Slovenian Catholic Girl Guides and Boy Scouts Association
Združenje slovenskih katoliških skavtinj in skavtov is the national Guiding organization of Slovenia. It is an independent, youth and open Slovenian Scout and Guide association, established in 1990 taking into account pre-Second World War Slovenian Scouting and was built up on experience and values from other scout and guide associations AGESCI who helped establishing the concept of the organizations activity. ZSKSS is a member of WAGGGS. Affiliated to ZSKSS is the Slovenska Zamejska Skavtska Organizacija serving Slovenian Scouts in Friuli-Venezia Giulia in Italy, affiliated to the Associazione Guide e Scouts Cattolici Italiani. For individual members of ZSKSS, Zveza tabornikov Slovenije, the Slovenian WOSM member, guarantees the right of personal WOSM-membership; the history of Scouting in Slovenia dates to when Slovenia was a part of the former Kingdom of Yugoslavia, back to 1915. In 1922, a meeting of Sokol, an important political and sporting movement in Yugoslavia, took place in Ljubljana, Bosnian and Serbian Scouts attended.
Scouting was established in Slovenia in October 1922, when a large number of Scout groups in Slovenia contributed to the establishment of the Scout Parish for Croatia and Slovenia, founded in Osijek. The Slovenia Scout Region was established in early 1923 in Ljubljana; the first Slovene Scout and Guide camp was organized during the summer of 1923 at a Slovene alpine resort. Scouting in Slovenia was dissolved on June 10, 1941 because of World War II. Just prior to the dissolution, there were 1,380 members of the Slovene Scout Organization. Scouting in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was coopted by the Tito government in 1950, at which time WOSM membership was forfeited. Slovene Scouting continued in exile, at first in refugee camps, afterwards in Argentina and Canada, in the Slovene communities in nearby Gorizia and Trieste, where Slovene refugees found new homes; the Movement revived among the Slovene ethnic groups in neighboring countries: The Slovene Carinthian Scouts in Austria.
In 1984, a secondary school student from Ljubljana, Peter Lovšin, became acquainted with the Scout Movement. He decided to begin apolitical Scouting in Ljubljana. In the summer of 1985 he went to camp with Scouts of Gorizia, in 1986 he made the Scout Promise as one of their rank. In the same year he gathered a group of young people around him in one of the Catholic parishes of Ljubljana, with assistance from Scouts of Trieste and Gorizia; the group was growing and in autumn 1988 moved to another parish of Ljubljana. By the Saint George festival in 1989, 12 boys and girls made the Scout Promise, by 1990, there were 21 Girl Guides and 18 Boy Scouts; the Catholic Scout Movement began to spread all over Slovenia. On March 31, 1990, the Združenje slovenskih katoliških skavtinj in skavtov was founded; the first legal Scout Promises were made by 29 Girl Guides and Boy Scouts, in a suburb of Ljubljana on May 20 of that year. The ZSKSS was registered on Sunday, October 22, 1992. In 1996 ZSKSS was accepted as an associate member of WAGGGS.
ZSKSS received full membership in WAGGGS in 1999. The primary purpose of the Association is to contribute to the full physical, mental and social development of young people so that they can become people of strong character, responsible citizens and members of local and international communities, it has the status of an association of public interest in the field of education and the status of a national youth organization. Their mission is realize through the following activities: Implementation of the program by local units Organization of training courses for youth leaders and workers Organization of outdoor activities and activities related to environmental protection, Organization of activities to promote healthy lifestyle and youth health, Organization of educational and training activities, Advocacy for young people Organization of sporting and entertainment activities, Organization of humanitarian and socially-oriented projects, Organization of promotional activities of Scouting, Publishing journals and other publications, Cooperation with other organizations and relevant government departments and institutions.
In addition to volunteers, the organization has five full-time employees. Their offices in Ljubljana are in a long-term lease and they have another long-term lease at the Slovenia Forest Service for a house in Kočevski rog. There they have the Environmental Scout Centre; the organization has a strong network in local communities and thus a large range of target groups, at the same time a great support apparatus of volunteers across Slovenia. The association works in four age sections: Bobri/Bobrovke - ages 6 to 7 Volčiči/Volkuljice - ages 7 to 11 Vodnice/Izvidniki in - ages 11 to 16 Popotnice/Popotniki - ages 16 to 21 The Beaver Scout Motto is Trden jez, translating as Solid dam in Slovenian; the Cub Scout Motto is Kar translating as Best as possible in Slovenian. The Scout Motto is Bodi pripravljen!, translating as Be Prepared in Slovenian. The Rover Scout Motto is Služiti, translat
Since the publication of Scouting for Boys in 1908, all Scouts and Girl Guides around the world have taken a Scout promise or oath to live up to ideals of the movement, subscribed to a Scout Law. The wording of the Scout Promise and Scout Law have varied over time and from country to country; some national organization promises are given below. Although most Scouting and Guiding organizations use the word "promise", a few such as the Boy Scouts of America tend to use "oath" instead. Scouts and Guides will make the three-fingered Scout Sign when reciting the promise. In his original book on Boy Scouting, Baden-Powell introduced the Scout Promise, as follows: The form of the promise has varied from country to country and over time, but must fulfill the requirements of the World Organization of the Scout Movement to qualify a National Scout Organization for membership. Together with clarifying its Scout Law, the Constitution of WOSM states: Article II, paragraph 2: "Adherence to a Promise and Law" All members of the Scout Movement are required to adhere to a Scout Promise and Law reflecting, in language appropriate to the culture and civilization of each National Scout Organization and approved by the World Organization, the principles of Duty to God, Duty to others and Duty to self, inspired by the Promise and Law conceived by the Founder of the Scout Movement in the following terms: The Scout Promise In order to accommodate many different religions within Scouting, "God" may refer to a higher power, is not restricted to the God of the monotheistic religions.
The WOSM Constitution explains "Duty to God" as "Adherence to spiritual principles, loyalty to the religion that expresses them and acceptance of the duties resulting therefrom." The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, a sister organization to WOSM, has the same wording in their constitution, follows similar policies. Although the Constitution of WOSM states that the Promise should include a reference to Duty to God, Scouting founder Lord Baden-Powell approved the use of promises with reference to a higher ideal, higher truth, an optional reference to God, or without a reference to God, for Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Finland. Three of these countries still offer this alternative promise. WOSM stated in 1932 that no new exceptions would be made and expressed the hope that the few remaining countries would stop using a promise without any reference to Duty to God; the Israeli Scouts, though founded in 1919/1920, joining WOSM in 1951 and WAGGGS in 1963 have no "duty to God" or apparent equivalent in their promise.
In 1969, the Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs israélites de France decided to discontinue using the reference to God due to its inconsistency with religious beliefs and practices from a Jewish perspective. Use of the word God, derived from Zeus, can be seen as an inappropriate pagan reference in Jewish texts or education; as of July 2017, Scouts Australia provides the option to use one of two different versions of the Scout Promise, one which allows scouts to promise "To be true to my spiritual beliefs To contribute to my community and our world." The other option is to promise "To do my duty to my God, To the Queen of Australia." Scout sections that follow traditional Scouting, such as Baden-Powell Scouts within the World Federation of Independent Scouts, use several promises including the original Scout promise above that includes the reference to God. Some, for example the 1st Tarrant Scout Group in Fort Worth, Texas use a blend of the original promise and the "Outlander Promise" which, "according to tradition", B-P wrote for Scouts that had to omit the reference to God or a monarch for reasons of conscience.
Religion in Scouting Scouting
Vietnamese Scout Association
The Vietnamese Scout Association is a youth organization, established in Vietnam and active between 1930 and 1975. The association was recognized by the World Organization of the Scout Movement from 1957 to 1975; because of the political situation and war in Vietnam, it was banned in communist North Vietnam after 1954 and in the entire nation after the communist victory following the fall of Saigon. It presently exists in exile, is reforming within Vietnam itself. There are reports of clandestine Scouting activities in Vietnam dating from 1994 and 2002. Vietnam is the largest nation in population to have Scouting, not recognized by WOSM. From its establishment in 1930, the Vietnamese Scout Association experienced many stages of development, attracted many figures who played important roles in the political stage of both North and South Vietnam, including North Vietnamese Minister of Defense Tạ Quang Bửu, Mayor of Hanoi Trần Duy Hưng, composer Lưu Hữu Phước, physician Tôn Thất Tùng, Võ Thành Minh, physician Phạm Ngọc Thạch, Vice Premier of South Vietnam Trần Văn Tuyên, physician Phạm Biểu Tâm, South Vietnamese Senator Trần Điền, writer Cung Giũ Nguyên.
Scouting in Vietnam first started in the lycées for French children and upper-class Vietnamese children. Between 1927 and 1930, Vietnamese Scouting began to appear in northern Vietnam, most of them subordinate to the French Scouting groups. In September 1930, two Vietnamese athletes, Trần Văn Khắc and Tạ Văn Rục, started a Scout movement named Đồng tử quân in Hanoi; the members of the movement wore green neckerchiefs with red hem. It spread to the surrounding areas. Trần Văn Khắc is accepted as the founder of Vietnamese Scouting; this first Vietnamese Scout program was athletic. In 1932, Trần Văn Khắc went south to Cochinchina, together with Lương Thái, Huỳnh Văn Diệp, Trần Coln established the Cochinchinese Scout Association. During that time, Hoàng Ðạo Thúy was the General Secretary of the Annamese Scouting Association. Between 1933 and 1935, Vietnamese Scouting spread among the population, as branches of the three main associations of French Scouts and Pionniers. Three branches of Vietnamese Scouting were Boy Scouts and Rover Scouts.
André Lefèvre, chief of the Éclaireurs de France, set up a training camp for 60 Scoutmasters from all over French Indochina. At the end of 1937, French Scouting sent Scoutmaster Raymond Schlemmer to the Cambodian and Vietnamese areas of Indochina to oversee the setting up of the Fédération Indochinoise des Associations du Scoutisme in all three regions. From 1939 through 1945, the political situation affected Scouting activities all across the country, as World War II engendered a movement for an independent Vietnam; the French began to lose control and were overthrown by Japanese intervention. This ceased the French Scouts' activity in Vietnam, as well as all Scouting activities. Japanese military authorities did not encourage the Scouting movement in occupied territories. Where local conditions were favorable, authorities would permit local Scouting or introduce Japanese-style Scouting, or Shōnendan, sometimes made this compulsory. On the other hand, where conditions were not favorable, anti-Japanese sentiments were to be nurtured through Scouting, the authorities would prohibit it entirely.
In French Indochina, Vietnamese Scouting was permitted. After the coup in March, 1945, Bao Dai was installed as the puppet ruler, Vietnam was nominally independent; the Japanese prohibited French Scouting, but would use Vietnamese Scouts to control the French population in Saigon. In 1946, the National Scoutmaster Conference unified the Scouting movements in the three regions of Vietnam, the General Committee was established; the First Indochina War erupted at the end of 1946, the Scouting movement in Vietnam was on hiatus until 1950. During the war, many members of the Scouting movement were separated into different sides. While all members of the General Committee established in 1946 followed Hoàng Ðạo Thúy into hiding, some Scoutmasters and Scout members in the cities began to restore the movement from 1950 in Hanoi. During this period, a song composed by Scout member Lưu Hữu Phước became the official song of the movement. From on the song has been used in all official activities of the Vietnamese Scout Association.
Lưu Hữu Phước would go on to pen songs that became the national anthems of both the Republic of Vietnam and Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam. After the Geneva World Scout Conference in 1954, WOSM-recognized Scouting returned to Vietnam; the Scout Association of North Vietnam was abolished as North Vietnam was under communist rule, as a result, the Scouts lost their former training ground, but soon established a new one near Đà Lạt. From 1954 to 1975, Scouting in South Vietnam played an important role in Vietnamese society; the Scout Constitution was drawn up in 1952, with the approval of the Ministry of Youth Affairs, international recognition was given at the beginning of 1957. In 1959, Vietnam had 3,100 Scouts. In April 1975, South Vietnam was overrun by the Viet Cong, the Vietnamese Scout Association was banned. Outside of Vietnam, Vietnamese Scouts formed an exile organization and continued their Scouting programs. In 1955, the Hồi Nguyên Training Camp was established and opened its doors to its first classes in August 1956.
In 1957, the Association was recognized as a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. It participated in the formation of the Asia-Pacific Scouting region and became a founding member of the region. In 1958, the Tùng Nguyên Na
Girl Scouts of the USA
Girl Scouts of the United States of America referred to as Girl Scouts in the US, is a youth organization for girls in the United States and American girls living abroad. Founded by Juliette Gordon Low in 1912, it was organized after Low met Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, in 1911. Upon returning to Savannah, she telephoned a distant cousin, saying, "I've got something for the girls of Savannah, all of America, all the world, we're going to start it tonight!"Girl Scouts prepares girls to empower themselves and promotes compassion, confidence, leadership and active citizenship through activities involving camping, community service, learning first aid, earning badges by acquiring practical skills. Girl Scouts' achievements are recognized with various special awards, including the Girl Scout Gold and Bronze Awards. Girl Scout membership is organized with activities designed for each level. GSUSA is a member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts and accepts girls of all backgrounds.
A 1994 Chronicle of Philanthropy poll showed Girl Scouts ranked by the public as the eighth "most popular charity/non-profit in America" among more than 100 charities. It describes itself as "the world's preeminent organization dedicated to girls." Girl Scouting in the United States of America began on March 12, 1912, when Juliette "Daisy" Gordon Low organized the first Girl Guide troop meeting of 18 girls in Savannah, Georgia. It has since grown to 3.7 million members. Low, who had met Baden-Powell in London while she was living in the United Kingdom, dreamed of giving the United States and the world "something for all the girls." She envisioned an organization that would bring girls out of their homes to serve their communities, experience the out-of-doors, have the opportunity to develop "self-reliance and resourcefulness." From its inception, the Girl Scouts has been organized and run by women, for girls and women. Juliette Gordon Low was the granddaughter of Juliette Magill Kinzie and John Harris Kinzie, whose childhood family was one of the earliest settlers of Chicago, IL.
Juliette Kinzie wrote about her experiences in the Northwest Territory in her book Wau-Bun: The Early Day. Some of what her granddaughter, Juliette Gordon Low, knew firsthand about her grandmother's experiences on the frontier were incorporated into the beginnings and traditions of Girl Scouts; the early home of Juliette Low's grandparents can be visited May 15 through October 15 in Portage, Wisconsin. In late 1912, Low proposed that the Camp Fire Girls merge with the Girl Guides but was rejected in January 1913 as Camp Fire was the larger group. Next, Low attempted to merge her organization with the Girl Scouts of America, founded in Des Moines, Iowa by Clara Lisetor-Lane, she thought their similarities would make this easier but Lisetor-Lane felt Daisy copycatted her organization and threatened to sue. Lisetor-Lane claimed Low's organization was luring members away but the GSA's growth was limited by a lack of financial resources which led to its eventual demise; the Girl Guides of America in 1913 changed its name to Girl Scouts of the United States and moved its headquarters to Washington, DC.
In 1915 the organization was incorporated and the national headquarters was moved to New York City. The name reached its current form, Girl Scouts of the United States of America, in 1947; the organization was given a congressional charter on March 16, 1950. GSUSA started with 18 members. Within months, members were hiking through the woods in knee-length blue uniforms, playing basketball on a curtained-off court, going on camping trips. In 1916, Low established an aviation badge --. By 1920, there were nearly 70,000 members. By 1923 the organization had branches in every state in the union, Alaska and Puerto Rico, a total membership of 125,738. In 1930 it had over 200,000. In 2013 there were over 3.2 million Girl Scouts: 2.3 million girl members and 890,000 adult members in the United States. More than 50 million American women have participated in Girl Scouts. Through its membership in WAGGGS, GSUSA girls and adults are among over 10 million members in 146 countries; the names and ages of the levels and the larger structure of the program have changed over time.
In 1923 Girl Scouts were organized into patrols, local councils, the National Council. Troops were fairly independent before joining together into small councils, which merged to form larger councils. Today there are over 100 councils across the U. S; the Juliette Gordon Low Birthplace, located in Savannah, Georgia, in the former Gordon family home, became the national Girl Scout program center in 1956. It provides tours to thousands of Girl Scouts yearly. Upon Low's death in 1927, she willed her carriage house, which would become The Girl Scout First Headquarters, to the local Savannah Girl Scouts for continued use. In 1923 national headquarters was located at New York. During World War II, 1943–1945, many young Japanese American girls were confined in internment camps with their families. Girl Scout troops were organized in these camps; these girls participated in many activities, including dramatic presentations that took place in the Crystal City Internment Camp in Crystal City, Texas. Most Girl Scout units were segregated by race according to state and local laws and customs.
The first troop for African American girls was founded in 1917. In 1933, Josephine Groves Holloway f
A resort is a self-contained commercial establishment that tries to provide most of a vacationer's wants, such as food, lodging, sports and shopping, on the premises. The term resort may be used for a hotel property that provides an array of amenities including entertainment and recreational activities. A hotel is a central feature of a resort, such as the Grand Hotel at Mackinac Island, Michigan; some resorts are condominium complexes that are timeshares or owed fractionally or wholly owned condominium. A resort is not always a commercial establishment operated by a single company, but in the late 20th century, that sort of facility became more common. In British English "resort" means a town which people visit for holidays and days out which contains hotels at which such holidaymakers stay. Examples would include Brighton. A destination resort is a resort that itself contains the necessary guest attraction capabilities so it does not need to be near a destination to attract its patrons. A commercial establishment at a resort destination such as a recreational area, a scenic or historic site, a theme park, a gaming facility, or other tourist attraction may compete with other businesses at a destination.
Another quality of a destination resort is that it offers food, lodging, sports and shopping within the facility so that guests have no need to leave the facility throughout their stay. The facilities are of higher quality than would be expected if one were to stay at a hotel or eat in a town's restaurants; some examples are Atlantis in the Bahamas. Related to resorts are convention and large meeting sites, they occur in cities, where special meeting halls, together with ample accommodations and varied dining and entertainment, are provided. An all-inclusive resort charges a fixed price that includes all items. At a minimum, most inclusive resorts include lodging, unlimited food, sports activities, entertainment for the fixed price. In recent years, the number of resorts in the United States offering "all-inclusive" amenities has decreased dramatically. In 1961, over half offered such plans. All-inclusive resorts are found in the Caribbean in Dominican Republic. Notable examples are Club Med, Sandals Resorts, Beaches Resorts An all-inclusive resort includes three meals daily, soft drinks, most alcoholic drinks and other services in the price.
Many offer sports and other activities included in the price as well. They are located in warmer regions; the all-inclusive model originated in the Club Med resorts, which were founded by the Belgian Gérard Blitz. Some all-inclusive resorts are designed for specific vacation interests. For example, certain resorts cater to adults, more-specialized properties accept couples only. Other all-inclusive resorts are geared toward families, with facilities like craft centers, game rooms, water parks to keep children of all ages entertained. All-inclusive resorts are very popular locations for destination weddings. A spa resort is a short l-term residential/lodging facility with the primary purpose of providing individual services for spagoers to develop healthy habits. Many such spas were developed at the location of natural hot springs or sources of mineral waters. Over a seven-day stay, such facilities provide a comprehensive program that includes spa services, physical fitness activities, wellness education, healthy cuisine, special interest programming.
Golf resorts are resorts that cater to the sport of golf, they include access to one or more golfcourses and/or clubhouses. Golf resorts provide golf packages that provide visitors with all greens and cart fees, range balls and meals. In North America, a ski resort is a destination resort in a ski area; the term is less to refer to a town or village. A megaresort is a type of destination resort of an exceptionally-large size, such as those along the Las Vegas Strip. In Singapore, integrated resort is a euphemism for a casino-based destination resort. A holiday village is a type of self-contained resort in Europe whose accommodation is in villas. A holiday camp, in the United Kingdom, refers to a resort whose accommodation is in chalets or static caravans. There are more than 1500 timeshare resorts in the United States that are operated by major hospitality, timeshare-specific, or independent companies, they represent 198,000 residences and nearly 9 million owners, who pay an average $880 per year in maintenance fees.
A reported 16% of the residences became vacation rentals. Baiae, Italy, a famous historic resort of the ancient world, popular over 2000 years ago. Capri, an island near Naples, has attracted visitors since Roman times. Monte Ne, near Rogers, Arkansas, a famous historic resort, active in the early 20th century. At its peak, more than 10,000 people a year visited its hotels. Two of its hotels, Missouri Row and Oklahoma Row, were the largest log buildings in the world. Monte Ne closed in the 1930s and was submerged under Beaver Lake in the 1960s. Tawawa House known as Tawawa Springs or Xenia Springs, inspired Dolen Perkins-Valdez to write her debut novel, when she read about it in an autobiography of W. E. B. Dubois; the book mentioned in passing that t
Gorizia is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. It is located at the foot of the Julian Alps, it is the capital of the Province of Gorizia and a local center of tourism and commerce. Since 1947, a twin town of Nova Gorica has developed on the other side of the modern-day Italian–Slovenian border; the entire region was subject to territorial dispute between Italy and Yugoslavia after World War II: after the new boundaries were established in 1947 and the old town was left to Italy, Nova Gorica was built on the Yugoslav side. Taken together, the two towns constitute a conurbation, which includes the Slovenian municipality of Šempeter-Vrtojba. Since May 2011, these three towns have been joined in a common trans-border metropolitan zone, administered by a joint administration board. Gorizia is located at the confluence of the Vipava Valleys, it lies on a plain overlooked by the Gorizia Hills. Sheltered from the north by a mountain ridge, Gorizia is protected from the cold bora wind, which affects most of the neighboring areas.
The town thus enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate throughout the year. The name of the town comes from the Slovene word gorica'little hill', a common toponym in Slovene-inhabited areas. Originating as a watchtower or a prehistoric castle controlling the fords of the Isonzo River, Gorizia first emerged as a small village not far from the former Via Gemina, the Roman road linking Aquileia and Emona; the name Gorizia was recorded for the first time in a document dated April 28, 1001, in which Holy Roman Emperor Otto III donated the castle and the village of Goriza to the Patriarch of Aquileia John II and to Count Verihen Eppenstein of Friuli. The document referred to Gorizia as "the village known as Goriza in the language of the Slavs". Count Meinhard of the Bavarian Meinhardiner noble lineage, with possessions around Lienz in Tyrol, is mentioned as early as 1107; the borders of the county changed in the following four centuries due to frequent wars with Aquileia and other counties, to the subdivision of the territory in two main nuclei: one around the upper Drava near Lienz, the other centered on Gorizia itself.
Between the 12th century and early 16th century, the town served as the political and administrative center of this independent County of Gorizia, which at the height of its power comprised the territory of the present-day regions of Goriška, southeast Friuli, the Karst Plateau, central Istria and East Tyrol. From the 11th century, the town had two different layers of development: the upper castle district and the village beneath it; the first played the second a rural-commercial role. In 1500, the dynasty of the Counts of Gorizia died out and their County passed to Austrian Habsburg rule, after a short occupation by the Republic of Venice in the years 1508 and 1509. Under Habsburg dominion, the town spread out at the foot of the castle. Many settlers from northern Italy started their commerce. Gorizia developed into a multi-ethnic town, in which Friulian, Venetian and the Slovene language were spoken. In mid-16th century, Gorizia emerged as a center of Protestant Reformation, spreading from the neighboring northeastern regions of Carniola and Carinthia.
The prominent Slovene Protestant preacher Primož Trubar visited and preached in the town. By the end of the century, Catholic Counter-Reformation had gained force in Gorizia, led by the local dean Janez Tavčar, who became bishop of Ljubljana. Tavčar was instrumental in bringing the Jesuit order to the town, which played a role in the education and cultural life in Gorizia thereafter. Gorizia was at first part of the County of Görz and since 1754, the capital of the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca. In ecclesiastical matters, after the suppression of the Patriarchate of Aquileia in 1751, the Archdiocese of Gorizia was established as its legal successor on the territory of the Habsburg Monarchy. Gorizia thus emerged as a Roman Catholic religious center; the archdiocese of Gorizia covers a large territory, extending to the Drava River to the north and the Kolpa to the east, with the dioceses of Trieste, Trento and Pedena subject to the authority of the archbishops of Gorizia. A new town quarter developed around the Cathedral where many treasures from the Basilica of Aquileia were transferred.
Many new villas were built conveying to the town the typical late Baroque appearance, which characterized it up to World War I. A synagogue was built within the town walls, another example of Gorizia's tolerant multi-ethnic nature. During the Napoleonic Wars, Gorizia was incorporated to the French Illyrian Provinces between 1809 and 1813. After the restoration of the Austrian rule, the Gorizia and its County were incorporated in the administrative unit known as the Kingdom of Illyria. During this period, Gorizia emerged as a popular summer residence of the Austrian nobility, became known as the "Austrian Nice". Members of the former French ruling Bourbon family, deposed by the July Revolution of 1830 settled in the town, including the last Bourbon monarch Charles X who spent his last years in Gorizia. Unlike in most neighboring areas, the revolutionary spri
The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies in Europe, separating Southern from Central and Western Europe and stretching 1,200 kilometres across eight Alpine countries: France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria and Slovenia. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps; the Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 metres. The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe. Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m, plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era.
A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800, Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000; the 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks. The Alpine region has a strong cultural identity; the traditional culture of farming and woodworking still exists in Alpine villages, although the tourist industry began to grow early in the 20th century and expanded after World War II to become the dominant industry by the end of the century. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, Italian and German Alps. At present, the region has 120 million annual visitors; the English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes.
Maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp; this may be consistent with the theory. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb "hill". Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe. In Roman times, "Albania" was a name for the eastern Caucasus, while in the English languages "Albania" was used as a name for Scotland, although it is more derived from the Latin albus, the color white; the Latin word Alpes could come from the adjective albus. In modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a high mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found, the term "the Alps", referring to the mountains, is a misnomer.
The term for the mountain peaks varies by nation and language: words such as Horn, Kopf, Spitze and Berg are used in German speaking regions. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width; the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, stretching eastward through mid and southern Switzerland; the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the southern border of Bavaria in Germany. In areas like Chiasso and Allgäu, the demarcation between the mountain range and the flatlands are clear; the countries with the greatest alpine territory are Austria, Italy and Switzerland. The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, the Bernese Alps on the northern.
The peaks in the easterly portion of the range, in Austria and Slovenia, are smaller than those in the central and western portions. The variances in nomenclature in the region spanned by the Alps makes classification of the mountains and subregions difficult, but a general classification is that of the Eastern Alps and Western Alps with the divide between the two occurring in eastern Switzerland according to geologist Stefan Schmid, near the Splügen Pass; the highest peaks of the Western Alps and Eastern Alps are Mont Blanc, at 4,810 m and Piz Bernina at 4,049 metres. The second-highest major