A forest is a large area dominated by trees. Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function. According to the used Food and Agriculture Organization definition, forests covered 4 billion hectares or 30 percent of the world's land area in 2006. Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, are distributed around the globe. Forests account for 75% of the gross primary production of the Earth's biosphere, contain 80% of the Earth's plant biomass. Net primary production is estimated at 21.9 gigatonnes carbon per year for tropical forests, 8.1 for temperate forests, 2.6 for boreal forests. Forests at different latitudes and elevations form distinctly different ecozones: boreal forests near the poles, tropical forests near the equator and temperate forests at mid-latitudes. Higher elevation areas tend to support forests similar to those at higher latitudes, amount of precipitation affects forest composition.
Human society and forests influence each other in both negative ways. Forests serve as tourist attractions. Forests can affect people's health. Human activities, including harvesting forest resources, can negatively affect forest ecosystems. Although forest is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition, with more than 800 definitions of forest used around the world. Although a forest is defined by the presence of trees, under many definitions an area lacking trees may still be considered a forest if it grew trees in the past, will grow trees in the future, or was designated as a forest regardless of vegetation type. There are three broad categories of forest definitions in use: administrative, land use, land cover. Administrative definitions are based upon the legal designations of land, bear little relationship to the vegetation growing on the land: land, designated as a forest is defined as a forest if no trees are growing on it. Land use definitions are based upon the primary purpose.
For example, a forest may be defined as any land, used for production of timber. Under such a land use definition, cleared roads or infrastructure within an area used for forestry, or areas within the region that have been cleared by harvesting, disease or fire are still considered forests if they contain no trees. Land cover definitions define forests based upon the type and density of vegetation growing on the land; such definitions define a forest as an area growing trees above some threshold. These thresholds are the number of trees per area, the area of ground under the tree canopy or the section of land, occupied by the cross-section of tree trunks. Under such land cover definitions, an area of land can only be known as forest if it is growing trees. Areas that fail to meet the land cover definition may be still included under while immature trees are establishing if they are expected to meet the definition at maturity. Under land use definitions, there is considerable variation on where the cutoff points are between a forest and savanna.
Under some definitions, forests require high levels of tree canopy cover, from 60% to 100%, excluding savannas and woodlands in which trees have a lower canopy cover. Other definitions consider savannas to be a type of forest, include all areas with tree canopies over 10%; some areas covered in trees are defined as agricultural areas, e.g. Norway spruce plantations in Austrian forest law when the trees are being grown as Christmas trees and below a certain height; the word forest comes from Middle English, from Old French forest "forest, vast expanse covered by trees". A borrowing of the Medieval Latin word foresta "open wood", foresta was first used by Carolingian scribes in the Capitularies of Charlemagne to refer to the king's royal hunting grounds; the term was not endemic to Romance languages. The exact origin of Medieval Latin foresta is obscure; some authorities claim the word derives from the Late Latin phrase forestam silvam, meaning "the outer wood". Frankish *forhist is attested by Old High German forst "forest", Middle Low German vorst "forest", Old English fyrhþ "forest, game preserve, hunting ground", Old Norse fýri "coniferous forest", all of which derive from Proto-Germanic *furhísa-, *furhíþija- "a fir-wood, coniferous forest", from Proto-Indo-European *perkwu- "a coniferous or mountain forest, wooded height".
Uses of the word "forest" in English to denote any uninhabited area of non-enclosure are now considered archaic. The word was introduced by the Norman rulers of England as a legal term denoting an uncultivated area set aside for hunting by feudal nobility; these hunting forests were not neces
Mille-Isles is a municipality in the Laurentides region of Quebec, part of the Argenteuil Regional County Municipality, west of Saint-Jérôme. Mille-Isles crossed by rivers and dotted with fish-filled lakes; the municipality is named after the old Mille-Isles Seigneury, which straddled the Mille Îles River. In 1683, the seigneury was granted to Michel-Sidrac Dugué de Boisbriand, governor of Montreal in 1670. In 1714, it was inherited by Charles-Gaspard Piot de Langloiserie and Jean Petit, husbands of Marie-Thérèse Dugué and Charlotte Dugué daughters of the first lord. In 1752, additional land in the extreme north-west of the Mille-Isles Seigneury was given to Eustache Lambert Dumont and it is within this part that the municipality is located; the first settlers were from Ireland and arrived around 1850. The municipality was founded in 1855, following separation from the parish of Saint-Jérôme. Population trend: Population in 2011: 1629 Population in 2006: 1480 Population in 2001: 1209 Population in 1996: 1157 Population in 1991: 944Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 679 Mother tongue: English as first language: 28% French as first language: 69% English and French as first language: 1% Other as first language: 2% The Commission scolaire de la Rivière-du-Nord operates Francophone public schools: École primaire Bellefeuille in Saint-Jérôme École secondaire Émilien-Frenette in Saint-Jérôme and École polyvalente Lavigne in LachuteSir Wilfrid Laurier School Board operates English-language public schools.
Schools serving the town: Morin Heights Elementary School in Morin-Heights serves most of the town Laurentia Elementary School in Saint-Jérôme serves a portion of the town Laurentian Regional High School in Lachute List of municipalities in Quebec Media related to Mille-Isles at Wikimedia Commons
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Scouting and Guiding in Newfoundland and Labrador
Scouting and Guiding in Newfoundland and Labrador has a long history, from the 1900s to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. There is Church Lads Brigade Scouts in Newfoundland; the British Boy Scouts had an early presence. There is a record of the Life-Saving Scouts and Guards of the Salvation Army; the Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom registered scouts in Newfoundland. After 1949, these came under The Boy Scouts Association's Canadian General Council, named Boy Scouts of Canada and is now Scouts Canada. Scouts Canada's Newfoundland and Labrador Council administers the organization's operations in Newfoundland and Labrador. Northeast Avalon Region Zone 3 In 1918 Newfoundland's first Guide Company was formed, although the province itself did not become part of Canada until 1949. Guides are served by the Guiding in Canada - Labrador Council. Canada has several associations which trace their roots to the Baden-Powell Scouts in the United Kingdom.
They form the Canadian Federation of Independent Scouting, a member of the World Federation of Independent Scouts. Members of the federation include BPSA - Labrador. During the Cold War, there were American Boy Scouts in Goose Bay, linked to the Direct Service branch of the Boy Scouts of America, which supports units around the world. American Scouting at Ernest Harmon Air Force Base Troop 6 under the guidance of Ed Zeidler and Sgt. Henry Erben was the furthest east BSA troop in North America; the Scout camp was eleven miles outside the base. The Scout troop ended with the base in 1966. Greenland Guide and Scout Association Newfoundland and Labrador Council Guiding in Canada - Newfoundland & Labrador Council
Scouting and Guiding in Alberta
Scouting and Guiding in Alberta has a long history, from the 1900s to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. Alberta Scouting is administered by two Councils within Scouts Canada: Northern Lights Council in the north, Chinook Council in the south. In general, each council's territory is divided into Areas, each Area contains sponsored Scouting Groups. Francophone Scouting groups exist in Edmonton, they are part of the Association des Scouts du Canada. In 1983, the 15th World Scout Jamboree was held at Kananaskis Country, an area of Provincial Park 4,000 feet in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, 80 miles west of Calgary, Alberta; the Spirit Lives On was the theme of the World Jamboree, with a total attendance of over 15,000 Scouts from nearly 100 countries. In 2010 Northern Lights Council introduced a centennial badge commemorating 100 years of scouting in the area. Among Alberta's varied Scouting groups and sections are Adventure Scouting Groups, Ismaili Scouts, Rover Crews with romantic names like Knights of Dionysus and Knights of the Crimson Cross.
In 2009 a Special Needs group, the 88th Polaris, was formed in the Northern Lights Council serving youth with neurological impairments. In 1981, the 5th Canadian Scout Jamboree was held at Kananaskis, with 19,000 in attendance. In 1993, the 8th Canadian Scout Jamboree was held at Kananaskis, with 12,000 in attendance. In 2005, Northern Lights Council hosted a jamboree at Camp Woods. Chinook Council hosted a joint Alberta-Saskatchewan Brotherhood Jamboree at Camp Impeesa, celebrating the common centennial of the two provinces. On June 19, 2010 it was announced at the Northern Lights Council Annual Honours and Awards ceremonies, that Camp Woods, near Sylan Lake, would be the location for the 12th Canadian Scout Jamboree to be held in the summer of 2013. Plans call for an attendance of 6,000. From May 1 - 3, 2015 the 20th Fort Edmonton Scout Camp will be held at Fort Edmonton Park in Edmonton; this is the 20th year this camp is being held at the Fort and features activities themed around the historic time periods portrayed at Fort Edmonton Park.
Camp Impeesa is Scouts Canada’s high adventure mountain and wilderness experience centre and residential summer camp. Camp Impeesa is located in the Castle Wilderness area in the Rocky Mountains, near Pincher Creek, Alberta. Camp Impeesa was first founded during the late 1960s with the idea of having a base camp from Scouts to take backpacking trips in the southern Canadian rockies. During the 1970s, the camp became a residential program for Scouts. In 2001, Mike Bingley and other interested Scouters began the process of developing a high adventure camping program at Camp Impeesa. With the help of a dedicated team from around the world, this program became Impeesa Extreme; the program was launched in 2003 with six patrols from as far away as Chicago. The first summer included the additional challenges of forest fires, including the Okanagan Mountain Fire and Lost Creek Fire which forced the program to move five times. 2004 saw the program triple in size due to word of mouth advertising and the cancellation of the 2004 Saskatchewan Jamboree.
2004 was the last year. Major upgrades were made to the camp in 2014 and 2015, with the installation of a new zip line, a new climbing tower, high ropes and low ropes courses, other upgrades. Activities focus on scouting skill development based on Scout Canada's Canadian Path. Summer camps are open to non-Scouts as well. Camp facilities and activities include a zip Line. Alberta Provincial Council - Guides of Canada is the provincial council of Girl Guides of Canada-Guides du Canada, geographically made up of the Canadian provinces and territories of Alberta, Northwest Territories and Yukon; the provincial council's headquarters is located in Edmonton, Alberta Alberta Council is divided into the following twelve areas: Calgary Area ) Chinook Area Cypress Hills Area Edmonton Area Michener Area Parkland Area Peace River Area Prairie Rose Area Tamarac Area Woodsmoke Area Yukon Area NT Area Camp Jubilee in the Calgary Area Westover in the Calgary Area IASG in the Calgary Area Camp Mockingbird in the Calgary Area Guide/Scout Hall in Banff Camp Okeekun in Chinook Area Elkwater Camp in Cypress Hills Area Sandy Lake Beach in Edmonton Area is located on Sandy Lake 60 km northwest of Edmonton Tangletrees in Edmonton Area is located on Pigeon Lake some 85 km southwest of Edmonton.
It was acquired in 1943. Williams Wilderness in Edmonton Area is a zero impact campsite donated in 1969. Scouting in Montana Chinook Council, serving south-central Alberta including Medicine Hat and Calgary Camp Impeesa Northern Lights Council Alberta Provincial Council - Guides of Canada Les Scouts Francophones de Calga
The Plast National Scout Organization of Ukraine called Ukrainian Plast or Plast, is the largest Scouting organization in Ukraine. Plast was founded in Austro-Hungarian Galicia in 1911 as the Ukrainian Scout Organization. Ukrainian Scouting has been known since its inception as "Plast". In Ukrainian a plastun is an historical name for a Cossack sentry serviceman; the founder of Ukrainian Scouting, Dr. Oleksander Tysovsky, affectionately known as "Drot," adapted the universal Scout principles to the needs and interests of Ukrainian youth. Born during great social and political upheavals in Europe, Ukrainian Plast came into being to fulfill specific national aims, unlike other Scout organizations; the first Scout troops were formed in Lviv in 1911 a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, by Petro Franko and Ivan Chmola. Plast is deemed to have been founded by Dr. Oleksander Tysovsky on 12 April 1912, at the Lviv Academic Gymnasium. Scouting spread to the other cities and towns, by 1913 the first Supreme Scout Council had been formed and the first handbook published.
The same year, the Orhanizatsiyniy Plast Komitet was formed in Lviv by Plast groups from different regions, the first hiking camp was organized. By 1916, its membership exceeded 10,000, it was a developed and functioning organization, consisting of separate branches of Boy Scouts and Girl Guides. Ukrainian Plast held regular camps for Cubs and Rovers, training courses for leaders, produced a variety of Scout publications, including a Ukrainian translation of'Scouting for Boys'. Shortly after its founding, World War I brought about the collapse of the two powers occupying ethnic Ukrainian territory, Austria-Hungary and the Russian Empire, the formation of the Ukrainian National Republic in 1918; the subsequent years witnessed a great upswing in Scouting, as it spread into the towns and communities where it had been unknown in the newly freed central provinces of Ukraine. Hundreds, if not thousands, of boys, inspired by the ideals of service to God and Country which Scouting engenders, volunteered to join the armed forces, fighting on several fronts, many gave their lives.
The Soviet victory in the civil war in 1922 led to an immediate abolition of all non-communist scout activities in this region. In the Romanian area of Bukovina, the development of Plast was hampered. Ukrainian Scouting was among the first to suffer what became the fate of many Scout Associations throughout the world. In areas to become western Ukraine, which included parts of Czechoslovakia and Poland, the Scout movement emerged from the ruins of war with renewed vitality. During this period, Ukrainian Scouting first requested international recognition, but was denied on political grounds. In spite of numerous obstacles, Plast developed in the Polish areas, with high levels of membership among students and workers. A key sponsor was Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky, the Archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, who donated a campsite called "Sokil" in the Carpathian Mountains. A number of publications are introduced, including the official organ Molode Zhyttia and Dr. Oleksander Tysovsky's seminal handbook, Zhyttia v Plasti.
In the late 1920s, external pressure on the part of the Polish authorities impaired further growth of Plast on its territory, led to an outright abolition of Ukrainian Scouting in 1928 in the Volyn region, in Halychyna in 1930. However, Plast continued to flourish in Carpathian Ruthenia, the ethnic Ukrainian area within Czechoslovakia, maintained a close liaison with the underground Scout units in parts of central Ukraine under the Soviet Union until World War II and Western Ukraine under Poland; the Plast groups in Carpathian Ruthenia and Prague were members of the Union of Junak Scouts and Guides of the Republic of Czechoslovakia and through this federation of the two World organizations. A headquarters was opened in Prague. Ukrainian Scouts took part in the World Jamboree at Arrowe Park in 1929, as part of the Czechoslovak contingent in the fourth World Jamboree at Gödöllő in 1933, attempting to make the World Scouting aware of the suppression of free Scout activities in Ukraine. In Western Ukraine, though banned, continued to operate illegally and conspirationally under the auspices of the Plast Center.
Plast activities continued to be undertaken, via the Commission of Educational Campsites, the "Ridna Shkola" and published in the journal Vohni. The Polish leadership pursued this activity and punished such activities with arrests and internment. By 1939, World War II broke out and membership in Plast saw a resurgence in western Ukraine, although the occupying German forces again banned Plast, yet activity continued; as in the previous war, many plastuny took up arms in various armies that traversed western and eastern Ukraine during the war. During the years under Communism and the Soviet Union, Scouting was banned in Ukraine, but the Plast organization continued to exist in exile around the world. Ukrainian Scouting was hampered by World War II, but Plast managed to survive the war and began to flourish again in the displaced persons camps under the occupation of the Western Powers; the successful commemoration of the 35th Anniversary of the Movement in 1947 was the highlight of Plast activities at that time.
Multiple groups of plastuny met at the Holovna Plastova Rada in Munich. Ukrainian Scouting became a member of the Displaced Persons Division of the Boy Scouts International Bureau. A delegation of over 40 Scouts and Scouters participated in the sixth World Scout Jamboree at Moi