen's Park requested more land for development of the second Hampden Park; this was refused by the landlords. Henry Erskine Gordon agreed to sell 12 acres of land off Somerville Drive to Queen's Park in November 1899. James Miller designed twin grandstands along the south side of the ground with a pavilion wedged in between; the natural slopes were shaped to form banks of terracing, designed by Archibald Leitch. Construction of the new ground took over three years to complete. In response, the terraces at Hampden were set in the earthwork and innovative techniques were used to control spectators. Third Lanark A. C. renamed it Cathkin Park. The club rebuilt the ground from scratch due to a failure to agree a fee for the whole stadium.
Third Lanark went out of business in 1967 and Cathkin Park is now a public park with much of the original terracing still evident. Hampden Park was the biggest stadium in the world from its opening in 1903 until it was surpassed by the Maracanã in 1950. Along with Celtic Park and Ibrox, the city of Glasgow possessed the three largest football stadia in the world at the time Hampden opened. In the stadium's first match, on 31 October 1903, Queen's Park defeated Celtic 1–0 in the Scottish league; the first Scottish Cup Final played at the ground was an Old Firm match in 1904, attracting a record Scottish crowd of 64,672. The first Scotland v England match at the ground was played in April 1906 with 102,741 people in attendance, which established Hampden as the primary home of the Scotland team. Attendances continued to increase during the remainder of the 1900s, as 121,452 saw the 1908 Scotland v England match; the two Old Firm matches played for the 1909 Scottish Cup Final attracted a total of 131,000.
After the second match there was a riot because there was confusion over what would happen next when the second match ended in a draw. The fans believed that the replay would be played to a conclusion and demanded that a period of extra time be played; the Scottish Cup trophy was withheld. In response to the riot, the Scottish Football Association decided not to use Hampden as the Scottish Cup Final venue until after the First World War. Queen's Park conducted extensive ground improvements after the 1909 riot. A new world record of 127,307 were in attendance to see Scotland play England in 1912. A fire in 1914 destroyed the pavilion, replaced by a four-storey structure with a press box on the roof; the Scottish Cup Final returned to Hampden in 1920, when a large crowd of 95,000 saw Kilmarnock win the cup against Albion Rovers. Record crowds attended the 1925 Scottish Cup Final, a 5–0 win for Celtic against Rangers, the 1927 Scotland v England match, England's first win in the stadium. Hampden became the sole venue of the Scottish Cup Final after 1925 except in the 1990s when it was being renovated.
Queen's Park purchased more land in 1923 to bring the total to 33 acres. 25,000 places were added to the terraces and rigid crush barriers were installed in 1927. World record crowds attended Scotland matches against England in 1931 and 1933. In 1933, who had