Scouting and Guiding in Poland
The Scouting and Guiding movement in Poland consists of about twelve independent organizations with an overall membership of about 160,000 Scouts and Guides. The largest organization by membership is Polish Scouting and Guiding Association with about 140,000 members. At the beginning of the 20th century, Poland was partitioned between the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires. Poles, both adult and young, formed many grass-roots movements and organizations, aimed at preserving the nation and preparing for the eventual struggle for independence. One such group was the youth organization "Zarzewie". Scouting was introduced to the Austria-Hungary partition of Poland by Polish writer and publicist Edmund Naganowski, who wrote an article about the organization of Boy Scouts and Boy's Brigades in Słowo Polskie, among his other articles about English system of education, he corresponded with the Chief Scout of the World, Baden-Powell, who encouraged Naganowski to the introduction of scouting in Poland and presented him with a copy of his scouting manual, Scouting for Boys.
The manual was translated to Polish by an activist of Andrzej Małkowski. The work had been assigned to him as a punishment for being a notorious latecomer. Andrzej Małkowski became enthusiastic and worked to implement the new movement with his wife Olga Drahonowska-Małkowska; as a result, the Polish Scout movement was started in 1910 in Lwów. At first the Scouts did not have a standardized uniform, as some of the formed groups wanted to remain independent. However, all the groups accepted similar style and design, the worldwide scout badge with a lily and the extra letters ONC; the program was made up of three parts. Various independent Scout groups were developed under the oversight of the existing organizations gymnastics society "Sokół", independence-oriented "Zarzewie", or abstinence organization "Eleusis". Thanks to the influence of the latter, to this day Scouting code in Poland obliges "to be pure in thinking, in speech, in deeds; the rapid development and popularity of Boy Scouts continued up to 1914, but was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I.
After the German invasion of Poland of 1939 the ZHP was deemed a criminal organization by the Nazis, but they carried on as a clandestine organization. They became nicknamed the Grey Ranks, cooperated with the Polish Secret State and the Armia Krajowa resistance; some Older Scouts carried out armed resistance. The Girl Guides formed auxiliary units working as nurses and munition carriers. At the same time the youngest Scouts were involved in so-called "small sabotage" under the auspice of the Wawer organization, which included dropping leaflets or painting the kotwica sign on the walls. During Operation Tempest, the Scouts participated in the fights during the failed Warsaw Uprising. In 1945, the ZHP returned to public existence. However, the communist authorities of Poland pressured the organization to become a member of the Pioneer Movement, in 1949, banned it, while its members joined the Polish United Worker's Party as a result. A new organization under the same name was created by communist government after the death of Soviet premier Joseph Stalin on the basis of membership of the government-sponsored Scouts of the Working Youth of Poland organization.
Bernard Chrzanowski and Ksawery Zakrzewski decided to create a new Scout movement in the area. On October 17, 1912 in the flat of Henry Śniegocki, came into existence the first organization of Greater Poland Boy Scouts, formed by Cezary Jindra, Henryk Śniegocki, Wincenty Wierzejewski, Edmund Weclawski, Leonard Skowroński and Tadeusz Wolski. Before, in September 1912, Tadeusz Strumiłło and Jerzy Grodyński helped to start the Scout movement in Greater Poland. At first the roles they divided as between friends. More and more authority fell upon Wincenty Wierzejewski. In 1915, Wierzejewski made Scouting first priority. Henryk Śniegocki became with time a dedicated and trusted proxy; the other members aksi accepted his leadership. They gained more outstanding people, for example Jan Konkolewski, who collected a group of boys dedicated to diversion and sabotage of the German Army, the so-called "Zouaves". By 1913, the patrol grew to a troop, including patrols named after Bolesław the Brave, Kazimierz the Great and Mieszko the First.
Next the troop became a group, the patrols increased to troops. The second troop was named after Władysław Jagiełło. Soon more patrols grew into troops. Despite the rapid growth, the Scouts remained in hiding; the same happened with two troops of Girl Guides, named after Queen Jadwiga. Around the end of 1914 and the beginning of 1915, the Scout movement resumed, but continued in hiding; the temporary interruption was not caused by the imposed martial law, but the absence of the mature leadership, who were mobilized in the German Army. In January 1915, Henryk Śniegocki came back from the front on sick leave and managed to extend his leave. A few weeks the wounded Wierzejewski turned up for treatment. After recovery, he decided to desert. Henryk Śniegocki, who now took the command of the Scout troops after Wierzejewski, tried t
Scouting and Guiding in Belarus
The Scout movement in Belarus consists of an unknown number of independent organizations. There are at least five nationwide associations as well as some regional associations. In addition, there were at one time Scouts-in-Exile in metropolitan areas of the United States, there are presently international Scout units in Belarus; the initial development of Scouting in Belarus took place within the Russian Scout movement, headed by general Oleg Pantyukhov. Belarus was a part of the Russian Empire at that time; the first Scout organisations were not independent. Instead they were a part of the Russian Scout movement, they first gathered in Gomel. In 1912 several Boy- and Girl-Scout organisations existed in Gomel, they were Russian and Jewish. In 1915 there were 170 little wolves. Russian Scout organisations that were a part of Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders existed in other towns of Belarus. In 1922 after the end of Russian Civil War Scouting had been banned by the Soviet Union, Scout activities ended.
In April 1926 many leaders and members were arrested and imprisoned by Joint State Political Directorate. Most of them were sent to Solovki prison camp; some of the Scouts and Scout-leaders fled abroad. They continued their activity in National Organization of Russian Scouts. Russian exiles in France in a more Catholic manner; some of them where officers from Belarusian families, who immigrated to France after World War I. West Belarus became a part of the Second Polish Republic according to the Peace of Riga after Polish–Soviet War. Along with the new Polish authorities Polish Scouting and Guiding Association spread in Belarus. A Scout organization was founded in Kletsk, Scouts appeared in Nyasvizh and other nearby villages. In 1929, American Methodists helped, it lasted until 1929. In the period following World War II, ethnic Belarusians gathered in Scout troops in exile and in Scout troops in displaced persons camps throughout Europe, as did Russian Scouts and Balts. Belarusian Scouts formed the organization Belarusian Scout Association Abroad, which existed from 1945 to 1951 in Germany.
Unlike the other organizations, the BSAA did not survive to witness the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Whereas Russia and Ukraine in particular had ready-made Scouting available once allowed in 1990-1991, Belarus had to start from scratch. Emergence of democratic principles in the mid-1980s made possible the creation of alternatives to the communist pioneer organizations. Close connections were formed with Guide and Scout organizations of many European countries, when children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident were invited to summer camps abroad during the Chernobyl Children's Project in 1990. Close links were developed with Cyprus, between Minsk and the Guides of Lincolnshire. In 1992, Cyprus was appointed Link country to support the development of Guiding in Belarus, in June 1993 the first conference of the Association of Belarusian Guides was held in Minsk. Belarusian Republican Scout Association, member of WOSM The Association of Belarusian Guides, member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts since 1996 Belarusian Scout Association, founded in 1991, liquidated in 2005 by the Supreme Court of Belarus YMCA Scouting in BelarusNote: There may have been a link between one of the non-NSAB Belarusian Scout organizations and the Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe, a Christian-based Scout alternative, but it is uncertain to whom they were linked.
Several countries have multiple organizations, divided on the basis of religion, ethnic identification, or language. Belarus instead has regional Scouting organizations. Regional Scouting divisions of Belarus include the GomelScouts in Gomel; because usage of the Belarusian language and the Russian language are contentious issues in the country, the emblem itself is captioned in English. In addition, there are American Boy Scouts in Minsk, serving in Boy Scout Troop 1101, linked to the Direct Service branch of the Boy Scouts of America, which supports units around the world. Belarusian Republican Youth Union Scouting in displaced persons camps Translate be-x-old:Гісторыя скаўтынгу на Беларусі to English World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, World Bureau, Trefoil Round the World. Eleventh Edition 1997. ISBN 0-900827-75-0
Scouting and Guiding in Germany
The Scout movement in Germany consists of about 150 different associations and federations with about 260,000 Scouts and Guides. Scouting in Germany started in 1909. After World War I, German Scouting became involved with the German Youth Movement, of which the Wandervogel was a part. Another group that, while short-lived, was influential on German Scouting, was the Deutsche Jungenschaft vom 1.11.1929 founded by Eberhard Koebel. German Scouting flourished until 1934-35, when nearly all associations were closed and their members had to join the Hitler Youth. In West Germany and West Berlin, Scouting was reestablished after 1945, but it was banned in East Germany until 1990 in favor of the Thälmann Pioneers and the Free German Youth. Today it is present in all parts of the unified Federal Republic of Germany; as mentioned above, today federations exist in Germany. Most of them are coeducational, but there are some single-gender organizations - boys-only as well as girls-only; the most important and/or largest associations and federations are: Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbände, a federation of Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder Deutsche Pfadfinderschaft Sankt Georg Verband Christlicher Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder Ring Deutscher Pfadfinderinnenverbände, a federation of Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder Pfadfinderinnenschaft Sankt Georg Verband Christlicher Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder Verband Deutscher Altpfadfindergilden, affiliated to International Scout and Guide Fellowship Deutscher Pfadfinderverband, a federation of 18 independent associations.
Most of them developed on military bases, but there are some at international schools or connected to diplomatic missions. The majority of international Scout and Guide groups dates back to the Allied occupation of Western Germany following World War II; the small remainder were started recently. Among the foreign associations in Germany are the Boy Scouts of America with about 120 units, served by three districts of the Transatlantic Council the Girl Scouts of the USA with about 80 units, served by USA Girl Scouts Overseas—North Atlantic and by USAGSO headquarters Girlguiding UK with about 60 units, served by British Guides in Foreign Countries/Germany County in five divisions the Scout Association with 11 groups, served by British Scouts Western Europe, Germany District. Scouts Canada Scouting Nederland Külföldi Magyar Cserkészszövetség - Hungarian Scout Association in ExterisThere are other foreign Scout associations active in Germany with single troops, Scouts et Guides de France in Munich and Hebrew Scouts Movement in Israel in Berlin.
The Dansk Spejderkorps Sydslesvig offers Scouting to the Danish minority of Southern Schleswig in Schleswig-Holstein. It is affiliated to the Danish Det Danske Spejderkorps as well as to the German Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder and has about 700 members in 15 troops. Sturmtrupp-Pfadfinder Scouting in displaced persons camps pfadfindertreffpunkt.de - Forum with members in about 20 countries and 150 associations Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbände and Ring Deutscher Pfadfinderinnenverbände Deutsche Pfadfinderschaft Sankt Georg Deutscher Pfadfinderverband Christliche Pfadfinderschaft Royal Rangers Christliche Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder der Adventjugend Ring junger Bünde German Scout Wiki Christliche Pfadfinderschaft Deutschlands Katholische Pfadfinderschaft Europas http://www.pinetreeweb.com/left5-5.htm
Scouting and Guiding in France
The Scout movement in France consists of about 80 different associations and federations with about 180,000 Scouts and Girl Guides. Next to Germany, France is the country with the most fragmented Scout movement; the national recognized organizations are grouped in two federations and one independent organization. The Fédération du Scoutisme Français is the national member of both the World Organization of the Scout Movement and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts; the federation has about 120,000 members grouped in five co-educational associations. Scoutisme Français was founded in 1940, with the help of Vichy regime, by the Eclaireurs de France, the Éclaireurs unionistes de France, the Scouts de France, the Guides de France, the Éclaireurs israélites de France and the Fédération française des éclaireuses; the Members of the federation are: Éclaireuses et Éclaireurs de France Éclaireuses et Éclaireurs unionistes de France Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs israélites de France Scouts et Guides de France Scouts Musulmans de France Éclaireurs de la Nature The Conférence Française de Scoutisme has about 35,000 members grouped in three co-educational associations: Association des Guides et Scouts d'Europe.
The association is affiliated to the Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe Eclaireurs Neutres de France. Affiliated is a number of smaller associations, some of them Catholic: Europa Scouts Scouts et Guides Saint-Louis Scouts et Guides de Riaumont Fédération des Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs; this federation groups about 15 to 20 independent local associations, some of them Protestant or Orthodox. The Scouts Unitaires de France were founded in 1971 in reaction to a pedagogic renewal within the Scouts de France splitting the former Scout troops in two new sections and implementing coeducation; the association counts about 23,000 members. There are at least 50 independent Scouting associations in France outside the above-mentioned federations. Most of them are recognized by some via religious communities, they have an estimated membership of about 5,000 Guides. Notable among them are: Association Française de Scouts et Guides Catholiques Scouts de Doran, working towards national recognition Scouts et Guides Godefroy de Bouillon Ecuyers Saint-Michel Fédération du Scoutisme Evangélique Français.
Affiliated are a number of smaller associations. The Fédération des Associations d'Anciens du Scoutisme is the national member of the International Scout and Guide Fellowship; the Members of the federation are: Les Amitiés de France Anciens Scouts et Guides Association des Anciens Éclaireurs et Éclaireuses A3-Association des Anciens et Amis des Éclaireurs et Éclaireuses Israélites de France Les Tisons, Anciens des Éclaireurs et Éclaireuses Unionistes Réseau des Parents et Amis des Guides et Scouts de France Boy Scouts of America, served by the Transatlantic Council in Paris Girl Scouts of the USA, served by USAGSO headquarters The Scout Association,served by British Scouting Overseas Girlguiding UK, served by British Guides in Foreign Countries Armenian Scouting, served by Homenetmen Greek Scouting in Paris Külföldi Magyar Cserkészszövetség operates one troop in Paris Polish Scouting and Guiding, served by ZHP pgK Russian Scouting, served by National Organization of Russian Scouts and Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders At the end of 1937, France sent Scoutmaster Raymond Schlemmer to the Cambodian and Vietnamese areas of Indochina to oversee the setting up of the Fédération Indochinoise des Associations du Scoutisme in all three regions.
Bleimor Scouting in displaced persons camps The French language knows two words both for Boy Scout and Girl Guide/Girl Scout. Boy Scout is translated as scout in Catholic and Muslim associations, as éclaireur in Protestant and interreligious associations. Girl Guide/Girl Scout is translated as guide in the Catholic associations, as éclaireuse in Protestant and interreligious associations. Overview chart of the French Scout Movement Presentation of the ten major organizations Fédération du scoutisme français Conférence Française de Scoutisme Scouts Unitaires de France Association Française des Collectionneurs de Timbres Scouts -French Scouts on Stamps Association
Scouting and Guiding in Cyprus
The Scout and Guide movement in Cyprus is served by the Cyprus Scouts Association, member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement the Girl Guides Association of Cyprus, member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Scouts of Northern Cyprus is active in the northern part of Cyprus and has strong ties to the Türkiye İzcilik Federasyonu Also, groups of the Scout Association and Girlguiding UK are active for British Scouts at the Eastern and Western Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Scouting plays a role in the Armenian diaspora community on the island
Scouting and Guiding in Austria
Scouting in Austria is served by multiple Scout associations, among them Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Österreichs, member of World Organization of the Scout Movement and WAGGGS, member of the Austrian National Youth Council Österreichischer Pfadfinderbund, 3000 members, founded 1914/reorganized 1949, member of the Austrian National Youth Council Pfadfinder-Gilde Österreichs, founder member of the International Scout and Guide Fellowship, founded in 1951, 3000 members Katholische Pfadfinderschaft Europas-Österreich, affiliated to Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe, founded in 1981 Royal Rangers Austria, affiliated to Royal Rangers International, founded 1985 Adventwacht, affiliated to Pathfinders International Hashomer Hatzair, member of the Austrian National Youth Council Muslimische Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder Österreich, founded in 2004 Pfadfinder der Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der Letzten Tage, is an organization of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, founded in 1974 Europa Scouts, founded 1949 Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder Europas-Österreich, founded 2000 Scouts of Europa - Europäische Pfadfinderbewegung,Prospect Member of the World Federation of Independent Scouts, founded 2006 Boy Scouts of America, served by the Transatlantic Council Girlguiding UK, served by British Guides in Foreign Countries Girl Scouts of the USA, served by USAGSO headquarters Scouts et Guides de France operates one group in Vienna.
Hungarian Scouting, served by Külföldi Magyar Cserkészszövetség - Hungarian Scout Association in Exteris Homenetmen has one chapter in Vienna, founded in 1985 Rudolf Carl von Slatin, early promoter and supporter of Scouting in Austria and Honorary Chief Scout Scouting in displaced persons camps
Scouting and Guiding in Belgium
The Scouting and Guiding movement in Belgium consists of 15 to 20 separate organizations serving about 160,000 members. Nearly all organizations are grouped by confessions; the Crown Scout rank is the highest. The first Scout Troop was founded in Brussels in 1909. Englishman Harold Parfitt founded the first Scout Troop for British boys, belonging to the British colony in that city. Belgians observing the troop's activities took an interest in Scouting and soon Belgian Scouting began. Boy Scouts of Belgium was founded on December 23, 1910; the first all-Belgian troop was founded in Brussels. They used the British badges and uniforms; this association was open to all boys. As early as 1911 the BSB founded a Girl Guide or Girl Scout troop but World War I and the German occupation hampered their development, so the founding of GGB was not until December 17, 1919, they used British badges and uniforms. Belgium was again occupied by the Germans during World War II, the Nazis tried to unite all youth-organisations in one national socialist youth movement.
Scouting meetings and camps were banned, however some underground activities were conducted. Scouting resumed after the liberation. BSB and GGB merged into one organization in July 1945; each section remained separate, there were no mixed groups until well into the 1980s. The Sea Scouts of Belgium, was founded in April 1914. SSB is an open movement concentrating on Sea Scouting only and founded along the North Sea Coast in the Flemish speaking part of Belgium only. SSB did not have any connection with BSB, they used British badges and rules. Active on national or regional level are: Guidisme et Scoutisme en Belgique/Gidsen- en Scoutsbeweging in België, member of both the World Organization of the Scout Movement and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, consisting of FOS Open Scouting, 7,800 members Guides Catholiques de Belgique, 23,000 members Les Scouts - Fédération des Scouts Baden-Powell de Belgique, 58,000 members Scouts en Gidsen Vlaanderen, 80,000 members Scouts et Guides Pluralistes de Belgique, 5,000 members Europe et Scoutisme, member of the Confédération Européenne de Scoutisme, 9 groups Guides et Scouts d'Europe - Belgique/Europascouts en Gidsen - België, member of the Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe, 1,200 members Hanoar Hatzioni, an international Zionist youth organization Onafhankelijke Scouts en Gidsen - Scouts et Guides Indépendants, member of World Federation of Independent Scouts, 3 groups There are a number of local organizations including: Eclaireurs Unionistes de Belgique Thanks to the many international institutions in Belgium there are some international Scout organizations active in the country.
Among them are the British Scouts Western Europe, the Transatlantic Council of the Boy Scouts of America and the Girl Scouts of the USA. British Scout units are found in Brussels, Waterloo and at SHAPE. Boy Scouts of America units are found in Antwerp, Waterloo and SHAPE. History of Belgian Scouting Guidisme et Scoutisme en Belgique British Scouts Western Europe