The Blaine Act, formally titled Joint Resolution Proposing the Twenty-First Amendment to the United States Constitution, is a joint resolution adopted by the United States Congress on February 20, 1933, initiating repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which established Prohibition in the United States. Repeal was finalized when the 21st Amendment to the Constitution was ratified by the required minimum number of states on December 5, 1933; the Volstead Act implemented the 18th Amendment. The act defined "intoxicating beverage" as one with 0.5 percent alcohol by weight. Numerous problems with enforcement and a desire to create jobs and raise tax revenue by legalizing beer and liquor led a majority of voters and members of Congress to turn against Prohibition by late 1932; when the first legislative session of the 72nd United States Congress opened on December 7, 1931, more than two dozen bills were offered amending the Volstead Act or repealing the 18th Amendment altogether.
Republicans, who controlled both houses in the previous Congress, had been united in their support for Prohibition and, with the support of "dry" Democrats garnered more than the two-thirds majority needed to block any vote on the slightest easing of the Volstead Act. Now, however, 64 "wet" Republicans formed a caucus in the House of Representatives to work with Democrats to seek modification or repeal; the Democrats changed the rules of the House, adopting a discharge petition procedure which would force a bill to the floor for a vote if 145 members requested it. Legislative activity focused on the Senate. Among the bills filed at the start of the session was one by Senator Hiram Bingham III, which amended the Volstead Act to permit the manufacture of beer, 4 percent alcohol by weight, his bill would not have modified the 18th Amendment. Republican "wets" were able to win a minor victory on December 23, 1931, when they secured an agreement establishing a subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee which would hold hearings regarding modification of the Volstead Act and repeal of the 18th Amendment.
Senator John J. Blaine, a leader of the Senate's Republican "wets", was named subcommittee chair. Although the five-member subcommittee had a three-member "dry" majority, "wets" only wanted to use the subcommittee to lay the groundwork for a vote on a Prohibition bill. "Wets" won another victory a few days when the Senate Committee on Manufactures agreed to hold hearings on Bingham's 4 percent beer bill. These small victories emboldened "wet" forces. On December 26, Senator Bingham submitted legislation to repeal the 18th Amendment. Three-fourths of the state legislatures were required to approve any amendment, Bingham believed that too many legislatures still supported Prohibition. Bingham's bill therefore proposed submitting the amendment to the public via a national referendum or ratification by conventions specially elected by voters in each state. In the House, where "wet" forces were in somewhat disarray, Majority Leader Henry T. Rainey tried to block legislation by telling "wets" that they would have a single opportunity for a vote.
It didn't matter if the bill was modification or repeal, he said. In response, a bipartisan caucus of "wets" decided to submit a plan to modify the 18th Amendment according to the recommendations issued in 1931 by the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement, a panel established by President Herbert Hoover to study law enforcement problems under Prohibition. In the first direct vote on the issue since Prohibition began, the Senate rejected the Bingham repeal resolution, 55 to 15, on January 21, 1932. "Drys" hailed the vote as symbolic of the weakness of the repeal forces. "Wets" in Congress perceived. A week after the defeat of the Bingham repeal proposal, House "wets" began drafting legislation to amend the Volstead Act to permit the manufacture of beer once more, their goal was to force a vote before the session of Congress ended in July 1932. With only 34 "wet" votes in the Senate and 190 in the House, repeal lobbyists believed no action could be taken until after the November 1932 elections.
Congressional "wets" received a major boost on February 20 when a leading Democratic candidate for president, Franklin D. Roosevelt, announced he supported repeal of the 18th Amendment as a means of generating tax revenues for the federal government and states. Roosevelt's support for repeal boosted "wet" support in the House. On February 16, the House Judiciary Committee had voted 14-to-9 against the Beck-Linthicum resolution, which would have asked state legislatures to reaffirm or repeal the 18th Amendment. House "wets" shocked political leaders in both sides on February 25 by obtaining 110 signatures on a discharge petition for the Beck-Linthicum resolution; the "wets" secured the required 145 signatures for discharge on March 1. The Beck-Linthicum resolution received 187 votes, resulting in the smallest majority "drys" had managed to muster since the start of Prohibition. House "wets", who considered the vote on Beck-Linthicum only a test of their growing strength, were thrilled by the vote.
The House test vote was encouraging to Senate "wets" as well. On March 19, Blaine's Judiciary subcommittee favorably reported a bill by Senator Bingham proposing the legalization of 4 percent beer; the subcommittee report called modification of the 18th Amendment useless. Three days a bipartisan group of 38 Senators surprised the Senate by signing a letter demanding a vote to modify or repeal the 18th A
Rum-running, or bootlegging, is the illegal business of transporting alcoholic beverages where such transportation is forbidden by law. Smuggling takes place to circumvent taxation or prohibition laws within a particular jurisdiction; the term rum-running is more applied to smuggling over water. It is believed that the term "bootlegging" originated during the American Civil War, when soldiers would sneak liquor into army camps by concealing pint bottles within their boots or beneath their trouser legs. According to the PBS documentary Prohibition, the term "bootlegging" was popularized when thousands of city dwellers sold liquor from flasks they kept in their boot legs all across major cities and rural areas; the term "rum-running" most originated at the start of Prohibition in the United States, when ships from Bimini in the western Bahamas transported cheap Caribbean rum to Florida speakeasies. But rum's cheapness made it a low-profit item for the rum-runners, they soon moved on to smuggling Canadian whisky, French champagne, English gin to major cities like New York City and Chicago, where prices ran high.
It was said. It was not long after the first taxes were implemented on alcoholic beverages that someone began to smuggle alcohol; the British government had "revenue cutters" in place to stop smugglers as early as the 16th century. Pirates made extra money running rum to taxed colonies. There were times when the sale of alcohol was limited for other reasons, such as laws against sales to American Indians in the Old West and Canada West or local prohibitions like the one on Prince Edward Island between 1901 and 1948. Industrial-scale smuggling flowed both ways across the Canada–US border at different points in the early twentieth century between Windsor and Detroit, Michigan. Although Canada never had true nationwide prohibition, the federal government gave the provinces an easy means to ban alcohol under the War Measures Act, most provinces and the Yukon Territory had enacted prohibition locally by 1918 when a regulation issued by the federal cabinet banned the interprovincial trade and importation of liquor.
National prohibition in the United States did not begin until 1920, though many states had statewide prohibition before that. For the two-year interval, enough American liquor entered Canada illegally to undermine support for prohibition in Canada, so it was lifted, beginning with Quebec and Yukon in 1919 and including all the provinces but Prince Edward Island by 1930. Additionally, Canada's version of prohibition had never included a ban on the manufacture of liquor for export. Soon the black-market trade was reversed with Canadian whisky and beer flowing in large quantities to the United States. Again, this illegal international trade undermined the support for prohibition in the receiving country, the American version ended in 1933. One of the most famous periods of rum-running began in the United States when Prohibition began on January 16, 1920, when the Eighteenth Amendment went into effect; this period lasted until the amendment was repealed with ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment on December 5, 1933.
At first, there was much action on the seas, but after several months, the Coast Guard began reporting decreased smuggling activity. This was the start of the Bimini -- the introduction of Bill McCoy. With the start of prohibition, Captain McCoy began bringing rum from Bimini and the rest of the Bahamas into south Florida through Government Cut; the Coast Guard soon caught up with him, so he began to bring the illegal goods to just outside U. S. territorial waters and let smaller boats and other captains, such as Habana Joe, take the risk of bringing it to shore. The rum-running business was good, McCoy soon bought a Gloucester knockabout schooner named Arethusa at auction and renamed her Tomoka, he installed a larger auxiliary, mounted a concealed machine gun on her deck, refitted the fish pens below to accommodate as much contraband as she could hold. She became one of the most famous of the rum-runners, along with his two other ships hauling Irish and Canadian whiskey as well as other fine liquors and wines to ports from Maine to Florida.
In the days of rum running, it was common for captains to add water to the bottles to stretch their profits or to re-label it as better goods. Any cheap sparkling wine became Italian Spumante. McCoy became famous for selling only top brands. Although the phrase appears in print in 1882, this is one of several folk etymologies for the origin of the term "The real McCoy." On November 15, 1923, McCoy and Tomoka encountered the U. S. Coast Guard Cutter Seneca just outside U. S. territorial waters. A boarding party attempted to board. Tomoka tried to run, but the Seneca placed a shell just off her hull, William McCoy surrendered his ship and cargo. McCoy is credited with the idea of bringing large boats just to the edge of the three-mile limit of U. S. jurisdiction and selling his wares there to "contact boats", local fishermen, small boat captains. The small, quick boats could more outrun Coast Guard ships and could dock in any small river or eddy and transfer their cargo to a waiting truck, they were known to load float planes and flying boats.
Soon others were following suit, the three-mile limit became known as "Rum Line" with the ships waiting called "Rum row". The Rum Line was extended to a 12-mile limit by an act of the United Sta
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is an active international temperance organization, among the first organizations of women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity." It was influential in the temperance movement, supported the 18th Amendment. It was influential in social reform issues that came to prominence in the progressive era; the WCTU was organized on December 23, 1873, in Hillsboro and declared at a national convention in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1874. It operated at an international level and in the context of religion and reform, including missionary work and woman's suffrage. Two years after its founding, the American WCTU sponsored an international conference at which the International Women's Christian Temperance Union was formed; the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1883 and became the international arm of the organization, which has now affiliates in Australia, Germany, India, New Zealand, South Korea, United Kingdom, the United States, among others.
At its founding in 1874, the stated purpose of the WCTU was to create a "sober and pure world" by abstinence and evangelical Christianity. Annie Wittenmyer was its first president; the constitution of the WCTU called for "the entire prohibition of the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors as a beverage."Frances Willard, a noted feminist, was elected the WCTU's second president in 1879 and Willard grew the organization to be the largest organization of women in the world by 1890. She remained president until her death in 1898, its members were inspired by the Greek writer Xenophon, who defined temperance as "moderation in all things healthful. In other words, should something be good, it should not be indulged in to excess; the WCTU perceived alcohol as a cause and consequence of larger social problems rather than as a personal weakness or failing. The WCTU agitated against tobacco; the American WCTU formed a "Department for the Overthrow of the Tobacco Habit" as early as 1885 and published anti-tobacco articles in the 1880s.
Agitation against tobacco continued through to the 1950s. As a consequence of its stated purposes, the WCTU was very interested in a number of social reform issues, including labor, public health and international peace; as the movement grew in numbers and strength, members of the WCTU focused on suffrage. The WCTU was instrumental in organizing woman's suffrage leaders and in helping more women become involved in American politics. Local chapters, known as "unions", were autonomous, though linked to state and national headquarters. Willard pushed for the "Home Protection" ballot, arguing that women, being the morally superior sex, needed the vote in order to act as "citizen-mothers" and protect their homes and cure society's ills. At a time when suffragists were viewed as radicals and alienated most American women, the WCTU offered a more traditionally feminine and "appropriate" organization for women to join. Although the WCTU had chapters throughout North America with hundreds of thousands of members, the "Christian" in its title was limited to those with an evangelical Protestant conviction and the importance of their role has been noted.
The goal of evangelizing the world, according to this model, meant that few Catholics, Muslims, Buddhists or Hindus were attracted to it, "even though the last three had a pronounced cultural and religious preference for abstinence". As the WCTU grew internationally, it developed various approaches that helped with the inclusion of women of religions other than Christianity. But, it was always and still is, a Christian women's organization; the WCTU's work extended across a range of efforts to bring about social moral reform. In the 1880s it worked on creating legislation to protect working girls from the exploitation of men, including raising Age of Consent laws, it focused on keeping Sundays as Sabbath days and restrict frivolous activities. In 1901 the WCTU said; the WCTU wanted to aid immigrants coming into the United States through "Americanization" activities. Between 1900 and 1920, much of their budget was given to their center on Ellis Island, which helped to start the Americanization process.
The WCTU promoted the idea that immigrants were more prone to alcoholism than Native Americans, focusing on Irish and German immigrant communities as the source of the problem. The WCTU was concerned about trying to alleviate poverty, through abstinence from alcohol. Through journal articles, the WCTU tried to prove. A fictional story in one of their journal articles illustrates this fact: Ned has applied for a job, but he is not chosen, he finds. Jack is a kindly man but he spends his money on drink and cigarettes. Ned has been seen drinking and smoking; the employer thinks that Ned Fisher lacks the necessary traits of industriousness which he associates with abstinence and self-control. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union grew rapidly; the WCTU adopted Willard's "Do Everything" philosophy, which meant that the "W. C. T. U. Campaigned for local and national prohibition, woman suffrage, protective purity legislation, scientific temperance instruction in the schools, better working conditions for labor, anti-polygamy
Lyman Beecher was a Presbyterian minister, American Temperance Society co-founder and leader, the father of 13 children, many of whom became noted figures, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, Catharine Beecher and Thomas K. Beecher. Beecher was born in New Haven, Connecticut, to David Beecher, a blacksmith, Esther Hawley Lyman, his mother died shortly after his birth, he was committed to the care of his uncle Lot Benton, by whom he was adopted as a son, with whom his early life was spent between blacksmithing and farming. But it was soon found, he was fitted for college by the Rev. Thomas W. Bray, at the age of eighteen entered Yale, graduating in 1797, he spent 1798 in Yale Divinity School under the tutelage of his mentor Timothy Dwight. In September 1798, he was licensed to preach by the New Haven West Association, entered upon his clerical duties by supplying the pulpit in the Presbyterian church at East Hampton, Long Island, was ordained in 1799.
Here he married Roxana Foote. His salary was $300 a year, after five years increased with a dilapidated parsonage. To eke out his scanty income, his wife opened a private school. Beecher gained popular recognition in 1806, after giving a sermon concerning the duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr. Finding his salary wholly inadequate to support his increasing family, he resigned the charge at East Hampton, in 1810 moved to Litchfield, where he was minister to the town's Congregational Church, where he remained 16 years. There he started to preach Calvinism, he purchased the home reared a large family. The excessive use of alcohol, known as "intemperance," was a source of concern in New England as in the rest of the United States. Heavy drinking occurred at some formal meetings of clergy, Beecher resolved to take a stand against it. In 1826 he published six sermons on intemperance, they were sent throughout the United States, ran through many editions in England, were translated into several languages on the European continent, had a large sale after the lapse of 50 years.
During Beecher's residence in Litchfield the Unitarian controversy arose, he took a prominent part. Litchfield was at this time the seat of a famous law school and several other institutions of learning, Beecher and his wife undertook to supervise the training of several young women, who were received into their family, but here too he found his salary inadequate. The rapid and extensive defection of the Congregational churches in Boston and vicinity, under the lead of William Ellery Channing and others in sympathy with him, had excited much anxiety throughout New England; the religious public had become impressed with the growing importance of the great west. His mission there was to train ministers to win the West for Protestantism. Along with his presidency, he was professor of sacred theology, pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of Cincinnati He served as a pastor for the first ten years of his Lane presidency. Beecher was notorious for his anti-Catholicism and soon after his arrival in Cincinnati authored the nativist tract "A Plea for the West."
His sermon on this subject at Boston in 1834 was followed shortly by the burning of the Catholic Ursuline sisters' convent there. Beecher's term at Lane came at a time when a number of intense issues slavery, threatened to divide the Presbyterian Church, the state of Ohio, the nation; the French Revolution of 1830, the agitation in England for reform and against colonial slavery, the punishment by American courts of citizens who had dared to attack the slave trade carried on under the American flag, had begun to direct the attention of American philanthropists to the evils of American slavery, an abolition convention met in Philadelphia in 1833. Its president, Arthur Tappan, through whose liberal donations Beecher had been secured to Lane Seminary, forwarded to the students a copy of the address issued by the convention, the whole subject was soon under discussion. In 1834, students at Lane debated the slavery issue for 18 consecutive nights and many of them chose to adopt the cause of abolitionism.
Many of the students were from the south, an effort was made to stop the discussions and the meetings. Slaveholders from Kentucky came in and incited mob violence, for several weeks Beecher lived in a turmoil, not knowing how soon the rabble might destroy the seminary and the houses of the professors; the board of trustees interfered during the absence of Beecher, allayed the excitement of the mob by forbidding all further discussion of slavery in the Seminary, whereupon the students withdrew en masse. Beecher opposed the "radical" position of abolition and refused to offer classes to African-Americans; the group of about 50 students who left the Seminary went to Oberlin College. The events sparked a growing national discussion of abolition that contributed to the beginning of the Civil War. Although earlier in his career he had opposed them, Beecher stoked controversy by adv
Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Eighteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution established the prohibition of "intoxicating liquors" in the United States. The amendment was proposed by Congress on December 18, 1917, was ratified by the requisite number of states on January 16, 1919; the Eighteenth Amendment was repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment on December 5, 1933. The Eighteenth Amendment was the product of decades of efforts by the temperance movement, which held that a ban on the sale of alcohol would ameliorate poverty and other societal issues; the Eighteenth Amendment declared the production and sale of intoxicating liquors illegal, though it did not outlaw the actual consumption of alcohol. Shortly after the amendment was ratified, Congress passed the Volstead Act to provide for the federal enforcement of Prohibition; the Volstead Act declared that liquor and beer all qualified as intoxicating liquors and were therefore prohibited. Under the terms of the Eighteenth Amendment, Prohibition began on January 17, 1920, one year after the amendment was ratified.
Although the Eighteenth Amendment led to a decline in alcohol consumption in the United States, nationwide enforcement of Prohibition proved difficult in cities. Organized crime and other groups engaged in large-scale bootlegging, speakeasies became popular in many areas. Public sentiment began to turn against Prohibition during the 1920s, 1932 Democratic presidential nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt called for the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment in his platform; the Twenty-first Amendment repealed the Eighteenth Amendment in 1933, making the Eighteenth Amendment the only amendment to the U. S. Constitution to be repealed in its entirety. Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all the territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. Section 2; the Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress; the Eighteenth Amendment was the result of decades of effort by the temperance movement in the United States and at the time was considered a progressive amendment. Starting in 1906, the Anti-Saloon League began leading a campaign to ban the sale of alcohol on a state level, they led speeches and public demonstrations, claiming that banning the sale of alcohol would get rid of poverty and social issues, such as immoral behavior and violence. It would inspire new forms of sociability between men and women and they believed that families would be happier, fewer industrial mistakes would be made and overall, the world would be a better place. Other groups such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union began as well trying to ban the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages.
A well-known reformer during this time period was Carrie Amelia Moore Nation, whose violent actions made her a household name across America. Many state legislatures had enacted statewide prohibition prior to the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment but did not ban the consumption of alcohol in most households, it took some states longer than others to ratify this amendment northern states, including New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts. They violated the law by still allowing some beers to be sold. By 1916, 23 of 48 states had passed laws against saloons, some banning the manufacture of alcohol in the first place; the Temperance Movement was dedicated to the complete abstinence of alcohol from public life. The movement began in the early 1800s within Christian churches, was religiously motivated; the central areas the group was founded out of were in the Saratoga area of New York, as well as in Massachusetts. Churches were highly influential in gaining new members and support, garnering 6,000 local societies in several different states.
A group, inspired by the movement was the Anti-Saloon league, who at the turn of the 20th century began lobbying for prohibition in the United States. The group was founded in 1893 in the state of Ohio, gaining massive support from Evangelical Protestants, to becoming a national organization in 1895; the group was successful in helping implement prohibition, through heavy lobbying and having a vast influence. The group following repeal of prohibition fell out of power and in 1950 merged with other groups forming the National Temperance League. On August 1, 1917, the Senate passed a resolution containing the language of the amendment to be presented to the states for ratification; the vote was 65 to 20, with the Democrats voting 12 in opposition. The House of Representatives passed a revised resolution on December 17, 1917; this was the first amendment to impose a date by which it had to be ratified or else the amendment would be discarded. In the House, the vote was 282 to 128, with the Democrats voting 64 in opposition.
Four Independents in the House voted in two Independents cast votes against the amendment. It was proposed by the Congress to the states when the Senate passed the resolution, by a vote of 47 to 8, the next day, December 18; the amendment and its enabling legislati
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
E. D. Morel
Edmund Dene Morel was a British journalist, author and politician. As a young official at the shipping company Elder Dempster, Morel observed a fortune in rubber returning from the Congo while only guns and manacles were being sent in return, he deduced that these resources were being extracted from the population by force and began to campaign to expose the abuses. In collaboration with Roger Casement, Morel led a campaign against slavery in the Congo Free State, founding the Congo Reform Association and running the West African Mail. With the help of celebrities such as Arthur Conan Doyle and Mark Twain, the movement pressured the Belgian King Leopold II to turn over the Congo to the Belgian government, ending some of the human rights abuses perpetrated under his rule. Morel played a significant role in the British pacifist movement during the First World War, participating in the foundation of and becoming secretary of the Union of Democratic Control, at which point he broke with the Liberal Party.
In 1917, he was jailed for six months for his antiwar activism, which had a permanent effect on his health. After the war, he edited the journal Foreign Affairs, through which he criticized what he considered French aggression and mistreatment of the defeated Central Powers; as part of his campaign against the French, he became the most important English proponent of the racist Black Shame campaign, which accused "black" French troops of outrages against the population of the occupied Rhineland. Morel was elected to Parliament in 1922 as a Labour candidate, defeating the incumbent Winston Churchill for his seat, was reelected in 1924, dying in office. Morel collaborated with future prime minister Ramsay MacDonald and was considered for the post of Foreign Secretary, though he acted only as an unofficial adviser to MacDonald's government. Morel was born in Paris, his father, Edmond Morel de Ville, was a French civil servant. Edmond died when the boy was four, leaving no pension, Emmeline subsequently fell out with her late husband's family.
As a consequence, Emmeline raised her son on her own. To remove her son from the family's influence, she worked as a teacher so that she could send him to boarding school at both Madras House school in Eastbourne and at Bedford Modern School; when Emmeline Deville fell ill in 1888, the money for school fees was no longer available and Edmund was forced to return to Paris to work as a bank clerk. He was able to move his mother back to Britain in 1891. Five years he applied for naturalisation as a British subject and anglicised his name, he married Mary Richardson that same year. His daughter Stella married the Polish political advisor Joseph Retinger in 1926. In 1891, Morel obtained a clerkship with a Liverpool shipping firm. To increase his income and support his family, from 1893 Morel began writing articles against French protectionism, damaging Elder Dempster's business, he came to be critical of the Foreign Office for not supporting the rights of Africans under colonial rule. His vision of Africa was influenced by the books of Mary Kingsley, an English traveller and writer, which showed sympathy for African peoples and a respect for different cultures, rare amongst Europeans at the time.
Groups such as the Aborigines' Protection Society had begun a campaign against alleged atrocities in Congo. Elder Dempster had a shipping contract with the Congo Free State for the connection between Antwerp and Boma. Due to his knowledge of French, Morel was sent to Belgium, where he was able to view the internal accounts of the Congo Free State held by Elder Dempster; the knowledge that the ships leaving Belgium for the Congo carried only guns, chains and explosives, but no commercial goods, while ships arriving from the colony came back full of valuable products such as raw rubber and ivory, led him to the conclusion that Belgian King Leopold II's policy was exploitative and a type of slavery. According to author Adam Hochschild, Morel's conclusions were correct—the value of the goods coming from the Congo Free State was five times that of the goods coming from Europe, the difference was being extracted from the Congolese population through force and mass atrocities. Morel discussed the discrepancies with the head of the Elder Dempster line, who responded coldly and dismissively.
The company soon offered Morel an overseas promotion and a sinecure consultancy in return for a guarantee of his silence. Morel refused both offers, left the company in 1901 to become a full-time journalist. In 1900, Morel put new life into the campaign against Congo misrule with a series of articles detailing his discoveries about the Congo Free State trade imbalances, his inside information made him a powerful voice against the exploitation, as previous activists had lacked his access to precise figures about the trade. In 1903, he founded the West African Mail, with the collaboration of John Holt. John Holt was a businessman and friend of Mary Kingsley, who feared the system of the Congo Free State would be applied upon the rest of the West African colonies; the Mail was an "illustrated weekly journal founded to meet the growing interest in west and central African questions". The paper received initial financial backing from Sir Alfred Lewis Jones, Morel's former employer at Elder Dempster in a final attempt to moderate Morel's criticism o