Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Intended as a patent medicine, it was invented in the late 19th century by John Stith Pemberton and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coca-Cola to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century; the drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients: coca leaves, kola nuts. The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a trade secret, although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published; the Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate, sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce can contains 38 grams of sugar; the bottlers sell and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines throughout the world.
The Coca-Cola Company sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants and foodservice distributors. The Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name; the most common of these is Diet Coke, along with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Vanilla, special versions with lemon and coffee. Based on Interbrand's "best global brand" study of 2015, Coca-Cola was the world's third most valuable brand, after Apple and Google. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers drinking more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day. Coca-Cola ranked No. 87 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Confederate Colonel John Pemberton, wounded in the American Civil War and became addicted to morphine, began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug. In 1885 at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, he registered Pemberton's French Wine Coca nerve tonic.
Pemberton's tonic may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a French-Corsican coca wine, but his recipe additionally included the African kola nut, the beverage's source of caffeine. It is worth noting that a Spanish drink called "Kola Coca" was presented at a contest in Philadelphia in 1885, a year before the official birth of Coca-Cola; the rights for this Spanish drink were bought by Coca-Cola in 1953. In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of Pemberton's French Wine Coca; the first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886, where it sold for five cents a glass. Drugstore soda fountains were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health, Pemberton's new drink was marketed and sold as a patent medicine, Pemberton claiming it a cure for many diseases, including morphine addiction, nerve disorders and impotence.
Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal. By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A co-partnership had been formed on January 14, 1888 between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: J. C. Mayfield, A. O. Murphey, C. O. Mullahy, E. H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asa Candler years asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887. John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged to his son, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-Cola Company incorporation filing made in his father's place. Charley's exclusive control over the "Coca-Cola" name became a continual thorn in Asa Candler's side.
Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler states: "... on April 14, 1888, the young druggist Asa Griggs Candler purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola." The deal was between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. – with John Pemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Candler & Co. obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley still held on to the name. After the April 14 deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interest shares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750. In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company; when Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" destroyed in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time.
After Candler had gained a better foothold on Coca-Cola in April 1888, he was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola", all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch on for Candler, by the middle of 1888, the Atlanta pharmacist was quite anxious t
Special Broadcasting Service
The Special Broadcasting Service is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television network. SBS operates eight radio networks. SBS Online is home to SBS On Demand video streaming service; the stated purpose of SBS is "to provide multilingual and multicultural radio and television services that inform and entertain all Australians and, in doing so, reflect Australia's multicultural society". SBS is one of five main free-to-air networks in Australia; as a result of extensive post-World War II immigration to Australia, the federal government began to consider the need for "ethnic broadcasting" – programming targeted at ethnic minorities and delivered in languages other than English. Until 1970, radio stations were prevented by law from broadcasting in foreign languages for more than 2.5 hours per week. In June 1975, two "experimental" radio stations began broadcasting: 2EA in Sydney and 3EA in Melbourne. In March 1976, the federal government established the Consultative Committee on Ethnic Broadcasting, followed by the National Ethnic Broadcasting Advisory Council in January 1977.
It was considered feasible for ethnic broadcasting to be delivered by the Australian Broadcasting Commission. In October 1977, the government announced the creation of SBS as a new independent statutory authority for ethnic broadcasting; this was achieved by an amendment to the Broadcasting Act 1942. SBS formally came into existence on 1 January 1978; the inaugural chairman of SBS was Grisha Sklovsky, the inaugural executive director was Ronald Fowell. The service was radio-only, had oversight only of the two existing stations 2EA and 3EA, it was always intended that it would be enlarged, but this process was controversial – the Federation of Australian Commercial Television Stations wanted the television functions to be controlled by the ABC. In March 1979, the government set up the Ethnic Television Review Panel, which recommended that SBS expand into television. SBS TV began test transmissions in April 1979 when it showed various foreign language programs on ABV-2 Melbourne and ABN-2 Sydney on Sunday mornings.
Full-time transmission began at 6:30 pm on 24 October 1980, as Channel 0/28. The first program shown was a documentary entitled Who Are We?, hosted by veteran news presenter Peter Luck. At the time, SBS was broadcasting on UHF Channel 28 and VHF Channel 0, with a planned discontinuation of the latter at some time in the future. Bruce Gyngell, who introduced television to Australia in 1956, was given the task of introducing the first batch of programs on the new station. SBS programming content was imported from the countries-of-origin of Australia's major migrant communities and subtitled in English. On 14 October 1983, the service expanded into Canberra and Goulburn and, at the same time, changed its name to Network 0–28, its new slogan was the long-running "Bringing the World Back Home". The network began daytime transmissions. SBS expanded to Brisbane, Newcastle and the Gold Coast in June of that year. On 5 January 1986, SBS ceased broadcasting on the VHF channel 0 frequency. Although many Australians at the time did not have UHF antennas, SBS's VHF licence had been extended by a year at this stage and not all antennas had worked well with the low-frequency Channel 0 either.
In August 1986, the government proposed legislation that would merge SBS into the ABC. This was unpopular with ethnic-minority communities, leading the Prime Minister of Australia, Bob Hawke, to announce in 1987 that the proposed amalgamation would not proceed; the SBS Radio and Television Youth Orchestra was launched in 1988 with founding conductor Matthew Krel. Plans to introduce limited commercial-program sponsorship, as well as the establishment of SBS as an independent corporation with its own charter, were put in place in July 1989. Eat Carpet, showcasing local and international short films, was launched in 1989; the proclamation of the Special Broadcasting Service Act 1991 made SBS a corporation in 1991. Throughout the early 1990s, SBS TV coverage was expanded further to include new areas such as the Latrobe Valley, Spencer Gulf, northeast Tasmania and Townsville. In 1992, SBS's radio and television facilities were moved to new headquarters in Artarmon, New South Wales, from their original studios at Bondi Junction and Milsons Point.
The new building was opened on 10 November 1993 by the prime minister, Paul Keating. A national radio network was launched in January 1994; the new service covered Brisbane, Adelaide and Darwin, while original stations 2EA and 3EA were renamed Radio Sydney and Radio Melbourne respectively. The new national service was launched on a separate frequency in Sydney and Melbourne in July of that year. Throughout 1996, radio services were expanded to cover Hobart and Canberra, while SBS TV's coverage was further expanded to include the New South Wales North Coast and Albury. South Park, SBS's most successful television series, was first aired in 1997. A time-delay system was installed for South Australia in May 1999, shortly before the establishment of the Transmission Services division. A New Media division, responsible for the SBS website, was established at the start of 2000 in time for the first webcast of the Australian Film Institute Awards. Ratings continued to increase through 2000 to 20
The Scottish Championship, known for sponsorship reasons as the Ladbrokes Championship, is the second tier of the Scottish Professional Football League, the league competition for men's professional football clubs in Scotland. The Scottish Championship was established in July 2013, after the Scottish Professional Football League was formed by a merger of the Scottish Premier League and Scottish Football League. Teams receive one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points goal difference, goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned league champion. If points are equal, the goal difference determines the winner. If this still does not result in a winner, the tied teams must take part in a playoff game at a neutral venue to determine the final placings; the champions are directly promoted to the Scottish Premiership, swapping places with the bottom club of the Premiership. The clubs finishing 2nd, 3rd and 4th enter the two-legged Premiership play-off.
The 3rd-placed club plays the 4th-placed club, with the winner playing the 2nd-placed club. The winner of that tie plays against the 11th-placed Premiership club. If the Championship play-off winner prevails, the club is promoted, with the Premiership club being relegated, otherwise the Premiership club can retain its position in Premiership with the promotion failure of the Championship club; the Championship play-off system is consistent to its Premiership counterpart, in which the bottom club of Championship is automatically relegated and the 9th-placed club undergoes a play-off with the 2nd, 3rd and 4th placed clubs from League One. Listed below are all the teams competing in the 2018–19 Scottish Championship season, with details of the first season they entered the second tier. Biggest home win Heart of Midlothian 10–0 Cowdenbeath, 28 February 2015 Biggest away win Dumbarton 0–6 Rangers, 2 January 2016.
The Scottish Football Association Challenge Cup known as the Scottish Cup, is an annual association football knock-out cup competition for men's football clubs in Scotland. The competition was first held in 1873–74. Entry is open to all 89 clubs with full membership of the Scottish Football Association, along with up to eight other clubs who are associate members; the competition is called the William Hill Scottish Cup for sponsorship reasons. Although it is the second oldest competition in association football history, after the FA Cup, the Scottish Cup trophy is the oldest in association football and is the oldest national trophy in the world, it was first presented to Queen's Park, who won the final match of the inaugural tournament in March 1874. The current holders are Celtic, who won the tournament for a 38th time by defeating Motherwell 2–0 in the 2018 final; the tournament starts in the middle of August. The Scottish Cup Final is the last game of the season, taking place at the end of May.
Participating teams enter the tournament at different stages depending on their league ranking. The lowest ranked clubs enter the tournament at the preliminary round whilst the highest ranked, those that compete in the Scottish Premiership, enter at the fourth round stage; the competition is a knock-out tournament. In each round of games the teams are paired at random, with the first team drawn listed as the home team; every game lasts 90 minutes plus any additional stoppage time. The winner of each game advances to the next round, whilst the loser is eliminated from the tournament. If a game ends in a draw, the fixture is replayed at the home ground of the other team at a date. If the replay ends in a draw, 30 minutes of extra time is played followed by a penalty shoot-out if there is still no clear winner. In the semi-final and final rounds, if the game ends in a draw there is no replay; the competition has a staggered entry system. For the 2018–19 edition, two preliminary rounds are contested by 19 clubs, featuring those qualifying from Junior and Amateur competitions plus clubs with full membership of the Scottish Football Association.
Sixteen Highland League and fourteen Lowland League clubs begin in the first round. Scottish League Two clubs enter the second round along with the top two clubs from the previous season's Highland League and Lowland League. Scottish League One and six Scottish Championship clubs start in the third round, while the remaining four Championship clubs and all 12 Scottish Premiership clubs enter in the fourth round. Any club, a full or associate member of the Scottish Football Association is entitled to compete in the tournament. Full members qualify automatically, which includes every team that plays in the Scottish Professional Football League, Highland League or Lowland League. Between 1895 and 2007, clubs that were SFA members but not competitors in the country's professional football leagues could only qualify for the tournament through the Scottish Qualifying Cup. Clubs which are not full members of the SFA may still qualify for the tournament by winning the East or South of Scotland football leagues, or the South & East of Scotland Cup-Winners Shield.
Clubs that are members of the Scottish Junior Football Association have been able to qualify since 2007 by winning one of the three regional Super League divisions or by winning the Scottish Junior Cup. Two junior clubs, Banks O' Dee and Girvan, are full SFA members and therefore qualify automatically. Since 2015, the winners of the Scottish Amateur Cup are eligible to qualify. Players that are registered with a competing club are eligible to play. However, players are not entitled to play for more than one club during the same tournament; each club names eleven up to five substitutes before every match. In order to play in the final match, a player must have been registered to compete in the semi-final round for the same club. If a club fields a player, not registered to play, the club may be expelled from the tournament. Before the semi-final and final rounds, the venue of each match is determined when the fixtures are drawn. In the event of a game ending in a draw, the venue for the replay is the home ground of the second club drawn.
The semi-final ties are played at a neutral venue. On occasions when Hampden has been unavailable, such as when it was being renovated in the late 1990s and when it was being transformed into an athletics stadium for the 2014 Commonwealth Games, the semi-finals have been hosted at Celtic Park and Ibrox Stadium in Glasgow. Hampden Park usually hosts the final match of the tournament; the venue has hosted the majority of finals including the first in 1874. Other venues that have hosted the final in the tournament's early years are Hamilton Crescent, Kinning Park and Cathkin Park; the last game of the 1896 tournament is the only final, hosted outside Glasgow when rivals Heart of Midlothian and Hibernian played at New Logie Green in Edinburgh. Hampden Park has held world and European records for the highest attendance, some of which were recorded at Scottish Cup games; the 1937 final played between Aberdeen and Celtic attracted a crowd of 147,365 spectators, a world record for a national cup final and remains a European record.
As Scotland is a member of the Union of European Football Associations, the winner of the Scottish Cup qualifies to compete in European-wide competitions organised by UEFA. Between 1
Scottish Premier League
The Scottish Premier League was the top level league competition for professional football clubs in Scotland. The league was founded in 1998, it was abolished in 2013, when the SPL and SFL merged to form the new Scottish Professional Football League, with its top division being known as the Scottish Premiership. A total of 19 clubs competed in the SPL, but only the Old Firm clubs and Rangers won the league championship. For most of its history, the Scottish Football League had a two divisional structure between which clubs were promoted and relegated at the end of each season. However, by the mid-1970s, this organisation was perceived to be stagnant, it was decided to split into a three divisional structure: Premier Division, First Division and a newly added Second Division; this system came into force for the 1975–76 season. This setup continued until the 1994 -- 95 season; this involved the creation of a Third Division, with all four divisions consisting of ten clubs. On 8 September 1997, the clubs in the Premier Division decided to split from the Scottish Football League and form a Scottish Premier League.
This followed an earlier example in England. This decision was fuelled by a desire by the top clubs in Scotland to retain more of the revenue generated by the game. League sponsorship money was divided proportionally between clubs in all four divisions. After the SPL was formed, its clubs retained all of its commercial revenues except for an annual payment to the SFL and a parachute payment to relegated clubs. Teams received three points for one point for a draw. No points were awarded for a loss. Teams were ranked by total points goal difference, goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points was crowned league champion. If points were equal, the goal difference and goals scored determine the winner; the SPL contained 10 clubs, but it subsequently enlarged to 12 for the 2000–01 season and retained this structure until 2013. The increase from 10 clubs to 12 was part of the deal offered to obtain approval from SFL member clubs. After the expansion to 12 clubs, the SPL operated a "split" format.
This was done to prevent the need for a 44-match schedule, based on playing each other four times. That format had been used in the Scottish Premier Division but was considered to be too high a number of matches in a league season. A season, which runs from August until May, was divided into two phases. During the first phase, each club played three matches against every other team, either once at home and twice away, or vice versa. After this first phase of matches, by which time all clubs had played 33 matches, the league split into a "top six" and a "bottom six"; each club played a further five matches against the other five teams in their own section. Points achieved during the first phase of 33 matches were carried forward to the second phase, but the teams competed only within their own sections during the second phase. After the first phase was completed, clubs could not move out of their own section in the league if they achieved more or fewer points than a higher or lower ranked team, respectively.
At the beginning of each season, the SPL "predicted" the positions of each club in order to produce a fixture schedule that ensured the best possible chance of all clubs playing each other twice at home and twice away. This was based on clubs' performance in previous years. If a club did not finish in the half where it was predicted to finish, it faced the possibility of playing an unequal number of home and away matches. For example, one club would sometimes play another three times at home and once away. There was criticism of the split season format. In April 2007, Craig Levein labelled it as "rubbish" and a "nonsense", claiming it resulted in lost revenue for clubs and put more pressure on managers, while Rangers manager Walter Smith branded the format as "unfair" and called for an 18-team league to be considered. However, the SPL defended the split format, dismissing the possibility of expanding the league due to a lack of strong enough clubs within the Scottish Football League. In March 2008, Kilmarnock manager Jim Jefferies was the latest to call for a league revamp, claiming the potential for four matches per season against the same opponent was too many.
The bottom placed SPL club at the end of the season was relegated, swapped places with the winner of the Scottish First Division, provided that the winner satisfied the SPL entry criteria. These promotion criteria sometimes caused controversy. In 2003, the chairmen of the member clubs voted against Falkirk's proposed ground share with Airdrie United and stopped the club from having the 10,000 capacity stadium it required, therefore saving Motherwell from relegation; the same situation nearly materialised in 2004. After several votes and discussion, including threats of court cases from Partick Thistle, the team threatened with relegation, Inverness Caledonian Thistle were promoted on the basis that they would ground share with Aberdeen at Pittodrie. In 2005, the stadium size criterion for entry to the SPL was reduced to 6,000, thereby allowing Inverness Caledonian Thistle to return to their home stadium during the 2005–06 season. One of the main criticisms of the SPL was the dominance of the two Old Firm clubs and Rangers.
No team outside the Old Firm has won the Scottish league championship since 1985. Until Rangers were ejected from the SPL due to their liquidation, there was only one SPL season (20
Scottish Challenge Cup
The Scottish Professional Football League Challenge Cup known as the Scottish League Challenge Cup or Scottish Challenge Cup, known as the Irn Bru Cup for sponsorship reasons, is an association football knock-out cup competition run by the Scottish Professional Football League. It was established by the SPFL's predecessor, the Scottish Football League and was contested by the 28 or 30 SFL/SPFL teams below the top level in the Scottish football league system. Teams below SPFL level were added in 2011–12, guest teams from outside Scotland in 2016–17. For the 2018–19 edition there are 58 teams: 30 from the SPFL; the competition was first held during the 1990–91 season as the B&Q Centenary Cup to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the formation of the SFL. It was continued due to its popularity; the first winner of the tournament was Dundee. Falkirk are the most successful team in the tournament, with four wins, most in 2012; the most recent winner was Ross County. The Challenge Cup is a knock-out tournament.
Within a regionalised format, clubs are paired at random and the first club drawn listed as the home team. The winner of each match progresses to the next round and the loser is eliminated from the tournament; every match, including the final, is a one-legged tie that lasts 90 minutes plus any additional stoppage time. If no clear winner has been determined after 90 minutes of normal time, 30 minutes of extra time is played. If the score is still level after extra time the winner is decided by a penalty shoot-out. Beginning with the 2016–17 season, the competition has been expanded to 54 entrants. All Scottish Professional Football League clubs will participate, with the thirty clubs from the Championship, League One and League Two now joined by Under-20 teams from the twelve Premiership clubs. Participating by invitation will be four teams each from the Highland and Lowland Leagues and eight entrants from outside Scottish football – two each from the NIFL Premiership in Northern Ireland, the National League, League of Ireland and the Welsh Premier League in Wales.
Teams are seeded to enter the competition over any of the first four rounds, after which eight teams will remain to contest the quarter-finals. The final is played at a neutral venue; the competition was created in the 1990–91 season to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Scottish Football League in 1890. It continued due to its popularity; this was reflected in high attendances at matches in the rounds of the tournament including a full capacity crowd of 11,500 at Fir Park in the first final. The cup was sponsored by DIY retail company B&Q and named the B&Q Centenary Cup for the first year and continued as the B&Q Cup for four seasons afterwards; the competition was run for three seasons without a sponsor due to the league covering the tournament costs and prize money, but was unsustainable and resulted in it being cancelled for one season in 1998–99 before being re-established in 1999 with a new sponsor. Although it is not as popular as competitions like the Scottish Cup, it provides smaller clubs with a realistic opportunity of winning a trophy due to the absence of top-tier clubs from the tournament.
When Stenhousemuir won the final in 1995 it was regarded as the club's greatest achievement in its 111-year history. Attendances at matches in the earlier rounds of the tournament are not dissimilar to average home attendances in league competition but as the competition reaches the latter stages they increase; the number of competitors has varied in relation to the number of clubs with Scottish Football League membership. The first tournament featured the 28 clubs in the First and Second Divisions which reduced to 26 until 1994 when the league was expanded and restructured into three divisions. In the 2010–11 competition the two highest ranked clubs from the Highland Football League with a Scottish Football Association licence were invited to compete, in order to bring the number of competitors to 32. Before the change in 2010, several clubs received a random bye in the first round in order to out the number of fixtures; the Challenge Cup continued under the auspices of the Scottish Professional Football League after the Scottish Football League merged with the Scottish Premier League in 2013.
One change at this time was that the two invitational places were split, with only one place filled by a Highland League club and the other place going to the winner of a preliminary round tie between clubs from the East of Scotland League and the South of Scotland League. This was simplified in the 2014–15 season, with the two additional places going to the Highland League champion and the Lowland League champion. From 2016–17 the competition has been further expanded with the addition of Scottish Premiership Under-20 teams, additional places for the Highland and Lowland Leagues, which now have four representatives each, two teams each from Northern Ireland and Wales. Two teams from the League of Ireland were included in the competition for the 2017–18 season. In the 2017–18 edition of the cup, Inverness Caledonian Thistle manager John Robertson became the first manager to win the cup twice with the
Scottish League One
The Scottish League One, known for sponsorship reasons as the Ladbrokes League One, is the third tier of the Scottish Professional Football League, the league competition for men's professional football clubs in Scotland. The Scottish League One was established in July 2013, after the Scottish Professional Football League was formed by a merger of the Scottish Premier League and Scottish Football League. Teams receive one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points goal difference, goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned league champion. If points are equal, the goal difference determines the winner. If this still does not result in a winner, the tied teams must take part in a playoff game at a neutral venue to determine the final placings; the champions are directly promoted to the Scottish Championship, swapping places with the bottom club of the Championship. The clubs finishing 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 9th in the Championship enter the two-legged Championship play-off.
The 2nd-placed League One club plays the 3rd-placed League One club, whilst the team who finished 4th in League One will play the 9th-placed Championship side. The winners of these ties will play each other. If a League One play-off winner prevails, that club is promoted, with the Championship club being relegated. If the Championship side is victorious, they retain their place in the Championship; the League One play-off system is consistent to its Championship counterpart, in which the bottom club of League One is automatically relegated and the 9th-placed club undergoes a play-off with the 2nd, 3rd and 4th placed clubs from League Two. Listed below are the teams who will compete in the 2018–19 Scottish League One season, with details of the first season they entered the third tier. Note 1 as Airdrie United As of 10 February 2019 Scottish League One – Official website