Fort Dodge, Iowa
Fort Dodge is a city in and the county seat of Webster County, United States, along the Des Moines River. The population was 25,206 in the 2010 census, an increase from 25,136 in the 2000 census. Fort Dodge is a major commercial center for Northwest Iowa, it is located on U. S. Routes 20 and 169. Fort Dodge traces its beginnings to 1850 when soldiers from the United States Army erected a fort at the junction of the Des Moines River and Lizard Creek, it was named Fort Clarke but was renamed Fort Dodge because there was another fort with the same name in Texas. It was named after Henry Dodge, a governor of Wisconsin Territory The fort was abandoned by the Army in 1853; the next year William Willams, a civilian storekeeper in Fort Dodge, purchased the land and buildings of the old fort. The town of Fort Dodge was founded in 1869. In 1872 the long and continuing history of gypsum production in Iowa started when George Ringland, Webb Vincent, Stillman T. Meservey formed the Fort Dodge Plaster Mills to mine and prepare gypsum for commercial use.
The Company constructed the first gypsum mill west of the Mississippi River, at the head of what is now known as Gypsum Creek. Fort Dodge has the nickname of "Little Chicago." Fort Dodge is located at 42°30′25″N 94°10′50″W, on the Des Moines River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.31 square miles, of which, 16.05 square miles is land and 0.26 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 25,206 people, 10,275 households, 5,850 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,570.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,215 housing units at an average density of 698.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.7% White, 5.5% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 1.4% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.0% of the population. There were 10,275 households of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.5% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.1% were non-families.
36.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was 36.8 years. 21.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.3% male and 48.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 25,136 people, 10,470 households, 6,376 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,726.1 people per square mile. There were 11,168 housing units at an average density of 766.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.47% White, 3.79% African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.30% from other races, 1.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.94% of the population. There were 10,470 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families.
33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.94. Age spread: 24.3% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,361, the median income for a family was $42,555. Males had a median income of $31,253 versus $23,360 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,018. About 7.7% of families and 11.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.2% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over. The major industries of Fort Dodge are biofuels, livestock feed and limestone mining, can production, drywall manufacturing, the manufacture of veterinary pharmaceuticals and vaccines, retail.
Gypsum rock is processed into drywall and plaster products at several Fort Dodge manufacturing facilities. Drywall was patented by a Fort Dodge resident, the gypsum used to create the Cardiff Giant hoax of the late 19th century was mined at Fort Dodge. National Gypsum Company, Georgia Pacific Corporation, Celotex Corporation,- now CertainTeed corporation- and the United States Gypsum Company operate gypsum facilities in and around Fort Dodge. Fort Dodge is the home of Fort Dodge Animal Health, a major producer of pharmaceuticals and vaccines for veterinarian use; the company's headquarters were moved from Fort Dodge to Overland Park, Kansas in 1995. Two of the company's three United States manufacturing plants are located in Fort Dodge. At least three major national trucking companies are based in Fort Dodge; the city serves as a retail center for North-Central Iowa. For most of the 20th century, meatpacking was a major industry in Fort Dodge; the last two large meatpacking plants closed during the 1980s, when such companies moved their facilities closer to beef production in western states such as the Dakotas.
Lone Scouts of America
Lone Scouts of America was a Scouting organization for American boys that operated from 1915 until it merged with the Boy Scouts of America in 1924. The LSA was founded by W. D. Boyce, publisher of the Chicago Ledger and the Saturday Blade and one of the founders of the BSA. Boyce felt that the program of the BSA did not help the rural boy who could not find enough other boys to form a troop or a patrol. James E. West, the first Chief Scout Executive of the BSA, disagreed with Boyce's concept, believing that the 4-H program was fulfilling the role. After Boyce left the BSA, he started the Lone Scouts of America and incorporated it on January 9, 1915. Boyce became the executive officer or Chief Totem and Frank Allan Morgan became the editor of The Lone Scout. In October 1915, Boyce appointed all of his paperboys as members of the LSA and published the first issue of The Lone Scout magazine; the LSA program was inspired by the Lonecraft program of the British Boy Scout Association and by Ernest Thompson Seton's Woodcraft Indians program that used American Indian themes.
No adult leaders were required in the Lone Scout program, there were no age limits. By November 1915, over 30,000 members were reported. Lone Scouts who lived near each other could form a "local tribe", while others could form a "mail tribe" and communicate by post. Tribes could join together to form "wigwams". Tribes elected officers such as chief, sachem and wampum-bearer. By October 1916, the LSA reported 133,000 members. By popular demand, a uniform was created in 1917 and the Lone Scout Supply Company was formed; the main link of the Lone Scouts of America was the weekly newspaper The Lone Scout, published by Boyce's company, sold by Lone Scouts. Boys were encouraged to write articles and cartoons for Lone Scout, several prizes and contests were announced. Many tribes started their own local "tribe papers"– this became part of a program that became the Authorized Lone Scout Amateur Publications. By December 1920, financial difficulties forced Boyce to publish the magazine on a monthly basis and increase the price.
The Tribe Paper Editors' Protective Association was formed to help maintain the quality of the more prestigious of the tribe papers. In 1924, a radio tribe was sponsored by Sears, Roebuck and Co.. Lone Scouts would read news stories on Sears' WLS radio station. An advancement program was developed, split into lodges; the Teepee Lodge consisted of Second Degree and the Third Degree. The Totem Pole Lodge included Fifth Degree and Sixth Degree; the Sagamore Lodge consisted of the Seventh Degree. The literary competitions were awarded with Lone Scout Contributor, Lone Scout Scribe, Lone Scout Graduate and Lone Scout Quill; the Booster Award system recognized Lone Scouts who recruited new members and was awarded in two levels: Lone Scout Organizer and Lone Scout Booster. A Lone Scout who earned Sagamore Degree, Lone Scout Booster and Lone Scout Quill was recognized as a Supreme Scout – 123 were presented. War Work medals recognized those Lone Scouts who performed service work during World War I; the beginning of the end came in 1920, when Boyce hired the first professional editor for The Lone Scout magazine, George N. Madison.
Madison discovered LSA's membership roster was wildly inaccurate and was full of duplications and inactive members. The magazine switched from a weekly to a monthly. By 1922, Boyce's newspaper business was suffering and The Lone Scout was losing money. Although membership was reported at 490,000 Lone Scouts in 1922, the editors of The Lone Scout realized that the numbers were wildly inflated; as Chicago entered the 1920s nadir of American race relations, The Lone Scout announced that they would no longer accept applications "from members of the negro race" and in 1922, the mast head of The Lone Scout changed from "A Real Boys Magazine" to "The White Boys' Magazine." The Boy Scouts of America defended their right to the usage of the term Scout, West wrote to Boyce voicing his concerns, but the BSA never brought litigation against the LSA. In 1916, the BSA created the Pioneer Scout program in direct competition to the LSA, but it was never successful. In April 1924, Boyce accepted James West's persistent offer of a merger with the BSA.
On June 16, 1924 the merger was formalized. When The Lone Scout ceased publication, many of the boys dropped out of Scouting entirely. About 65,000 Lone Scouts transferred to the BSA, membership peaked at 108,000 in 1926; the BSA ran the program unchanged for about a decade as the Lone Scout Service and the Lone Scout Division. The unique program features were eliminated and the Lone Scouts transitioned to the standard Boy Scout program. Lone Cub Scouts were added after the Cub Scouting program was introduced in 1930; the last issue of The Lone Scout in April 1924 announced the merger with the BSA. The BSA continued to print The Lone Scout for a short time before it was merged as a section of Boys' Life; some of the more literary Lone Scouts helped form the National Boy Scout Press Association. Both the Lone Scout and Lone Cub Scout programs continue to serve boys who cannot take part in a nearby troop or pack on a regular basis because of such factors as distance, disability or other difficulties.
As a Lone Scout, Charles J. Merlin of Hudson Heights, New Jersey published a tribe paper called the Lone Beaver Tribune or LBT. In 1927 he formed the Elbeetian Legion to tie together former Lone Scouts and published the Elbeetee newsletter until his death in 1995. Merlin
Rock Island, Illinois
Rock Island is a city in and the county seat of Rock Island County, United States. The original Rock Island, from which the city name is derived, is the largest island on the Mississippi River, it is now called Arsenal Island. The population was 39,018 at the 2010 census. Located on the Mississippi River, it is one of the Quad Cities, along with neighboring Moline, East Moline, the Iowa cities of Davenport and Bettendorf; the Quad Cities has a population of about 380,000. The city is home to Rock Island Arsenal, the largest government-owned weapons manufacturing arsenal in the US, which employs 6,000 people. There is a wide variety of housing available in Rock Island, including historic homes, new downtown condos, new construction in the heart of the city, wooded retreats; the Rock Island-Milan School District, Rockridge School District along with private schools, serve the city. The District has art galleries and theaters and coffee shops, restaurants of all flavors. Golf courses, parks, a casino, botanical center, historic tours, bike paths, festivals offer entertainment opportunities.
In 2015 Rock Island was ranked the 32nd "Best Small City" in the country based on economic health and quality of life. Rock Island made the list of the nation's "25 Most Affordable Housing Markets," a ranking released by 24/7 Wall Street. Various Native American tribes occupied this area for thousands of years before settlement. By the early nineteenth century, it was occupied chiefly by the historic Sauk tribe, their major village of Saukenuk was located along the Rock River. After the War of 1812, the United States built Fort Armstrong on the island for defensive reasons in 1816. Saukenuk was the birthplace of the Sauk war chief Black Hawk, for whom the Black Hawk War of 1831–1832 was named. Fort Armstrong served as the US military's headquarters for the war. Today the Black Hawk State Historic Site, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, includes much of the site of the original village of Saukenuk; the park includes a museum and a number of hiking trails along the Rock River and in surrounding woods.
The original City plat was filed on July 10, 1835, was named Stephenson. It was renamed Rock Island in 1841; this area has been a fortuitous place first for settlement and for steamboat traffic and railroads. The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad was founded here in 1851, known informally as the Rock Island Line; as part of nineteenth-century development, two first-class hotels: the Harper House and the Rock Island House were built in town. Rock Island Arsenal manufactured military equipment and ordnance for the U. S. Army since the 1880s; the railroad's 1980 abandonment ranks as the longest and most unnecessarily complicated in U. S. railroad history. Due to its geography, Rock Island has a rich history of bridge building, including the first railroad bridge across the Mississippi, an unusual two-track railroad bridge, the largest roller dam in the world; the first railroad bridge across the Mississippi River was built between Arsenal Island and Davenport in 1856. Many steamboat pilots felt that the bridge had been intentionally positioned to make it hard for them to navigate, this conflict reflected a larger rivalry: St. Louis and its steamboats against Chicago and its railroads.
Two weeks after the bridge opened, the steamboat Effie Afton collided with the bridge, caught fire, damaged the bridge. The owner of the Effie Afton sued the bridge company for damages, Abraham Lincoln was one of the lawyers who defended the railroad; this test case was appealed to the United States Supreme Court, which ruled in favor of the railroad in 1872. Although the original bridge is long gone, a monument exists on Arsenal Island marking the Illinois side. On the Iowa side, the bridge was located near where 4th and Federal streets intersect with River Drive. Lock and Dam No. 15 and the Government Bridge are located just southwest of the site of the first bridge. The Government Bridge, completed in 1896, is notable for having two sets of railroad tracks above the car lanes. There are only two bridges in the world with this feature. Three other bridges span the river between Rock Davenport; the Crescent Rail Bridge is a railroad-only bridge, completed in 1899. The Centennial Bridge was completed in 1940 for autos only.
The newest bridge is the Interstate 280 bridge, completed in 1973. Lock and Dam No. 15, completed in 1934 as a federal Works Progress Administration project during the Great Depression, is the largest roller dam in the world. The dam is designed for navigation, not flood control. During flood season, the rollers are raised. On the south side of the city, overlooked by the Black Hawk State Historic Site, are auto and railroad crossings of the Rock River to Milan, Illinois; this set of bridges crosses the historic Hennepin Canal and Sears Dam In 2007 a new bridge was completed between 3rd Street Moline/southeast Rock Island and Milan. It expedites the trip to Milan, the airport, points south on U. S. Route 67. Rock Island is located at 41°29′21″N 90°34′23″W. According to the 2010 census, Rock Island has a total area of 17.872 square miles, of which 16.85 square miles is land and 1.022 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 39,684 people, 16,148 households, 9,543 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,492.0 people per square mile
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States. It is bordered by South Dakota to the north, it is the only triply landlocked U. S. state. Nebraska's area is just over 77,220 square miles with a population of 1.9 million people. Its state capital is Lincoln, its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River. Indigenous peoples, including Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee and various branches of the Lakota tribes, lived in the region for thousands of years before European exploration; the state is crossed including that of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Nebraska was admitted as the 37th state of the United States in 1867, it is the only state in the United States whose legislature is unicameral and nonpartisan. Nebraska is composed of two major land regions: the Great Plains; the Dissected Till Plains region consist of rolling hills and contains the state's largest cities and Lincoln. The Great Plains region, occupying most of western Nebraska, is characterized by treeless prairie, suitable for cattle-grazing.
Nebraska has two major climatic zones. The eastern half of the state has a humid continental climate; the western half of the state has a semi-arid climate. The state has wide variations between winter and summer temperatures, variations that decrease moving south in the state. Violent thunderstorms and tornadoes occur during spring and summer and sometimes in autumn. Chinook winds tend to warm the state in the winter and early spring. Nebraska's name is derived from transliteration of the archaic Otoe words Ñí Brásge, pronounced, or the Omaha Ní Btháska, meaning "flat water", after the Platte River that flows through the state. Indigenous peoples lived in the region of present-day Nebraska for thousands of years before European exploration; the historic tribes in the state included the Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee and various branches of the Lakota, some of which migrated from eastern areas into this region. When European exploration and settlement began, both Spain and France sought to control the region.
In the 1690s, Spain established trade connections with the Apaches, whose territory included western Nebraska. By 1703, France had developed a regular trade with the native peoples along the Missouri River in Nebraska, by 1719 had signed treaties with several of these peoples. After war broke out between the two countries, Spain dispatched an armed expedition to Nebraska under Lieutenant General Pedro de Villasur in 1720; the party was attacked and destroyed near present-day Columbus by a large force of Pawnees and Otoes, both allied to the French. The massacre ended Spanish exploration of the area for the remainder of the 18th century. In 1762, during the Seven Years' War, France ceded the Louisiana territory to Spain; this left Spain competing for dominance along the Mississippi. In response, Spain dispatched two trading expeditions up the Missouri in 1794 and 1795; that year, Mackay's party built a trading post, dubbed Fort Carlos IV, near present-day Homer. In 1819, the United States established Fort Atkinson as the first U.
S. Army post west of the Missouri River, just east of present-day Fort Calhoun; the army abandoned the fort in 1827. European-American settlement was scarce until the California Gold Rush. On May 30, 1854, the US Congress created the Kansas and the Nebraska territories, divided by the Parallel 40° North, under the Kansas–Nebraska Act; the Nebraska Territory included parts of the current states of Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. The territorial capital of Nebraska was Omaha. In the 1860s, after the U. S. government forced many of the Native American tribes to cede their lands and settle on reservations, it opened large tracts of land to agricultural development by Europeans and Americans. Under the Homestead Act, thousands of settlers migrated into Nebraska to claim free land granted by the federal government; because so few trees grew on the prairies, many of the first farming settlers built their homes of sod, as had Native Americans such as the Omaha. The first wave of settlement gave the territory a sufficient population to apply for statehood.
Nebraska became the 37th state on March 1, 1867, the capital was moved from Omaha to the center at Lancaster renamed Lincoln after the assassinated President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. The battle of Massacre Canyon on August 5, 1873, was the last major battle between the Pawnee and the Sioux. During the 1870s to the 1880s, Nebraska experienced a large growth in population. Several factors contributed to attracting new residents; the first was. This helped settlers to learn the unfamiliar geography of the area; the second factor was the invention of several farming technologies. Agricultural inventions such as barbed wire, wind mills, the steel plow, combined with good weather, enabled settlers to use of Nebraska as prime farming land. By the 1880s, Nebraska's population
Scouting in South Dakota
Scouting in South Dakota has a long history, from the 1910s to the present, serves thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. In 1917 the Centerville Council was founded, it folded in 1918. In 1917 the Mitchell Council was founded, it folded in 1920. In 1920 the Yankton Council was founded, it folded in 1924. In 1930 the Black Hills Area Council was founded. In 1920 the Huron Council was founded, it reformed as the Huron Area Council in 1925, changing its name to the Central South Dakota Council in 1928. In 1942 it changed its name to Pheasant Council. In 1925 the Southern South Dakota Council was founded. In 1927 it merged into the Sioux Council. In 1926 the Hiawatha Council was founded. In 1927 it merged into the Sioux Council. In 1925 the Aberdeen Area Council was founded. In 1928 it changed its name to Northern South Dakota Council, changing the name again in 1931 to the Dasota Council. In 1933, the Dasota Council splt, with half of the council going to Central South Dakota and half going to Arrowhead.
In 1934 the Arrowhead Council was founded. In 1942 the Pheasant Council was founded. In 1943 Arrowhead merged into Pheasant. In 1927 the Sioux Council was founded. In 1978, the Pheasant Council merged into the Sioux Council. There are two Boy Scouts of America local councils serving South Dakota. All of South Dakota lies within Central Region, except for Harding, Lawrence, Custer, Fall River, Shannon, Haakon and Bennett counties, as part of Western Region; the Black Hills Area Council was granted a charter by the National Council, Boy Scouts of America in 1930, charged with the responsibility of organizing and supporting successful Cub Scout Packs, Boy Scout Troops, Varsity Scout Teams, Venturing Crews, Explorer Posts and Learning for Life Groups within its 30,000-square-mile geographical boundaries. It serves over 3,700 youth members in Western South Dakota and Eastern Wyoming and are one of the largest youth serving organizations in our community; until 2014 the Council was composed of three districts: Bear Butte District serves the Northern Hills Area of South Dakota and Sundance and Moorcroft, Wyoming.
Penjahame District serves the South Dakota Counties of Pennington, Jackson and Southern Meade. Pine Tree District serves the Southern Hills area of Newcastle, Wyoming. Since August 2014, the Black Hills Area Council is now the Rushmore District. In 1976 the Black Hills Area Council established Medicine Mountain Scout Ranch, its year-round camping facility which hosts both unit and family groups; the Mid-America Council of the Boy Scouts of America offers programs in 58 counties in Nebraska and South Dakota. The Mid-America Council was formed from a merger of the Covered Wagon Council and the Southwest Iowa Council in 1965; the first recorded Scouting in the area was in 1918 as the Omaha Council. In 2000 the council merged with the Prairie Gold Council in Iowa; the Northern Lights Council serves North Dakota, counties in South Dakota, northwest Minnesota and northeast Montana. Sioux Council serves Scouts in South Dakota and Minnesota. Buffalo Ridge District Five Rivers District Lewis and Clark Trail District North Star District Pheasant District Prairie Hills District Sioux Council operates the Lewis & Clark Scout Camp at Tabor, SD.
Tetonwana Lodge is the local lodge of the Order of the Arrow for Sioux Council. The Tetonwana Lodge was chartered in 1937 and serves Boy Scouts in the states of South Dakota, Minnesota, and Iowa. On January 1, 1978, Tetonwana Lodge #105 and Iyatonka Lodge #460 merged; this merger was the result of a merger between Pheasant Council. Two Girl Scout Councils serve South Dakota. Girl Scouts - Dakota Horizons serves 11,000 girls and has 4,100 adult volunteers in North and South Dakota and in thirteen counties in north-western Minnesota and Lyon County, Iowa; the council has seven offices. Girl Scouts—Dakota Horizons is headquartered in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. On July 1, 2007 the three Girl Scout councils of South Dakota and the three in North Dakota merged to form the current council; the councils it replaces are: Girl Scouts of The Black Hills Council. Bismarck, North Dakota - Northwest District Fargo, North Dakota - Northeast District Rapid City, South Dakota - Southwest District Sioux Falls, South Dakota - Southeast DistrictDistrict Field Offices: Minot, North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota Camp MOE - near Thief River Falls, Minnesota Camp Neche - near Bismarck, North Dakota Camp Ocankasa - near Mandan, North Dakota Camp Owetti - near Minot, ND Camp Sakakawea - near Pick City, North Dakota Camp Tonweya is north of Valley City, North Dakota Wall Lake Camp is near Sioux Falls, SD Camp Nyteepeota - on Lake Kampeska in Watertown, South Dakota Camp Arroya is near Mitchell, SD Camp Woodlands - near Huron, South Dakota Robin's Nest is near Aberdeen, SD TDAF Lodge is near Aberdeen, SD Cedar Canyon Camp is near Rapid City, SDFormer Camps: Camp PahaSapa was near Rapid City, South Dakota Serves South Dakota girls in Union and part of Clay counties.
Scouting in North Dakota Black Hills Area Council
Girl Scouts of the USA
Girl Scouts of the United States of America referred to as Girl Scouts in the US, is a youth organization for girls in the United States and American girls living abroad. Founded by Juliette Gordon Low in 1912, it was organized after Low met Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, in 1911. Upon returning to Savannah, she telephoned a distant cousin, saying, "I've got something for the girls of Savannah, all of America, all the world, we're going to start it tonight!"Girl Scouts prepares girls to empower themselves and promotes compassion, confidence, leadership and active citizenship through activities involving camping, community service, learning first aid, earning badges by acquiring practical skills. Girl Scouts' achievements are recognized with various special awards, including the Girl Scout Gold and Bronze Awards. Girl Scout membership is organized with activities designed for each level. GSUSA is a member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts and accepts girls of all backgrounds.
A 1994 Chronicle of Philanthropy poll showed Girl Scouts ranked by the public as the eighth "most popular charity/non-profit in America" among more than 100 charities. It describes itself as "the world's preeminent organization dedicated to girls." Girl Scouting in the United States of America began on March 12, 1912, when Juliette "Daisy" Gordon Low organized the first Girl Guide troop meeting of 18 girls in Savannah, Georgia. It has since grown to 3.7 million members. Low, who had met Baden-Powell in London while she was living in the United Kingdom, dreamed of giving the United States and the world "something for all the girls." She envisioned an organization that would bring girls out of their homes to serve their communities, experience the out-of-doors, have the opportunity to develop "self-reliance and resourcefulness." From its inception, the Girl Scouts has been organized and run by women, for girls and women. Juliette Gordon Low was the granddaughter of Juliette Magill Kinzie and John Harris Kinzie, whose childhood family was one of the earliest settlers of Chicago, IL.
Juliette Kinzie wrote about her experiences in the Northwest Territory in her book Wau-Bun: The Early Day. Some of what her granddaughter, Juliette Gordon Low, knew firsthand about her grandmother's experiences on the frontier were incorporated into the beginnings and traditions of Girl Scouts; the early home of Juliette Low's grandparents can be visited May 15 through October 15 in Portage, Wisconsin. In late 1912, Low proposed that the Camp Fire Girls merge with the Girl Guides but was rejected in January 1913 as Camp Fire was the larger group. Next, Low attempted to merge her organization with the Girl Scouts of America, founded in Des Moines, Iowa by Clara Lisetor-Lane, she thought their similarities would make this easier but Lisetor-Lane felt Daisy copycatted her organization and threatened to sue. Lisetor-Lane claimed Low's organization was luring members away but the GSA's growth was limited by a lack of financial resources which led to its eventual demise; the Girl Guides of America in 1913 changed its name to Girl Scouts of the United States and moved its headquarters to Washington, DC.
In 1915 the organization was incorporated and the national headquarters was moved to New York City. The name reached its current form, Girl Scouts of the United States of America, in 1947; the organization was given a congressional charter on March 16, 1950. GSUSA started with 18 members. Within months, members were hiking through the woods in knee-length blue uniforms, playing basketball on a curtained-off court, going on camping trips. In 1916, Low established an aviation badge --. By 1920, there were nearly 70,000 members. By 1923 the organization had branches in every state in the union, Alaska and Puerto Rico, a total membership of 125,738. In 1930 it had over 200,000. In 2013 there were over 3.2 million Girl Scouts: 2.3 million girl members and 890,000 adult members in the United States. More than 50 million American women have participated in Girl Scouts. Through its membership in WAGGGS, GSUSA girls and adults are among over 10 million members in 146 countries; the names and ages of the levels and the larger structure of the program have changed over time.
In 1923 Girl Scouts were organized into patrols, local councils, the National Council. Troops were fairly independent before joining together into small councils, which merged to form larger councils. Today there are over 100 councils across the U. S; the Juliette Gordon Low Birthplace, located in Savannah, Georgia, in the former Gordon family home, became the national Girl Scout program center in 1956. It provides tours to thousands of Girl Scouts yearly. Upon Low's death in 1927, she willed her carriage house, which would become The Girl Scout First Headquarters, to the local Savannah Girl Scouts for continued use. In 1923 national headquarters was located at New York. During World War II, 1943–1945, many young Japanese American girls were confined in internment camps with their families. Girl Scout troops were organized in these camps; these girls participated in many activities, including dramatic presentations that took place in the Crystal City Internment Camp in Crystal City, Texas. Most Girl Scout units were segregated by race according to state and local laws and customs.
The first troop for African American girls was founded in 1917. In 1933, Josephine Groves Holloway f
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl