Saint John River (Bay of Fundy)
The Saint John River is a 673 kilometres long river that flows from Northern Maine into Canada, runs south along the western side of New Brunswick, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean in the Bay of Fundy. Eastern Canada's longest river, its drainage basin is one of the largest on the east coast at about 55,000 square kilometres. A tributary forms 55km of the border between Quebec and Maine, much of the border between New Brunswick and Maine follows the river. New Brunswick settlements through which it passes include, moving downstream, include Edmundston, Fredericton and Saint John, it is regulated by hydro-power dams located at Mactaquac and Grand Falls, New Brunswick. Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the river on the feast day of John the Baptist in 1604 and named it the Rivière Saint-Jean, now known in English as the Saint John River. Many waterways in the system retain their original pre-European names; the Maliseet seek to restore this name. The headwaters are in the New England/Acadian forests of Maine and Quebec, including the Southwest and Baker branches, the Allagash River flowing into New Brunswick at Edmundston where it is joined by the Madawaska River.
The middle section runs from the confluence of the Aroostook and Tobique rivers, flowing southeast to Mactaquac Dam. Other tributaries in this section include the Meduxnekeag River; this area is the only place in Atlantic Canada. Plants rare for the province include wild ginger, black raspberry, wild coffee, maindenhair fern, showy orchis and others; this forest type known as the Saint John River Valley Hardwood Forest, once spread of much of the area and has been reduced to less than one percent of the land area because of human activities. This is an area of rolling hills and soils that are the most fertile and farmed in New Brunswick. Soils are fine and well-drained glacial tills overlaying limestone and sandstone; the climate here is warmer than surrounding regions. The lower basin, 140 kilometres to Saint John Harbour on the Bay of Fundy, consisting of lakes, wetlands and a tidal estuary. Tributaries in this section include Belleisle Bay; the final tributary, the Kennebecasis River, is a fjord with a sill, or rise in depth near the mouth of a fjord caused by a terminal moraine.
From Grand Bay, the waterway becomes narrower and deeper forming a gorge where at the Reversing Falls incoming tide forces the flow of water to reverse against the prevailing current. A wedge of salt water, below a surface covering of fresh water, extends upriver to the 10m shallows at Oak Point beyond which it cannot advance; the drainage basin is 55,000 square kilometres. The average discharge is 1100 m3/s. Water flow is lowest in the autumn, higher than average during the spring freshet at 6800 m3/s. In early spring, upper sections of the river can experience ice jams causing flooding. In the lower sections in the broader floodplain, flooding may occur during late spring from the volume of water which must make its way through the narrow gorge at the Reversing Falls. All of the river downstream of a point between Fredericton and Mactaquac Provincial Park is considered tidal; the river is calm, except for waterfalls at Grand Falls and at the Beechwood Dam. With the water flow in the spring being six times the average rate, the valley has always been prone to flooding in the spring.
Surface runoff from heavy rainfall is the main cause of flooding, can be exacerbated by ice jams, high tides, rapid snowmelt. Floods have been documented for more than 300 years. Flooding has occurred in Edmundston, Grand Falls, Perth-Andover and Woodstock, most around Fredericton. Major flooding has occurred with water 8 metres above normal winter low. In 1936 high temperatures quickened snowmelt, heavy rain raised the water level to 8.9 metres, about 7.6 metres above summer level. Similar circumstances led to the same level of high water in the 1973 flood. In the 2008 flood the water level reached 8.36 in Fredericton. Similar flooding occurred again in 2018; the severity and frequency of flooding is expected to increase, with climate change. It is predicted that New Brunswick's average temperature will increase by 5 C by the year 2100, that precipitation will increase. At the end of the last glacial period, following the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet about 13,000 years ago, the area was stripped bare of vegetation and soil.
By about 10,000 years ago, Paleo-Indians occupied what is now New Brunswick. Although the basin has been subject to human influence for thousands of years, the Maliseets' impact was minimal because of their small numbers, because they practised low intensity agriculture. Major disturbances did not begin until the early 1800s with the arrival of large numbers of Europeans; when the Europeans arrived, they found that the Saint John River basin was the homeland of the Maliseet tribes, who practiced hunting and gathering and farmed near the banks of the river. European colonists may have used fields and town sites prepared by the natives. Archaeological evidence is that the Maliseet had economic and cultural ties with large portion of North America; the Maliseet dealt with freshets by having their village above the floodplain, for example Meductic, while cultivating at a lower elevation where the fields were fertilized by the floodwaters. The Maliseet were mobile and the Saint John River was a primary means of transportation.
While the Maliseet saw themselves as part of the ecosystem, the Europeans' Judeo-Christian
Canada Flight Supplement
The Canada Flight Supplement is a joint civil/military publication and is a supplement of the Aeronautical Information Publication. It is the nation's official airport directory, it contains information on all registered Canadian and certain Atlantic aerodromes and certified airports. The CFS is published, separately in English and French, as a paper book by Nav Canada and is issued once every 56 days on the ICAO AIRAC schedule; the CFS was published by Natural Resources Canada on behalf of Transport Canada and the Department of National Defence until 15 March 2007 edition, at which time Nav Canada took over production. The CFS presents runway data and departure procedures, air traffic control and other radio frequencies and services such as fuel, hangarage that are available at each listed aerodrome; as well, the CFS contains useful reference pages, including interception instructions for civil aircraft, chart updating data and search and rescue information. Most pilots flying in Canada carry a copy of the CFS in case a weather or mechanical diversion to another airport becomes necessary.
The Canada Flight Supplement is made up of seven sections: Special Notices — list of new or amended procedures. General Section — glossary, airport code listing, list of abandoned aerodromes, other introductory information. Aerodrome/Facility Directory — list all aerodromes alphabetically by the community in which they are located. A sketch of the airport is included showing runway layout, locations of buildings and tower. Included in the sketch is an obstacle clearance circle. Planning — general flight planning information, including flight plans and position reports, lists of significant new towers and other obstructions, chart updating, preferred IFR routes, similar information. Radio Navigation and Communications — listing of radio navigation aids and communication outlets, together with all known commercial AM broadcasters and their locations and frequencies. Military Flight Data and Procedures — military flight and reporting procedures for Canada and the U. S. Emergency — emergency procedures and guidelines for hijacks, fuel dumping and rescue, etc.
Carrying "current aeronautical charts and publications covering the route of the proposed flight and any probable diversionary route" is a requirement under CAR 602.60 for night VFR, VFR Over-The-Top and instrument flight rules flights. This Canadian Aviation Regulation does not require carriage of a copy of the CFS, but, one way to satisfy the regulation; because information in the CFS may be out of date with regard to such issues as runway closures and fuel availability, pilots should check NOTAMs before each flight. NOTAM information in Canada can be obtained from the Nav Canada Aviation Weather Website or by contacting the appropriate regional Nav Canada Flight Information Centre. While Nav Canada's CFS has the monopoly on paper-version airport directories in Canada, there are several competing internet publications, including the Canadian Owners and Pilots Association's Places to Fly user-editable airport directory. Nav Canada publishes the Water Aerodrome Supplement, as a single volume in English and French.
This contains information on all Canadian water aerodromes as shown on visual flight rules charts and other information such as navaids. The WAS is published on an annual basis. Airport/Facility Directory – U. S. publications equivalent to the Aerodrome/Facility and Planning chapters of the CFS, but divided into several volumes covering different regions. Official website
Nackawic is a town located 65 km west of the city of Fredericton on the east bank of the Saint John River in New Brunswick, Canada. The town occupies an area of about 9 km² and is surrounded by the parishes of Southampton and Queensbury with the Village of Millville 10 km to the north. Nackawic is centered on the intersection of Route 105 and Route 605; the area was first settled in 1784 by the United Empire Loyalists through land grants to the families of soldiers who had fought with His Majesty's Regiment of Queen's Rangers during the American Revolutionary War. Known as Otis, the development of New Brunswick's newest village, as it exists today, began in the late 1960s and was built so those forced to relocate as the result of the Mactaquac Dam being constructed would have a place to reside. Construction of the pulp mill, built to employ these displaced persons who lost their traditional farming opportunities that came with the Dam, occurred between 1967 and 1970. Nackawic was incorporated as a town in 1976.
Nackawic is home to the World's Largest Axe. The town's largest employer, from 1970 until September 14, 2004, was St. Anne Nackawic Pulp Company Ltd. founded by Karl F. Landegger; the mill closed on September 14 and its owners declared bankruptcy the following day, putting 406 people out of work. About 350 contract workers in the middle of a maintenance shutdown were affected; the mill itself was left in a state of disassembly. Construction of the mill began following the building of the Mactaquac Dam; the plant manufactured photographic grade kraft pulp. Increasing energy and labor costs here at home. At the same time, the provincial government had been undertaking a reorganization of Crown timber lands in New Brunswick in recent years, rumored to include a reduction in the timber harvest for the St. Anne Nackawic mill. Additionally, the rise in use of digital cameras and resulting decline in the use of photographic paper had reduced the demand for St. Anne Nackawic's product, it was revealed during bankruptcy proceedings that St. Anne Nackawic Pulp Company Ltd. owed $101.2 million to its creditors, including $50.2 million to unsecured creditors.
It was learned that the company-funded employee pension plans were under-funded, as allowed by law. Employees under the age of 55 were informed that it was unlikely that they would receive any pension benefits; the Government of New Brunswick stepped in and, faced with an difficult decision, created a new distribution model that would see the pension fund shared by all employees, including those in the under 55 group. Understandably, those receiving pension benefits prior to the mill’s closure were outraged at the thought of being forced to give up a portion of their pension so that the under 55 group would to have at least something to look forward to during their golden years; the loss of pension benefits and the perceived unfairness of distribution sparked an outcry for the provincial government to intervene. Legal action against the Province resulted and as of July 2007, retirees and other employees still do not know what the final outcome of the pension situation will be. George Landegger, chairman and CEO of Parsons & Whittemore of Rye Brook, New York, the holding company that owned St. Anne Industries which in turn owned St. Anne Nackawic Pulp Company Ltd. was responsible for ordering the shutdown.
Having been unable to secure a traditional lending institution after its Bank loans were called in 2001, St. Anne Industries, in an effort to continue the operations at Nackawic, replaced the Bank and thus became the primary secured creditor of the St. Anne Nackawic mill. Many persons impacted negatively by the closure, either uninformed or unwilling to accept the cold, harsh reality of the situation, were unable to comprehend how the primary secured creditor could rightfully receive the funds to which it was entitled – enjoying the same right as the Bank in similar proceedings. Parsons and Whittemore agreed to relinquish title to the plant and equipment, at the same time shedding its officers and directors of their personal liability environmental – a rather serious matter that transcends all Bankruptcy law, allowing the provincial government to seek a buyer for the facility. In addition to most of the local businesses in the Nackawic area, some of the creditors and companies affected by the closure of the mill included the Port of Saint John, Logistec Corporation, Wallenius Wilhelmsen, Star Shipping.
It is notable that the aforementioned Logistec Corporation received, from the Landegger-appointed Receiver and complete payment for everything it was owed up to the moment of Bankruptcy. This payment was made after the Bankruptcy was declared and was challenged in the Courts by the replacement Trustee. In a surprise decision that left the legal community baffled, the New Brunswick Court of Appeals ruled that this was not a preferential payment, which would have been in serious contravention of the BIA. A group of 19 contractors working on site when the mill was closed joined together and was successful in a number of significant wins in the Bankruptcy proceedings. First, this group of 19 secured their position by placing liens on the mill property. Next, the group of 19 had the original Trustee, who served as the Landegger-appointed Receiver, replaced with one who would better serve the best intere
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
New Brunswick is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton. Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes. Being close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq and the Passamaquoddy peoples; the French settlers were displaced when the area became part of the British Empire.
In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia. The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada. After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England; the mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services 43%. Tourism accounts for about 9 % of the labour force indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.
Indigenous peoples have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Petitcodiac and Shediac. New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, Basque and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s; the first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Now Saint John, this was the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick. French settlement extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton. Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, up the Petitcodiac and Shepody Rivers.
By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean and Île-Royale; the ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto. The British prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians. Present-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants from New England, on their former lands; some settled along the Saint John River. Settlement was slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area. After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit.
The number reached 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten returning to America. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly; the colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city; the population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812. The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding, bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels; the first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861. In 1848, responsible home government was granted and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties organised along religious and ethnic lines.
The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed i
Fredericton is the capital of the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The city is situated in the west-central portion of the province along the Saint John River, which flows west to east as it bisects the city; the river is the dominant natural feature of the area. One of the main urban centres in New Brunswick, the city had a population of 56,224 in the 2011 census, it is the third-largest city in the province after Saint John. An important cultural and educational centre for the province, Fredericton is home to two universities, the New Brunswick College of Craft and Design, cultural institutions such as the Beaverbrook Art Gallery, the Fredericton Region Museum, The Playhouse, a performing arts venue; the city hosts the annual Harvest Jazz & Blues Festival, attracting regional and international jazz, blues and world artists. Fredericton is an important and vibrant centre point for the region's top visual artists. Fredericton has been home to some great historical Canadian painters as well, including Goodridge Roberts, Molly and Bruno Bobak.
As a provincial capital, its economy is tied to the public sector. The city has the highest percentage of residents with a post-secondary education in the province and the highest per capita income of any city in New Brunswick; the earliest known inhabitation of the area dates back 12,000 years, according to archaeologists, evidenced by recent finds. Excavations unearthed a campsite with firepit and more than 600 artifacts including stone tool fragments and arrowheads; the area of the present-day city of Fredericton was first used for seasonal farming by the Maliseet peoples. Maliseet cultivated food plants including: beans, Jerusalem artichokes, ground nuts, maize on the river banks and islands of the Saint John River. In the mid-18th century their principal village of Aucpaque was located several kilometres upriver from the site of present-day Fredericton; the first European contact was by the French in the late 17th century. Joseph Robineau de Villebon was appointed governor of Acadia. During King William's War, Villebon built Fort Nashwaak on the north side of the Saint John River, at the mouth of the Nashwaak River.
For most of the war, Fort Nashwaak served as the capital of the French colony of Acadia. French and English hostilities continued along the border. Within weeks of an attack of French and Indigenous forces launched from Fort Nashwaak on Pemaquid, the New Englanders struck back. In 1696, an expedition under command of Major Benjamin Church set out to destroy Fort Nashwaak. Commander Villebon had been prepared his defences. On 18 October, the British troops arrived near the fort, landed three cannons, assembled earthworks on the south bank of the Nashwaak River; the siege of Fort Nashwaak last for two days gunfire was fiercely exchanged, with the advantage going to the better-sited Acadian guns. The New Englanders were defeated, with 17 wounded; the Acadians sustained losses of two wounded. After Villebon's death in 1700 and a devastating flood that destroyed several French farms in the area, the fort was abandoned; the Fredericton area was first permanently settled and named Pointe-Sainte-Anne in 1732 by Acadians fleeing Nova Scotia after the British took over the territory.
Their townsite was on the south side of the river a mile upriver from Fort Nashwaak. The British captured Ste. Anne's Point during the expulsion of the Acadians, burning the settlement to the ground in the St. John River Campaign during the French and Indian War, the North American front of their Seven Years' War in Europe against France. A 1762 settlement attempt by the British was unsuccessful due to the hostility of local Acadian and Aboriginal populations; these settlers erected a community downriver at what is today the town of Maugerville. However, three fur traders settled permanently here in 1768. In 1783, United Empire Loyalists were settled in Ste. Anne's Point after the American Revolution, having left their properties in the United States, they were granted land in compensation in British North America by the Crown. Many died during the long first winter in Fredericton; the dead were buried in what became the Loyalist cemetery, still found on the south bank of the Saint John River. When spring came, more Loyalists left the new settlement to take up land grants in other areas.
When New Brunswick became a separate colony from Nova Scotia in 1784, Ste. Anne's Point became the provincial capital, winning out over Parrtown due to its central inland location; this made it less prone to American attack from the sea. A street plan was laid out to the west of the original townsite, King's College was founded, the locale was renamed "Frederick's Town", in honour of the second son of King George III of the United Kingdom, Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York; the name was shortened to Fredericton shortly after the city became the official provincial capital of New Brunswick on 25 April 1785. Thus, in a period of less than three years, the area of Fredericton went from being a sparsely populated region to being the capital of the new colony of New Brunswick; the same attributes that made Fredericton the capital city made it an ideal spot for a military installation. Many of th