The Nepal Scouts is the national Scouting and Guiding organization of Nepal, founded in Nepal in 1952. It became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1969 and became a member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1984; the organization serves 11,962 Guides. In 2007, as part of the centenary of Scouting, Nepal renamed Urkema Peak in the Himalayas to Baden-Powell Peak. Programs focus on handicrafts, camping, nature conservation and community development. Service activities include adult literacy campaigns, food production, child vaccination and drug abuse education. Relief operations are mobilized during earthquakes, landslides and other natural disasters. Scout activities are organized for both girls jointly. Under the national education system, university students pursuing the masters level are required to serve in a village for a year; these students are given an orientation. The first national jamboree of the Nepal Scouts was organized in 1987 at Kirtipur.
The second national jamboree was organized in 2013 at Tikauli of Chitwan District and was themed Peace and Harmony.. The Third National Scout Jamboree was held on May 30 to 4 June, 2018 at Kakani International Scouts Center, Nuwakot; the Nepal Scouts has its National Training Center at Kathmandu. The International training center is situated at Nuwakot District. Cubs/Brownie: Ages 7 to 10 Boys/Girls Scouts: Ages 11 to 15 Rovers/Ranger: Ages 16 to 25 Cubs: सक्दो कोशिस गर Sakdo Kosis Gara Scouts: तयार होऊ Tayar Hou Rovers: सेवा Sewa The membership badge of the Nepal Scouts incorporates elements of the flag of Nepal, both the trefoil to represent the girls and the fleur-de-lis to represent the boys, as well as the founding date in both Western and Nepali calendars; the highest rank in scout level is'King's Badge" however, after revolution it is now the Everest Badge. Nepal has active expatriate Scout groups, including the American Boy Scouts in Kathmandu, the Direct Service Pack, Troop 900; these are sponsored by the Lincoln School and linked to the Direct Service branch of the Boy Scouts of America, which supports units around the world
Asia-Pacific Scout Region (World Organization of the Scout Movement)
The Asia-Pacific Scout Region is the divisional office of the World Scout Bureau of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, headquartered in Makati City, with satellite offices in Australia and Japan. The Asia-Pacific Region services Scouting in the land area of Asia south of Siberia and east of Central Asia, the bulk of the Pacific Basin, with the exception of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau, which are under the Interamerican Region by way of the Aloha Council of the Boy Scouts of America; the Asia-Pacific Scout Region has witnessed the births and rebirths of national Scout organizations since the region was founded in 1956. Starting with ten founding members, it grew to 27 member countries by 2016, out of which 25 are full-fledged members and two are associate members, encompassing 30 million Scouts. Eight of the 15 largest Scout associations in the world are in the Region. All the communist states of Central Asia and the Soviet Union have developed or are developing Scouting in the wake of the renaissance in the region.
For several years, communism repressed Scouting in Afghanistan, where it has newly returned, as well as in Mongolia, the first Soviet satellite state since 1924. On the other hand, the World Scout Committee accepted in 2009 the declaration of Gerakan Pramuka Indonesia of having 17 million members for the census 2008; this has directly affected and changed the membership figure in the region, resulting in an increase of 9 million members, which now stands at a total of 24.7 million in 2009. Separated by uneven resources, ethnic groups and technological resources, Scouting in the Asia-Pacific Region enjoys the respect of the public and by governments, a wide array of volunteers encompassing public and private sectors, is powered by a small but committed group of professionals in the Scouting service; the current Regional Chairman is Ahmad Rusdi of Indonesia, the current Regional Director is Jose Rizal Pangilinan of the Philippines. This region is the counterpart of the Asia Pacific Region of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts.
Associate Members of the Asia-Pacific Scout Region include The Scout Association of Macau and the Conseil du Scoutisme polynésien. Potential member countries include: The Asia-Pacific Region contains two of the four countries with no Scouting organization, each of which are due to political constraints within the countries. North Korea Laos The Asia-Pacific Silver Jubilee Celebration was held at the regional gathering at the 27th World Scout Conference in Denmark. APRinbox is the monthly e-newsletter of World Scout Bureau/Asia Pacific Region circulated to Scouts and adult leaders in the global community of the Scout Movement, edited by the Asia Pacific Regional Office in Manila, Philippines; the Suncheon Asia-Pacific Scout Centre offers programs in English based on the Scout method of "learning by doing" – a hands-on experiential learning process in the outdoors through young leaders from the National Scout Organizations. The APR Scout Committee shall consist of ten persons from member National Scout Organizations in the Asia-Pacific Region who shall be elected by the conference by secret ballot for a term of six years.
The chairman of the Committee is the leader of the region, elected between the committee members. The current chairperson is Paul Parkinson from Australia. One of its main functions is to act on behalf of the Conference between its meetings and to appoint subcommittees or study committees as may be needed. There are six subcommittees from 2015 to 2018, which are: Programme, Adult Support, Financial Resources, Scouting Profile and Foundation Management. All the members are nominated from the member NSOs, with the youth representatives, Young Adult Members, who are elected from the Asia-Pacific Regional Youth Forum; the APR Scout Conference are held every three years as to gather all the NSOs to deal with the major regional problem. It is the toppest governing body of the region. 22 APR Scout Conference was held in Japan in 2007. The 23rd Asia-Pacific Regional Scout Conference held from 27 October to 1 November 2009, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia had 440 participants from Asia-Pacific, Arab, Europe and other organizations.
The APR Scout Committee and Sub-committees members are elected by the conference. The next conference will be held in Bangladesh in 2012. Between Conferences there are APR Scout Leaders' Summit; the last Summit was held in India in 2010. Fifty-seven participants from 17 countries attended the 2004 Asia-Pacific Region Youth Forum in Brunei Darussalam in December 2004. Six Youth advisors attended the Regional Committee meetings; the Youth Advisers are Edward Cook, Eko Andrianto of Indonesia, Netsai Khaimarn of Thailand, In Sun Ryu of Korea, Maiya Twayanabasu of Nepal, Aaron Wardle. They advised on helping to manage the next youth forum. 107 participants from 24 countries attended the 6th Asia-Pacific Region Youth Forum in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in October 2009. Seven Young Adult Member Group members were elected and they are assigned to the Regional Committee or Sub-committee; the Young Adult Member Group members are Maeedh Mohamed Zahir of Maldives as the new Chairman, Lam Kwok Hei Dicky of Hong Kong, Ari Wijanarko Adipratomo of Indonesia, Seo Ji Eun of Korea, Mohd Hafiz Bin Ariffin of Malaysia, Oliver Lim Zi Kai of Singapore and Krittee Tantivisitkul of Thailand.
They advised on helping to organise and manage the next youth forum in Bangladesh in 2012. The project calls for the selection of Outstanding Scouts in the Asia-Pacific Region from among candidates nominated by member NSOs in the region, the award is to be made at the Asia-Pacific
Sri Lanka Scout Association
The Sri Lanka Scout Association, is a Scouting organization in Sri Lanka operated by the Ceylon Scout Council. The Ceylon Scout Council is a corporation formed by Act No 13 of 1957; the association became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1953. The coeducational Sri Lanka Scout Association has 33,709 members as of 2014. in 2016 the year that the National Organization reached 104 years the Scouting Population in Sri Lanka had increased to 55,078 the growth taking place against the year 2015 was 29%, a great achievement by the SLSA. There are various community development projects carried out in cooperation with the government organizations, United Nations and other service organizations. Scouting has been introduced into the prisons, it has spread to other institutions such as certified schools. There are Scout units for handicapped boys such as the blind and deaf and for boys in leprosy hospitals. 1912 - In 1912, the first recorded troop of Boy Scouts in Sri Lanka was formed at Christ Church College, Matale by District Civil Engineer, Francis George Stevens.
1913 - The second Scout troop in the country, the 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scout Group, was established at Dharmaraja College, Kandy 1914 - the first Colombo Scout troop was established. It was the first open Scout troop and the third Scout troop in Sri Lanka 1914 - The 1st Galle Mahinda Scout Group, was established at Mahinda College, Galle by Francis George Stevens 1914 - Scouting was introduced to Trinity College, Kandy by J. N. Thomas. 1916 - Creation of the 10th Colombo Ananda College Scout Troop at Ananda College, Colombo 1916 - Creation of the 4th Galle Aloysius' Scout Group at St. Aloysius' College, Galle by Fr. Murphy 1916 - Western Province Rally at Havelock Park, Colombo. 1917 - Scouting was introduced to Wesley College, Colombo by Rev. P. T. Cash, 1916 - The Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom formed its Ceylon Branch. 1917 - King's Flag was won by 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scouts for the first time in Ceylon Scouting history. 1917 - First all Ceylon Rally at Havelock Race Course, Colombo.
1917 - A. B. Rambukwella of the 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scout Group, won the King's Scout Badge as the first Ceylonese King Scout. 1918 - King's Flag was won by 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scouts for the second time in Ceylon Scouting history. 1919 - King's Flag was won by 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scouts for the third time in Ceylon Scouting history. 1921 - 1921 - B. P.'s visit to Sri Lanka with Lady Olave Baden-Powell. 1925 - Vernon Grenier becomes Chief Commissioner. 1930 - Scout HQ moves to an old guardroom at Galle Face, Colombo. 1930 - J. H. De Saram become the first native Chief Commissioner. 1932 - All Ceylon Scout Craft exhibition at Katugastota, Kandy. 1934 - Lord and Lady Baden-Powell visit Sri Lanka 1942 - K. Somasundaram becomes Chief Commissioner. 1948 - Col. C. P. Jayawardene becomes the Chief Commissioner. New Buildings of National Headquarters. Pedru Camp-site at Nuwera-Eliya. Job Week scheme started. Sinhala and Tamil edition of Scouting for Boys published. 1952 - Ceylon Jamboree at Koombi Kele, Colombo.
1953 - The Boy Scouts Association Ceylon Branch is succeeded by the Ceylon Boy Scouts Association. 1954 - E. W. Kannangara becomes Chief Commissioner. 1957 - Participation in Jubilee Jamboree in England. 1957 - Ceylon Boy Scouts Council Act passed by the parliament nationalizing the former Ceylon branch of The Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom under the control of the Ceylon Boy Scouts Council. 1962 - Golden Jubilee Jamboree at Race Course, Colombo. 1965 November 25th -'Cub Scout Tattoo' a Unique Performance in Police ground. 1965 - Mr. Vincent Perera, a Mayor Of Colombo renamed the Lower lake road to "BALADAKSHA MAWATHA" 1965 - "BALADAKSHA HANDA" Special Sinhala Radio Program Started with SLBC. 1966 - The Cub Scout Golden Jubilee Celebrations in Sri Lanka and World. 1967 - Fitzroy H. Gunesekera becomes Chief Commissioner. 1972 - C. M. P. Wanigatunga becomes Chief Commissioner. 1977 - H. Ratnasuriya becomes Chief Commissioner. National HQ shifted to Chitthampalan Gardiner Mawatha, Colombo 02.
1978 - Old Rajans Scouts Association, the first South Asian old Scout association formed by the old Scouts of 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scout Group, Dharmaraja College, Kandy. 1982 - Theodore Seneviratne becomes Chief Commissioner. Special Commemorative Stamp in honour of B. P. on 125th Birth Anniversary. 1983 - 3rd National Jamboree at Walisinghe Harischandra Ground Anuradhapura. 1984 - 2nd National Cubboree. 1987 - Rex Jayasinghe becomes Chief Commissioner. 1990 - 1st SAARC Jamboree at Vihara Maha Devi Park, Colombo. Chief Commissioner Rex Jayasinghe dies just before Jamboree. J. Lionel Silva becomes Chief Commissioner. 1992 - 4th National Jamboree in Kurunegala. M. Mazzahim Mohideen becomes Chief Commissioner. 1997 - K. H. Camillus Fernando becomes Chief Commissioner. 1998 - 5th National Jamboree, Kandy. 1998 - First Asia- Pacific Workshop on Information Technology - Colombo, First Web page hosted by University of Morotuwa. 2002 - H. S. Weerakoon becomes Chief Commissioner. 6th National Scout Jamboree, Balapitiya.
2006 - 7th National Scout Jamboree, Nuwara Eliya. 2007 - C. Batuwangala becomes Chief Commissioner. 2009 - First female Cub Scouts invested on 23 January 2009 - Chathura Deshapriya Mataraarachchi of 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scout Group was awarded the Outstanding Asia-Pacific Scout Award. 2009 - The initiation of Sri Lanka Old Scouts and Old Guides Association and the Kandy District President Scouts and President Guides Association was done 2010 - 8th National Scout Jamboree, Angun
The Scout Motto of the Scout movement, in various languages, has been used by millions of Scouts around the world since 1907. Most of the member organizations of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts share this same motto. In English, this motto is most Be Prepared. In the third part of Scouting for Boys Robert Baden-Powell explains the meaning of the phrase: The Scout Motto is: BE PREPARED which means you are always in a state of readiness in mind and body to do your DUTY. Be Prepared in Mind by having disciplined yourself to be obedient to every order, by having thought out beforehand any accident or situation that might occur, so that you know the right thing to do at the right moment, are willing to do it. Be Prepared in Body by making yourself strong and active and able to do the right thing at the right moment, do it. "To do the right thing at the right moment" can be extreme: "Where a man has gone so far as to attempt suicide, a Scout should know what to do with him." "BE PREPARED to die for your country if need be, so that when the moment arrives you may charge home with confidence, not caring whether you are going to be killed or not"The first handbook for Girl Guides, How Girls Can Help to Build Up the Empire by Agnes and Robert Baden-Powell explains: The motto of the Girl Guides is "Be Prepared".
Why is this? It is because, like the other Guides, you have to be prepared at any moment to face difficulties and dangers by knowing what to do and how to do it. Hilary Saint George Saunders' book The Left Handshake: The Boy Scout Movement during the War, 1939–1945 had the first name of each chapter spell out the Scout motto; the chosen names are: Bravery, Purpose, Endurance, Assurance, Reformation and Devotion. Note-many languages have masculine and feminine forms of words – where gender changes the Scout Motto, differences are reflected here; the motto of the Young Pioneers, Always Prepared in various national languages, the Pioneers having been created as an alternative in countries where Scouting was banned The motto of the United States Coast Guard, Semper Paratus or ready
Scouting and Guiding in mainland China
Scouting and Guiding in Mainland China was reported as banned with the establishment of the People's Republic of China by the Communist Party since 1949. Instead, the Young Pioneers of China and the Communist Youth League, led by the Communist Party, have become the dominant youth organization in mainland China for younger and older youth, respectively. However, China now has multiple and separate Scouting activities within its borders. In 2004, the Scout Club of Hainan, borrowing from Scouting in terms of emblems and activities, was founded in Hainan Province. An attempt to organize a nationwide Scouting organization in Wuhan was ended by the government in 2004; the Scout Association of the People's Republic of China, founded in 2008 serves Venture Scouts in both genders as well as Rover Scouts. The Rover Explorer Service Association operate groups in China. Following the birth of the Republic of China, the first Scout troop was organized by Reverend Yen Chia-lin in Wuchang on February 25, 1912 and the Scouting movement spread all over the country.
The General Association of the Scouts of China was formally established in Nanjing in 1934, became a member of the International Scout Bureau in 1937. Many Scouts participated in the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945. There were 570,000 registered members in 1941. However, all Scouting activities in mainland were ceased in 1949, when the communists took over mainland China; the Chinese Scout Association was reorganized in 1950 after the ROC government was relocated to Taipei, resumed membership in the International Scout Bureau as Scouts of China. Japanese military authorities did not encourage the Scouting movement in occupied territories. Where local conditions were favorable, authorities would permit local Scouting or introduce Japanese-style Scouting, or Shōnendan, sometimes made this compulsory. On the other hand, where conditions were not favorable, anti-Japanese sentiments were to be nurtured through Scouting, the authorities would prohibit it entirely. After the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, Japanese-style Scouting was introduced in some parts of occupied China.
In May 1938, the Japanese Army and the puppet Chinese Government set up the Qingdao Chinese Boys' Corps, patterned after Japanese Scouting. The 1st Dragon Troop, formed in 1909 and registered 1910, was the earliest Scout Troop in the Far East, it was destined to evolve into a viable British Association of British and English speaking Scouts whose nationalities were of more than forty countries, who were full-time residents of the “International Settlement,” at Shanghai, a Treaty Port of China since 1842. In 1909 a Troop of "Boy Scouts" was formed as a branch of the existing "Boys’ Brigade,” a precursor to Shanghai Scouting, whose members were representative of the cosmopolitan but culturally Western population of the city. On October 6, 1910, twenty-five boys were selected from the Boys' Brigade Scouts to form the “Shanghai Boy Scouts," independent of Headquarters, expressly for purpose of separation from the Boys' Brigade; these were boys of various nationalities including some British subjects and those of several different faiths.
In the spring of 1911, the Shanghai Boy Scouts left the Boys' Brigade, emerging as three Troops. There were six Scoutmasters, the Chief Scoutmaster being G. R. Welch, a Briton, they were not registered at HQ, London and soon became an independent Association under the aegis of the Shanghai Municipal Council, the governing body of the International Settlement of Shanghai. Before Empire Day, 1911, a mature, independent Dragon Troop with some choir boys of the Holy Trinity Cathedral amalgamated with a number of experienced British Scouts from the Boys' Brigade, were issued a new Warrant dated May 24, 1911, as the British Troop. Consolidation was credited to a Warranted Scoutmaster from England, H. R. Hertslet; the Trinity Cathedral Church House and compound became the 1st Shanghai Baden-Powell Group’s Headquarters for the next 30 years. On April 12, 1912, a joint parade was held at the British Consulate Grounds in honor of Lt. General Sir Robert Baden-Powell, who inspected both Scout Associations during his visit to Shanghai.
Undoubtedly all existing Scouts of the Settlement would have attended. Present were 35 Baden-Powell Scouts, 70 Shanghai Boy Scouts, 15 Baden-Powell Girl Scouts and combined, 11 Scoutmasters, for a total strength of 131. There were no Boys' Brigade Scouts present, it appears that Boys' Brigade had divested themselves of a Scouting program, in keeping with some similar actions in Great Britain around that time. Soon after this memorable parade, nine senior boys left the 1st Baden-Powell Troop to continue or complete their education in England. Thus, the 1st Shanghai Troop of Baden-Powell Scouts was able to make a presence at the “Imperial Scout Exhibition” in Birmingham, July 1913, as the “Dragon Troop” of Shanghai wearing their original dark uniforms of 1909. By April 1914, without any senior members of the Shanghai Public School left in the 1st Baden-Powell Troop, the remaining Cathedral School Scouts were registered as the 1st Shanghai Cathedral School Troop, thus becoming the 1st Baden-Powell.
Their first Scoutmaster was L. R. Wheen. In August, the Great War in Europe had an unforeseen effect on the composition of the Scout Groups in Shanghai. F. C. Millington, one of the earliest Warranted Scoutmasters in the world, too
Singapore Scout Association
The Singapore Scout Association is one of the oldest youth movements in Singapore. Scouting was first introduced in Singapore in 1908 but was founded on 2 July 1910. A young Scoutmaster named Frank Cooper Sands arrived from Nottingham in September 1910 and spent the next 40 years helping to create the Singapore Scout Association, he is called the "Father of Malayan Scouting". Starting with a small troop of 30 boys, the movement has grown immensely over the last 90 years, surviving two world wars and producing countless leaders in every sphere of human endeavour. Scouting for local boys only started in 1919 by Captain N. M. Hashim and A. Z. Alsagoff. From 1922 schools in Singapore adopted the Scout Programme as an extra-curricular activity resulting in the formation of school-sponsored troops registered as 2nd Raffles Institution, 3rd Anglo-Chinese School and 4th St Joseph Institution; the 04 St Joseph's Pelandok Scout Group, formed in the 1911, became the oldest surviving Scout troop after the First Singapore Scout Troop disbanded.
From 1963 to 1965 the SSA formed part of the Scout Association of Malaysia. Today, there are 10,292 Scouts in Singapore serving in four mainstream Scout sections; each section caters to the needs of Scouts in a specific age range through its different program focus. The Cub Scout section comprises youths between ages 7 and 12 while the scout section is made up of youths from 12 to 16. In addition, there are the Venture Scout and Rover Scout sections which accept youths between the ages of 15 and 18 and young adults from 17 to 25 respectively. Besides the mainstream Scout sections, there is the Sea Scout section, which comprises Sea Scouts, Sea Venture Scouts and Sea Rover Scouts, the Extension Scouts, open to all physically or mentally disadvantaged youths who enjoy Scouting. There was the Air Scout section, abolished. However, in 2011, the Air Scout programme has been restarted and the section has been renamed as Black Knights Air Scouts. On 24 March 2012, an investiture ceremony was held to welcome the latest batch of Air Scout Rovers.
Some 20 students and two lecturers from ITE College Central’s Black Knights Air Scouts, completed the airborne training conducted by the Royal Thai Air Force from 5 to 8 July 2012, during their Overseas Training Program 2012, in Bangkok, Thailand. Scouting in Singapore is not only available to schools but to the general community; the Scout units based in community are open units. They work hand in hand with their respective RCs with community projects while using these RCs as their Scout's "base". There are several foreign Scout groups the international schools, in Singapore that participate in the Singapore National & Area Scouting events; the emblem uses the red and white from the Flag of Singapore, plus the 5 stars and crescent symbolizing unity of Scouts regardless of ethnic origin, religion or mother language. The President of the Republic of Singapore is the Chief Scout; the Chief Scout holds the highest authority in the SSA and grants warrants and awards to uniformed adult leaders and commissioners who are recommended by the Association Headquarters.
The Chief Scout awards deserving and outstanding youth members who have attained the Standards of the Highest Award — the President's Scout Award. The Association Headquarters is led by the Scout Council, which comprises both the uniformed and lay officials who assist the Chief Scout in his functions; the Scout Council is responsible for finding funds to support the Association's activities and provides strategic direction and financial oversight on the Association while the Commissioners' Council formulates operational policies and directives in the respective fields and departments. The Area Council and the Districts implement the various National policies and directives to the grassroot units. Full-time professional staff provide day-to-day management of the Association Headquarters and provide support services to Commissioners' Council and Scout Council; the Scout Council is headed by an elected President of the Association, together with his Vice Presidents and Council members. There are several committees formed up to look into the various aspects of the Association including the Finance Committee, Uniform Committee, Scout Shop Committee.
The Commissioner's Council is the highest operational policy and directive body headed by Chief Commissioner. The Commissioner's Council structure as follows: Chief Commissioner Deputy Chief Commissioners Assistant Chief Commissioners National Training Commissioner National Programme Commissioner Area Commissioners Membership Growth Commissioner Partnership Commissioner Adult Resource Commissioner Programme Resource Commissioner International/Relations Commissioner District CommissionerThe National Training Commissioner is the head of National Training Team whose role is to provide adult leader training towards Woodbadge; the National Program Commissioner is the head of National Program Council whose role is to provide Scouting Programs and updates for all youth members. The International/Relations Commissioner is the head of International/Relations Department that handles both relations within Singapore and internationally; the SSA made a bid to host the 23rd World Scout Jamboree, to be sited at its campsite on Coney Island in 2015.
In a decision made at the World Scout Conference in 2008, the Jamboree was awarded to the Scout Association of Japan. Girl Guides Singapore Cub Scouts World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood Official website BSA Sea Scout official website Singapore Scout Guild Singapore Rovers resou
Scouting or the Scout Movement is a movement that aims to support young people in their physical and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society, with a strong focus on the outdoors and survival skills. During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls, it is one of several worldwide youth organizations. In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance and scouting. Baden-Powell wrote Scouting for Boys, based on his earlier books about military scouting, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham, Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, his publisher Pearson. In the summer of 1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book; this camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys are regarded as the start of the Scout movement.
The movement employs the Scout method, a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, aquatics, hiking and sports. Another recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges and other patches; the two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement, for boys-only and co-educational organizations, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts for girls-only organizations but accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. Scouting started itself, but the trigger that set it going was the 1908 publication of Scouting for Boys written by Robert Baden-Powell.
At Charterhouse, one of England's most famous public schools, Baden-Powell had an interest in the outdoors. As a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India in the 1880s where he took an interest in military scouting and in 1884 he published Reconnaissance and Scouting. In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia as Chief of Staff to Gen. Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War. In June 1896 he met here and began a lifelong friendship with Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army in Africa; this was a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas originated here. During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham augmented Baden-Powell's woodcraft skills, inspiring him and sowing seeds for both the programme and for the code of honour published in Scouting for Boys.
Practised by frontiersmen of the American Old West and indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was little known to the British Army but well-known to the American scout Burnham. These skills formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, the fundamentals of Scouting. Both men recognised that wars in Africa were the British Army needed to adapt. During this time in the Matobo Hills Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, acquired his kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses. Three years in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafikeng by a much larger Boer army; the Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defence of the town, were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement.
Each member received a badge that illustrated spearhead. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis shaped arrowhead that Scouting adopted as its international symbol; the Siege of Mafeking was the first time since his own childhood that Baden-Powell, a regular serving soldier, had come into the same orbit as "civilians"—women and children—and discovered for himself the usefulness of well-trained boys. In the United Kingdom, the public, through newspapers, followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking, when the siege was broken he had become a national hero; this rise to fame fuelled the sales of the small instruction book he had written in 1899 about military scouting and wilderness survival, Aids to Scouting, that owed much to what he had learned from discussions with Burnham. On his return to England, Baden-Powell noticed that boys showed considerable interest in Aids to Scouting, unexpectedly used by teachers and youth organizations as their first Scouting handbook, he was urged to rewrite this book for boys during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade, a large youth movement drille