Marshall County, Kentucky
Marshall County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 31,448, its county seat is Benton. It was a dry county until July 28, 2015, when residents voted for the county to go "wet", it is the only Purchase Area county not to border another state. Marshall County was created by the Kentucky legislature in 1842 from the northern half of Calloway County; the first settlers arrived in about 1818, shortly after the area was bought from the Chickasaw Indians as part of the Jackson Purchase by Gen. Andrew Jackson and Kentucky Gov. Isaac Shelby; the Chickasaws were forced to move to new lands west of the Mississippi River. Marshall County was named in honor of Chief Justice John Marshall, who died in 1835. Like most of the Jackson Purchase, Marshall County was pro-Confederate during the American Civil War, with many local men serving in the famous Kentucky Orphan Brigade. On March 23, 1864, detachments of Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest's Confederate cavalry clashed with Union cavalry near Benton, with each side scouring the countryside for needed cavalry remounts.
A state historical marker stands at the site. From its settlement until the 1930s, Marshall County was completely agricultural. In the 1940s, the Tennessee Valley Authority created Kentucky Lake, which brought tourism to the county with lakeshore resorts. Kentucky Dam's cheap and plentiful electricity attracted chemical and manufacturing plants in the Calvert City area; the lake's impoundment destroyed two historic Marshall County towns: Birmingham, six miles north of Fairdealing, Gilbertsville, at the dam's site. Gilbertsville was relocated west of its original location, but Birmingham residents had to find new homes elsewhere. Gilbertsville was an incorporated town until the 1970s, when its charter was dissolved by public vote. Kentucky Lake and Lake Barkley were connected by a canal and thus form one of the largest man-made bodies of water in the world. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 340 square miles, of which 301 square miles is land and 39 square miles is water.
The county's northeastern border is formed by the Tennessee Kentucky Lake. Livingston County Lyon County Trigg County Calloway County Graves County McCracken County Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 30,125 people, 12,412 households, 8,998 families residing in the county; the population density was 99 per square mile. There were 14,730 housing units at an average density of 48 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.57% White, 0.2% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 0.76% from two or more races. 0.76% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. There were 12,412 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.40% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.50% were non-families. 25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.83. The age distribution was 21.80% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 26.20% from 45 to 64, 17.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,573, the median income for a family was $43,670. Males had a median income of $36,673 versus $21,941 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,069. About 6.60% of families and 9.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.60% of those under age 18 and 10.90% of those age 65 or over. Benton Calvert City Hardin Gilbertsville On the first Monday of April, Benton holds its Tater Day. Originating in 1842 as a day for farmers to gather at the county seat to trade their agricultural goods, today Tater Day is a celebration that includes a festival and parade.
Tater Day derives its name from the main item traded—sweet potatoes for seed, i.e. for bedding in prepared "seedbeds" to produce slips for growers to transplant to gardens or fields. On the fourth Sunday of each May, The Big Singing, an all-day sing-along program of Southern Harmony shape note gospel music is held at the county courthouse. While other major singings still survive, The Big Singing, begun in 1884, is the only singing in the world to use the William Walker Southern Harmony system of shape-note singing; the Big Singing is distinguished as the oldest continuously operating indigenous music festival in the United States. Americans celebrate the Fourth of July. Calvert City is sponsored by the Calvert Area Development Agency. Ameribration is one of the Lakes' Biggest Fourth of July Celebrations; some of the events include: Community Photo Contest, 5K Race and Walk, other community tournaments, Car Show, Children's Train Ride and Crafts Vendors and Adult Talent Shows, Water Wall and Slide Ride for children, Kids' Parade, Live Bands, Main Parade, Fireworks show.
Other annual events include Hardin Day and Aurora Country Festival, celebrated in the small towns of Hardin and Aurora. More the area has become known for the annual Hot August Blues and Barbecue Festival held at
Irving is a principal city in Dallas County in the U. S. state of Texas and it is an inner ring suburb of the city of Dallas. According to a 2017 estimate from the United States Census Bureau, the city population was 240,373 making it the thirteenth-most populous city in Texas and 93rd most populous city in the U. S; the city of Irving is part of the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. Irving includes the Las Colinas community, one of the first master-planned developments in the United States and once the largest mixed-use development in the Southwest with a land area of more than 12,000 acres. Las Colinas is home to the Mustangs at Las Colinas, the largest equine sculpture in the world, as well as many Fortune 500 companies, such as ExxonMobil, Kimberly-Clark and Fluor Corporation. In January 2011 the city completed the Irving Convention Center at Las Colinas and continues to develop the area into a mixed-use complex, including a special entertainment district. Part of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport lies inside the city limits of Irving.
Irving was founded in 1903 by J. O. "Otto" Schulze and Otis Brown. It is believed literary author Washington Irving was a favorite of Netta Barcus Brown, the name of the town site, was chosen. Irving began in 1889 as an area called Gorbit, in 1894 the name changed to Kit. Irving was incorporated April 1914, with Otis Brown as the first mayor. By the late nineteenth century the Irving area was the site of churches, two cotton gins, a blacksmith shop and a general store; the Irving district public school system dates to the 1909 establishment of Lively schools. Population growth was slow and sometimes halting, with only 357 residents in 1925, but a significant increase began in the 1930s. By the early 1960s the city had a population of 45,000. A number of manufacturing plants operated in Irving, along with transportation and financial businesses; the University of Dallas in Irving opened in 1956, Texas Stadium was completed in 1971 as the home field of the Dallas Cowboys. Delta Air Lines Flight 191 crashed in Irving on August 2, 1985.
Irving's population reached 155,037 in 1990 and the United States Census Bureau estimated 236,607 residents in 2016, a 3.5 percent population increase over 2013 census estimates. In 2000, an Oshman's Sporting Goods store was robbed by the "Texas Seven". In 2011, the Irving Convention Center at Las Colinas opened. Four years high-school student Ahmed Mohamed was the subject of a hoax bomb incident which ignited allegations of racial profiling and Islamophobia from many media and commentators. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 67.7 square miles, of which 67.2 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water. The warmest month on average is July, the highest recorded temperature was 112 °F in 1980; the average coolest month is January, the lowest recorded temperature was −8 °F in 1899. Irving is considered to be part of the humid subtropical region. May is the average wettest month; as of the census of 2000, there were 191,615 people, 76,241 households, 46,202 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,850.2 people per square mile. There were 80,293 housing units at an average density of 1,194.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 64.2% White, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31.2% of the population, 10.2% African American, 0.7% Native American, 8.24% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 13.4% from other races, 3.20% from two or more races. Non-Hispanic whites were 48.2% of the population, down from 88.9% in 1980. There were 76,241 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.4% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.19. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 39.4% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, 6.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,956, the median income for a family was $50,172. Males had a median income of $35,852 versus $30,420 for females; the per capita income for the city was $23,419. About 8.0% of families and 10.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.2% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 216,290 people, 82,538 households, 51,594 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,218.6 people per square mile. There were 91,128 housing units at an average density of 1,356 per square mile; the racial makeup of the city was 53.1% White, 12.3% African American, 0.9% Native American, 14.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 16.2% from other races, 3.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 41.1% of the population. There were 82,538 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.5% were non-families.
30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.31. In the city, 29% of the population was under the age of 19, 8% was between ages 20 to 24, 35.8% fr
Lincoln Heritage Council
The Lincoln Heritage Council is a local council of the Boy Scouts of America serving 64 counties in four states: Kentucky, Indiana and Tennessee. The council is organized into four geographical service areas: Southern Indiana, Central Kentucky, Metro Louisville and Western Service Area. Iroqouis District: Bullitt and Southwest Jefferson counties in Kentucky Cherokee District: Jefferson County in Kentucky Dan Boone District: Carroll, Shelby, Trimble and Henry counties in Kentucky Lewis and Clark District: Clark, Floyd, Harrison and Washington counties in southern Indiana Lincoln Trail District: Breckenridge, Marion, Taylor, Hardin, LaRue and Meade counties in central Kentucky Seneca District: Northeast Jefferson county in Kentucky Audubon District: Daviess, Henderson, McLean, Ohio counties Four Rivers District: Ballard, Carlisle, Graves, Livingston, Marshall, McCracken, Massac, Pope counties and South Fulton Wapiti District: Allen, Adair, Butler, Edmonson, Logan, Monroe and Warren counties Tecumseh District: Caldwell, Christian*, Hopkins, Muhlenberg, Trigg*, Webster counties The Lincoln Heritage Council is one of the oldest BSA local Councils serving both urban and rural areas in the United States.
Their first charter was granted under the name Louisville Area Council in 1912. The council was renamed to the Old Kentucky Home Council. In 1992, the George Rogers Clark Council merged with the Old Kentucky Home Council, forming the Lincoln Heritage Council. In 2012, the territory of the Shawnee Trails Council was transferred to the Lincoln Heritage Council. Shawnee Trails Council was formed from the merger of the Four Rivers Council and the Audubon Council; the Four Rivers Council served youth within the area bounded by the Tennessee and Mississippi Rivers, the Tennessee state line except for South Fulton, TN and the river counties in Southern Illinois. Audubon served youth within a jagged border formed by the Ohio, Rough and Barren Rivers. In 1951, the Cogioba Council, headquartered in Bowling Green merged with the West Kentucky Area Council to form the Audubon Council serving a good third of Kentucky. In the early 90s, Audubon merged with the Paducah based Four Rivers Council, adding the additional counties on the other side of the Tennessee River as well as counties in southern Illinois and northwestern Tennessee with the exception of the Fort Campbell military reservation in southern Trigg and Christian counties, which remained a part of the Middle Tennessee Council.
The Mammoth Cave District is the home of Camp Rotary at Temple Hill, run by the Rotary Scout Foundation. The camp was the former home camp belonging to the long-merged Cogioba Council. Rotary Scout Reservation provided the setting for the B-P Rover Crew's semi-annual Rover Scout Wee Moot, the longest-running Rover Scout Moot in the United States, which took place from 1953–1993, with a reunion held in 1999; the Harry S. Frazier Jr. Scout Reservation is located in Clermont, Kentucky, it was created as the Old Kentucky Home Scout Reservation. Its primary draw is its week-long summer camp, Camp Crooked Creek, which offers advancement opportunities to both Boy Scouts and Varsity Scouts, it offers the following program areas in which Scouts can advance: Shooting Sports, Citizenships, Handicraft and Outdoor Skills. The camp features a first year camper program known as Dan Boone Hill as well as two elements for older Scouts: a Project COPE course and a climbing tower. Camp Crooked Creek is home to the Green River Trek and Frontier Town, which gives older Scouts the ability to learn new skills.
Tunnel Mill Scout Reservation is located in Indiana. It includes a Registered Historic Place. Tunnel Mill held Boy Scouts summer camps as early as 1917 and yearly under the direction of the George Rogers Clark Council from 1928 - 1992. After merging into the Lincoln Heritage Council in 1993, it has been used for Cub Scout Day camps, Webelos camps, various camporees and Order of the Arrow activities, while still being utilized for various unit activities when camp schedules permit. Pfeffer Scout Reservation is located on the shores of Kentucky Lake near Aurora, it hosts Camp Roy C. Manchester, having changed its name in 1979 to honor Roy C. Manchester. From 1973-1983, Camp RCM took advantage of the BSA's attempt to create regional Outdoor Adventure bases around the nation. A "first year camper" program offered at the camp was featured in the March/April 1981 issue of Scouting magazine, which resulted in similar programs being offered in all BSA camps nationally; the Land Between the Lakes National Outdoor Adventure Center was a cooperative effort between the BSA and the Tennessee Valley Authority.
The BSA abandoned the National base but permitted the Four Rivers Council to continue to offer high adventure-related facilities for sailing, kayaking and U. S. Coast Guard approved Sailing training. RCM has been used for summer camp since August 1956. Prior to 1957, summer camp was at Camp Pakentuck in Southern Illinois. Summer Camp was held in both locations in 1956, first at Camp Pakentuck and three weeks of rough "outpost" camping in early August at Kentucky Lake. Camp Pakentuck was owned by the Four Rivers Council but was used by the Egyp
Frankfort is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the seat of Franklin County. It is a home rule-class city in Kentucky. Located along the Kentucky River, Frankfort is the principal city of the Frankfort, Kentucky Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Franklin and Anderson counties; the town of Frankfort received its name from an event that took place in the 1780s. American Indians attacked a group of early European-American pioneers from Bryan Station, who were making salt at a ford in the Kentucky River. Pioneer Stephen Frank was killed, the settlers thereafter called the crossing "Frank's Ford." This name was elided to Frankfort. In 1786, James Wilkinson purchased the 260-acre tract of land on the north side of the Kentucky River, which developed as downtown Frankfort, he was an early promoter of Frankfort as the state capital. After Kentucky became the 15th state in early 1792, five commissioners from various counties were appointed on June 20 to choose a location for the capital.
They were John Allen and John Edwards, Henry Lee, Thomas Kennedy, Robert Todd. A number of communities competed for this honor. According to early histories, the offer of Andrew Holmes' log house as capitol for seven years, a number of town lots, £50 worth of locks and hinges, 10 boxes of glass, 1,500 pounds of nails, $3,000 in gold helped the decision go to Frankfort. Frankfort had a United States post office with Daniel Weisiger as postmaster. John Brown, a Virginia lawyer and statesman, built a home now called Liberty Hall in Frankfort in 1796. Before Kentucky's statehood, he represented Virginia in the Continental Congress and the U. S. Congress. While in Congress, he introduced the bill granting statehood to Kentucky. After statehood, he was elected by the state legislature as one of the state's U. S. Senators. In 1796, the Kentucky General Assembly appropriated funds to provide a house to accommodate the governor; the Old Governor's Mansion is claimed to be the oldest official executive residence still in use in the United States.
In 1829, Gideon Shryock designed Kentucky's third, in Greek Revival style. It served Kentucky as its capitol from 1830 to 1910; the separate settlement known as South Frankfort was annexed by the city in January 3, 1850. During the American Civil War, the Union Army built fortifications overlooking Frankfort on what is now called Fort Hill; the Confederate Army occupied Frankfort for a short time starting from September 3, 1862, the only such time that Confederate forces took control of a Union capitol. On February 3, 1900 Governor-elect William Goebel was assassinated in Frankfort while walking to the capitol on the way to his inauguration. Former Secretary of State Caleb Powers was found guilty of a conspiracy to murder Goebel. Frankfort grew in the 1960s. A modern addition to the State Office Building was completed in 1967; the original building was completed in the 1930s on the location of the former Kentucky State Penitentiary. Some of the stone from the old prison was used for the walls surrounding the office building.
The Capitol Plaza was established in the 1960s. It comprises the Capitol Plaza Office Tower, the tallest building in the city, the Capitol Plaza Hotel, the Fountain Place Shoppes; the Capital Plaza Office Tower opened in 1972 and became a visual landmark for the center of the city. By the early 2000s, maintenance of the concrete structures had been neglected and the plaza had fallen into disrepair, with sections of the plaza closed to pedestrian activity out of concerns for safety. In August 2008, city officials recommended demolition of the Tower and redevelopment the area over a period of years. Ten years the demolition of the office tower was completed on Sunday, March 11, 2018 at 1:30 PM EST, was televised by WKYT-TV on The CW Lexington as well as streamed live on Facebook. Demolition of the nearby convention center, which opened in 1971 and has hosted sporting events and other local events, was completed in Spring 2018. City officials intend to replace the outdated office tower with a smaller, four- or five-story building in order to create a more pedestrian-oriented scale at the complex, to encourage street activity.
Frankfort is home to several major distilleries of Kentucky Bourbon, including the Buffalo Trace Distillery. Although there was some rapid economic and population growth in the 1960s, both tapered off in the 1980s and have remained stable since that time. In 2018, several teachers protested at the city in response to Senate Bill 151 being passed on March 29, 2018. Frankfort is located in the Bluegrass region of Central Kentucky; the city is bisected by the Kentucky River, which makes an s-turn as it passes through the center of town. The river valley widens at this point; the valley within the city limits contains Downtown and South Frankfort districts, which lie opposite one another on the river. A small neighborhood with its own distinct identity, Bellepoint, is located on the west bank of the river to the north of Benson Creek, opposite the river from the "downtown" district; the suburban areas on either side of the valley are referred to as the "West Side" and "East Side". According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.6 square miles, of w
Murray State University
Murray State University is a public university in Murray, Kentucky. In addition to the main campus in Calloway County in southwestern Kentucky, Murray State operates extended campuses offering upper level and graduate courses in Paducah, Hopkinsville and Henderson. Murray State University was founded after passage of Senate Bill 14 by the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, which created two normal schools in the early 20th century to address the growing demand for professional teachers. One was to be located in the western part of the state, many cities and towns bid for the new normal school. Rainey T. Wells spoke on behalf of the city of Murray to convince the Normal School Commission to choose his city. On September 2, 1922, Murray was chosen as the site of the western normal school, while Morehead was chosen for the eastern normal school. On November 26, 1922, John Wesley Carr was elected the first president of the Murray State Normal School by the State Board of Education.
Believing it had the authority to elect the president, the Normal School Commission picked Rainey Wells as the first president. On May 15, 1923, the Kentucky Court of Appeals ruled for the State Board of Education, Carr became Murray's first president. Murray State Normal School opened on September 23, 1923; until the first building was completed, classes were held on the first floor of Murray High School. That historic building is now used as Wrather West Kentucky Museum. All students lived at home or boarded with local families until the first dormitory, Wells Hall, was constructed in 1925. Wilson Hall was completed under Carr's presidency, with other structures were in progress. In 1926, Rainey T. Wells, recognized as the founder of Murray State, became its second president. Wells served from 1926 to 1932, during this time Lovett Auditorium, Carr Health Building, Pogue Library were all completed. In 1926, the Normal School was renamed Murray State Normal School and Teachers College, with a four-year curriculum, the General Assembly granted it authority to confer baccalaureate degrees.
In 1928, the college was accredited by the Southern Association of Schools. In 1930, the name was changed to Murray State Teachers College and it was granted authority to offer liberal arts and pre-professional courses; the name was changed again in 1948 to Murray State College, with expansion of the programs to include graduate-level courses, in 1966 the General Assembly authorized the Board of Regents to change the name to Murray State University. The Shield is the official seal of the university, it is taken from the heraldic coat-of-arms of the family of William Murray, Earl of Mansfield and Lord Chief Justice of Great Britain in 1756. William Murray is an ancestor of the Murray family from whom the city and the university take their names; the shield is blue with a double gold border—its three stars represent hope and achievement. The oldest and most recognizable buildings on the Murray State campus are situated around a large, tree-lined area on the south side of campus; this part of campus, known as the Quad, is bounded by 16th Street to the west, 15th Street to the east, Lovett Auditorium to the north and Wilson Hall to the south.
In the southwest corner of the Quad is the oldest building on campus, now used as Wrather West Kentucky Museum. It was known first as the Administration Building and as Wrather Hall before it became a museum. Ground was broken for Wrather Hall on October 15, 1923, it has been in use since 1924. Wrather Hall first housed administrative classrooms; the building features a large auditorium, used for lectures and meetings. Faculty Hall, Wells Hall and the Business Building line the western edge of the Quad; the Lowry Center, Pogue Library and the Price Doyle Fine Arts Center line the eastern side of the Quad. The 11-story Doyle Fine Arts Center is the tallest building on campus, housing numerous classrooms, practice rooms and recital halls, the Robert E. Johnson Theatre, Clara Eagle Art Gallery, WKMS-FM and television studios used for student work and the taping of Murray State's signature show, Roundabout U. Directly south of the Quad is Sparks Hall. Sparks Hall is the main administrative building, housing the offices of student financial aid and registration, accounting and financial services, vice president for administrative services, Center for Continuing Education and Academic Outreach, human resources and university communications.
The five-story, 39,000-square-foot, Sparks Hall was completed in 1967 at a cost of $1,308,514. To the south of the Quadrangle, directly west of Sparks Hall is Oakhurst, the residence of the university president. Construction of the residence known as Edgewood, began in 1917 and was completed in 1918; the home was built by Mrs. Rainey T. Wells; the Board of Regents purchased the home from Rainey T. Wells in June 1936, it was remodeled that year and renamed Oakhurst in preparation for James H. Richmond's occupation of the house; the central portion of the Murray State campus lines 15th Street between Chestnut Street and Olive Boulevard. This portion of 15th Street was open to automobile traffic, but has since been closed and converted into a pedestrian thoroughfare. Along the west side of the 15th Street pedestrian pathway is the Martha Layne Collins Center for Industry and Technology, Blackburn Science Building, Oakley Applied Science Building. To the east of the pedestrian pathway lies the Curris Center, Carr Health Building and Cutchin Fieldhouse, Waterfield Library, Ordway Hall, Woods Hall and Mason Hall.
The most historic building in the central portion of campus is Ordway Hall. The contract for construction of Ordway Hall was approved in April 1930, c
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 29th most-populous city in the United States. It is one of two cities in Kentucky designated as first-class, the other being Lexington, the state's second-largest city. Louisville is the historical seat and, since 2003, the nominal seat of Jefferson County, located in the northern region of the state, on the border with Indiana. Louisville, named for King Louis XVI of France, was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark, making it one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Sited beside the Falls of the Ohio, the only major obstruction to river traffic between the upper Ohio River and the Gulf of Mexico, the settlement first grew as a portage site, it was the founding city of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which grew into a 6,000-mile system across 13 states. Today, the city is known as the home of legendary boxer Muhammad Ali, the Kentucky Derby, Kentucky Fried Chicken, the University of Louisville and its Louisville Cardinals athletic teams, Louisville Slugger baseball bats, three of Kentucky's six Fortune 500 companies, being Humana, Kindred Healthcare and Yum!
Brands. Its main airport is the site of United Parcel Service's worldwide air hub. Since 2003, Louisville's borders have been the same as those of Jefferson County, after a city-county merger; the official name of this consolidated city-county government is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, abbreviated to Louisville Metro. Despite the merger and renaming, the term "Jefferson County" continues to be used in some contexts in reference to Louisville Metro including the incorporated cities outside the "balance" which make up Louisville proper; the city's total consolidated population as of the 2017 census estimate was 771,158. However, the balance total of 621,349 excludes other incorporated places and semiautonomous towns within the county and is the population listed in most sources and national rankings; the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as Kentuckiana, includes Louisville-Jefferson County and 12 surrounding counties, seven in Kentucky and five in Southern Indiana.
As of 2017, the MSA had a population of 1,293,953. The history of Louisville spans hundreds of years, has been influenced by the area's geography and location; the rapids at the Falls of the Ohio created a barrier to river travel, as a result, settlements grew up at this stopping point. The first European settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville was on Corn Island in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, credited as the founder of Louisville. Several landmarks in the community are named after him. Two years in 1780, the Virginia General Assembly approved the town charter of Louisville; the city was named in honor of King Louis XVI of France, whose soldiers were aiding Americans in the Revolutionary War. Early residents lived in forts to protect themselves from Indian raids, but moved out by the late 1780s. In 1803, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark organized their expedition across America in the town of Clarksville, Indiana at the present-day Falls of the Ohio opposite Louisville, Kentucky.
The city's early growth was influenced by the fact that river boats had to be unloaded and moved downriver before reaching the falls. By 1828, the population had grown to 7,000 and Louisville became an incorporated city. Early Louisville was slaves worked in a variety of associated trades; the city was a point of escape for slaves to the north, as Indiana was a free state. During this point in the 1850s, the city was growing and vibrant, but that came with negativity, it was the center of planning, supplies and transportation for numerous campaigns in the Western Theater. By the year 1855, ethnic tension was arising. Nobody knew. On August 6, 1855 "Bloody Monday" happened. By 1861, the civil war broke out. During the Civil War, Louisville was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky in the Union. By the end of the war, Louisville had not been attacked, although skirmishes and battles, including the battles of Perryville and Corydon, took place nearby. After Reconstruction, returning Confederate veterans took political control of the city, leading to the jibe that Louisville joined the Confederacy after the war was over.
The first Kentucky Derby was held on May 1875, at the Louisville Jockey Club track. The Derby was shepherded by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. the grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, grandnephew of the city's founder George Rogers Clark. Horse racing had a strong tradition in Kentucky, whose Inner Bluegrass Region had been a center of breeding high-quality livestock throughout the 19th century. Ten thousand spectators watched the first Derby. On March 27, 1890, the city was devastated and its downtown nearly destroyed when an F4 tornado tore through as part of the middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak. An estimated 74 to 120 people were killed and 200 were injured; the damage cost the city $2.5 million. In 1914, the City of Louisville passed a racially-based zoning residential zoning code, following Baltimore, a handful of cities in the Carolinas; the NAACP challenged the ordinance in two cases. Two weeks after the ordinance enacted, an African-American named Arthur Harris moved into a house on a block designated for whites.
He was found guilty. The second case was planned to create a test case. William Warley, the president of the local chapter
Scouting in Indiana
Scouting in Indiana has a long history, from the 1910s to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. Indianapolis is home to Troop 9, founded by "Chief" Francis Oliver Belzer in 1910, one of the first Scout troops in America. Belzer founded Firecrafter at Camp Chank-Tun-Un-Gi in the summer of 1920. Belzer served as the first Scout Executive for the Indianapolis Council known as the Central Indiana Council; the first National Order of the Arrow Conference was held at Indiana University in 1948. In 1950, 1956, 1961, 1965, 1969, 1990, 2002, 2009 and 2018, the National Order of the Arrow Conference was held at Indiana University in Bloomington, the most frequent venue for the event. In 1994, NOAC was held at Purdue University in Indiana. There are nine Boy Scouts of America local councils in Indiana. All of Indiana lies within Central Region, except for Clark, Floyd, Harrison and Washington counties, as part of Southern Region. Based in Fort Wayne and covering 11 counties in Northeast Indiana — Adams, Jay, Allen, DeKalb, LaGrange, Steuben, Kosciusko.
Anthony Wayne Area Council Lincolnway District Miami District Pokagon District Three Rivers District Thunderbird District Wabash Valley District Features Anthony Wayne Scout Reservation with Camp Chief Little Turtle The Anthony Wayne Scout Reservation is a Boy Scout camp located near Ashley, United States. The reservation has three key areas: Camp Chief Little Turtle, Camp Foellinger, Camp Wilderness. Camp Chief Little Turtle is the main camp, it has many activity centers, such as a waterfront, outdoor skills, Project C. O. P. E. and other typical features of a Boy Scout camp. Camp Foellinger is used for special events, such as Cub Scout camp, National Youth Leadership Training, Order of the Arrow events. Camp Wilderness contains the Jack Zeiger Ropes Course — used for C. O. P. E. and rock climbing -- and Orion, an area used for wilderness survival training. The Buffalo Trace Council is a Boy Scout council based in Evansville, Indiana that serves southwestern Indiana and southeastern Illinois, its affiliated Order of the Arrow lodge is Kiondaga Lodge.
Buffalo Trace Council The Buffalo Trace Council has operated four camps throughout its existence, three of which are still in existence. Camp Arthur, located near Vincennes, opened in 1945 and was removed from the list of BSA-approved camping facilities for a time in the mid-1990s. Camp Carnes, located between Jasper and Dubois, has since changed ownership to the City of Jasper and is run as a park. Old Ben Scout Reservation, located in Pike County, Indiana opened in 1985 on the site of an abandoned strip mine operated by the Old Ben Coal Company and was the council's current primary summer camp location, until a lack of funding forced the council to cease having summer camps there. Camp Pohoka was shut down when OBSR was opened. Edwards County Gibson County Knox County Lawrence County Richland County Wabash County Dubois County Perry County Pike County Spencer County Warrick County Gallatin County Newburgh Posey County Vanderburgh County White County Calumet Council is headquartered in Munster and serves Scouts in Indiana and Illinois.
Serving the youth of the 54 communities comprising the south suburbs of Chicago and Northwest Indiana since 1917, the Calumet Council is the local entity of the Boy Scouts of America and Learning for Life Programs. Calumet Council was formed in 1966, was the result of a merger of the Pokagon Trails Council in Hammond and the Sauk Trails Council in Gary, Indiana. In 1971 the Twin City Council in East Chicago, Indiana joined to make up the current structure. Camp Frank S. Betz, located in Berrien Springs, MI is operated by the Calumet Council.'Betz' has served Scouts in the South Suburbs of Chicago and Northwest Indiana since 1922. In 2008, over 13,000 young men and women were active members of the Scouting program in the Calumet Council. Over 4,100 adult volunteers, supported by a small staff, provide a top quality "values based" program, with an emphasis on outdoor programs and life skills. Due to the unique demographics of the Calumet Council, a special program designed to serve the hardest to reach "at risk" youth, called Scoutreach, is used in lower income communities.
In 2008, sixty six Scoutreach Cub Scout packs, Boy Scout troops and Venture Crews were active in nine different communities with over 1,400 members. The Eagle Scout Award, the highest award a boy can earn in Scouting, was presented to 74 young men in 2006; these newest Eagles totaled over 3,200 combined service hours in the 74 different community service projects which they carried out as part of the Eagle Scout requirement. The Council operates four districts: Crossroads, Prairie Dunes, Thunderbird; these service areas were formed in 2005 as a result of a restructuring to utilize volunteer resources better. The Order of the Arrow is Scouting’s National Honor Society; the council's chapter is Michigamea Order of the Arrow Lodge number 110. It is youth-run and advised by adult volunteers. Michigamea lodge has over 600 active members. In 2008, the Lodge received The National Service Award for their work on the new Frank S. Betz firebowl; this annual award is only presented to eight lodges nationally.
The Council Executive board is made up of 44 local business and community leaders who guide to the year-round operation of the Council. The Council Key III is made up of President T. Edward