Scouting and Guiding in Cyprus
The Scout and Guide movement in Cyprus is served by the Cyprus Scouts Association, member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement the Girl Guides Association of Cyprus, member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Scouts of Northern Cyprus is active in the northern part of Cyprus and has strong ties to the Türkiye İzcilik Federasyonu Also, groups of the Scout Association and Girlguiding UK are active for British Scouts at the Eastern and Western Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Scouting plays a role in the Armenian diaspora community on the island
Egyptian Federation for Scouts and Girl Guides
The Egyptian Federation for Scouts and Girl Guides is the national Scouting and Guiding federation of Egypt. Scouting was founded in 1914 and was among the charter members of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1922, while nominally independent from Britain. Guiding started in 1913 and became a member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1931; the EFSGG serves 92,000 Guides. The first Scout group was founded in Alexandria, brought to Egypt by the British during their occupation. Mohamed Ali Hafez served on the World Scout Committee of the World Organization of the Scout Movement from 1957 to 1963 and again from 1965 to 1971. In 1965, Hafez was awarded the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting. Other recipients include Aziz Osman Bakir in 1971, John M. Lioufis in 1978, Gamal Khashaba in 1982. Most Scout troops are associated with schools, clubs and churches.
Rover units are associated with high universities. Egyptian Scouts play an important role in community service, they are involved in projects of desert reclamation, work camps, blood drives, medical care and other projects. Scouts are offered vocational training and the skills needed to help develop communities. Scouts learn the importance of planting trees where firewood is scarce, building energy efficient stoves and making good use of their skills of carpentry and plumbing; the EFSGG has four central associations: Boy Scouts Sea Scouts Air Scouts Girl Guides - Gamiet Morshidat Gomhoriet Misr al ArabiahEach of these central associations has a correspondent regional association in the 26 governorates of Egypt. The Girl Guides association has three age divisions: Brownies Girl Guides RoversThe Cairo International Scout Center is a lavish six-floor building next to Cairo International Stadium that welcomes all Scouts, nonScout organizations and individual guests; the home of the Arab Scout Region, it hosts both conference areas and hostel quarters.
In addition, Egypt has El-Seleen. The Scout Motto is كن مستعداً, translating as Be Prepared in Arabic; the noun for a single Scout is كشاف in Arabic. The Scout emblem incorporates elements of each of the four central associations, as well as a lotus. In addition, there are American Boy Scouts in Cairo and Alexandria, linked to the Direct Service branch of the Boy Scouts of America, which supports units around the world. There are Greek Scouts of the Soma Hellinon Proskopon in Alexandria. Official Homepage Homepage of the Girl Guides
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, it is colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of". Central Asia has a population of about 72 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Afghanistan, a part of South Asia, is sometimes included in Central Asia. Central Asia has been tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, East Asia. The Silk Road connected Muslim lands with the people of Europe and China; this crossroads position has intensified the conflict between tribalism and traditionalism and modernization. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Central Asia was predominantly Iranian, populated by Eastern Iranian-speaking Bactrians, Sogdians and the semi-nomadic Scythians and Dahae.
After expansion by Turkic peoples, Central Asia became the homeland for the Kazakhs, Tatars, Turkmen and Uyghurs. From the mid-19th century until the end of the 20th century, most of Central Asia was part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, both Slavic-majority countries, the five former Soviet "-stans" are still home to about 7 million ethnic Russians and 500,000 Ukrainians; the idea of Central Asia as a distinct region of the world was introduced in 1843 by the geographer Alexander von Humboldt. The borders of Central Asia are subject to multiple definitions. Built political geography and geoculture are two significant parameters used in the scholarly literature about the definitions of the Central Asia; the most limited definition was the official one of the Soviet Union, which defined Middle Asia as consisting of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, hence omitting Kazakhstan. This definition was often used outside the USSR during this period. However, the Russian culture has two distinct terms: Средняя Азия and Центральная Азия.
Soon after independence, the leaders of the four former Soviet Central Asian Republics met in Tashkent and declared that the definition of Central Asia should include Kazakhstan as well as the original four included by the Soviets. Since this has become the most common definition of Central Asia; the UNESCO History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, published in 1992, defines the region as "Afghanistan, northeastern Iran and central Pakistan, northern India, western China and the former Soviet Central Asian republics."An alternative method is to define the region based on ethnicity, in particular, areas populated by Eastern Turkic, Eastern Iranian, or Mongolian peoples. These areas include Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Turkic regions of southern Siberia, the five republics, Afghan Turkestan. Afghanistan as a whole, the northern and western areas of Pakistan and the Kashmir Valley of India may be included; the Tibetans and Ladakhi are included. Insofar, most of the mentioned peoples are considered the "indigenous" peoples of the vast region.
Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan. There are several places that claim to be the geographic center of Asia, for example Kyzyl, the capital of Tuva in the Russian Federation, a village 200 miles north of Ürümqi, the capital of the Xinjiang region of China. Central Asia is an large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains, vast deserts, treeless, grassy steppes; the vast steppe areas of Central Asia are considered together with the steppes of Eastern Europe as a homogeneous geographical zone known as the Eurasian Steppe. Much of the land of Central Asia is too rugged for farming; the Gobi desert extends from the foot of the Pamirs, 77° E, to the Great Khingan Mountains, 116°–118° E. Central Asia has the following geographic extremes: The world's northernmost desert, at Buurug Deliin Els, Mongolia, 50°18' N; the Northern Hemisphere's southernmost permafrost, at Erdenetsogt sum, Mongolia, 46°17' N. The world's shortest distance between non-frozen desert and permafrost: 770 km.
The Eurasian pole of inaccessibility. A majority of the people earn a living by herding livestock. Industrial activity centers in the region's cities. Major rivers of the region include the Amu Darya, the Syr Darya, the Hari River and the Murghab River. Major bodies of water include the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash, both of which are part of the huge west-central Asian endorheic basin that includes the Caspian Sea. Both of these bodies of water have shrunk in recent decades due to diversion of water from rivers that feed them for irrigation and industrial purposes. Water is an valuable resource in arid Central Asia and can lead to rather significant international disputes. Central Asia is bounded on the north by the forests of Siberia; the northern half of Cent
This article is about tangible folk art objects. For performance folk arts, see Folk arts. Folk art covers all forms of visual art made in the context of folk culture. Definitions vary, but the objects have practical utility of some kind, rather than being decorative; the makers of folk art are trained within a popular tradition, rather than in the fine art tradition of the culture. There is overlap, or contested ground, with naive art, but in traditional societies where ethnographic art is still made, that term is used instead of "folk art"; the types of object covered by the term varies and in particular "divergent categories of cultural production are comprehended by its usage in Europe, where the term originated, in the United States, where it developed for the most part along different lines." In America, "folk art" is more to include contemporary or recent works of "Outsider art" and similar types, that elsewhere might be called "popular art". Folk arts are reflective of the cultural life of a community.
They encompass the body of expressive culture associated with the fields of folklore and cultural heritage. Tangible folk art includes objects which are crafted and used within a traditional community. Intangible folk arts include such forms as music and narrative structures; each of these arts, both tangible and intangible, was developed to address a real need. Once this practical purpose has been lost or forgotten, there is no reason for further transmission unless the object or action has been imbued with meaning beyond its initial practicality; these vital and reinvigorated artistic traditions are shaped by values and standards of excellence that are passed from generation to generation, most within family and community, through demonstration and practice. Objects of folk art are a subset of material culture, include objects which are experienced through the senses, by seeing and touching; as with all material culture, these tangible objects can be handled re-experienced and sometimes broken.
They are considered works of art because of the skillful technical execution of an existing form and design. As folk art, these objects share several characteristics which distinguish them from other artifacts of material culture; the object is created by a single team of artisans. The craftsmen and women work within an established cultural framework, they have a recognizable style and method in crafting their pieces, allowing their products to be recognized and attributed to a single individual or workshop. This was articulated by Alois Riegl in his study of "Volkskunst, und Hausindustrie", published in 1894. "Riegl … stressed that the individual hand and intentions of the artist were significant in folk creativity. To be sure, the artist may have been obliged by group expectations to work within the norms of transmitted forms and conventions, but individual creativity – which implied personal aesthetic choices and technical virtuosity – saved received or inherited traditions from stagnating and permitted them to be renewed in each generation."
Individual innovation in the production process plays an important role in the continuance of these traditional forms. Many folk art traditions like quilting, ornamental picture framing, decoy carving continue to thrive, while new forms emerge. Contemporary outsider artists are self-taught as their work is developed in isolation or in small communities across the country; the Smithsonian American Art Museum houses over 70 such self-taught artists. All folk art objects are produced in a one-off production process. Only one object is made at a time, either in a combination of hand and machine methods; as a result of this manual production, each individual piece is unique and can be differentiated from other objects of the same type. In his essay on "Folk Objects", folklorist Simon Bronner references preindustrial modes of production, but folk art objects continue to be made as unique crafted pieces by skilled artisans. "The notion of folk objects tends to emphasize the handmade over machine manufactured.
Folk objects imply a mode of production common to preindustrial communal society where knowledge and skills were personal and traditional." This does not mean that all folk art is old, it continues to be hand-crafted today in many regions around the world. The design and production of folk art is taught informally or formally. Folk art does not strive for individual expression. Instead, "the concept of group art implies, indeed requires, that artists acquire their abilities, both manual and intellectual, at least in part from communication with others; the community has something a great deal, to say about what passes for acceptable folk art." The training in a handicraft was done as apprenticeships with local craftsmen, such as the blacksmith or the stonemason. As the equipment and tools needed were no longer available in the community, these traditional crafts moved into technical schools or applied arts schools; the object is recognizable within its cultural framework as being of a known type.
Similar objects can be found in the environment made by other individuals which resemble this object. Without exception, individual pieces of folk art will reference other works in the culture as they show
Bishkek Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan. Bishkek is the administrative centre of the Chuy Region; the province surrounds the city, although the city itself is not part of the province, but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan. In 1825 Khokand authorities established the fortress of "Pishpek" in order to control local caravan-routes and to collect tribute from Kyrgyz tribes. On 4 September 1860, with the approval of the Kyrgyz, Russian forces led by Colonel Apollon Zimmermann destroyed the fortress. In 1868 a Russian settlement was established on the site of the fortress under its original name, "Pishpek", it lay within the General Governorship of its Semirechye Oblast. In 1925 the Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast was established in Russian Turkestan, promoting Pishpek to its capital. In 1926 the Communist Party of the Soviet Union renamed the city as Frunze, after the Bolshevik military leader Mikhail Frunze, born there. In 1936, the city of Frunze became the capital of the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, during the final stages of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union.
In 1991 the Kyrgyz parliament changed the capital's name to "Bishkek". Bishkek is situated at an altitude of about 800 meters, just off the northern fringe of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too range, an extension of the Tian Shan mountain range; these mountains provide a backdrop to the city. North of the city, a fertile and undulating steppe extends far north into neighboring Kazakhstan; the Chui River drains most of the area. Bishkek is connected to the Turkestan-Siberia Railway by a spur line. Bishkek is a city of wide boulevards and marble-faced public buildings combined with numerous Soviet-style apartment blocks surrounding interior courtyards. There are thousands of smaller built houses outside the city centre. Streets follow a grid pattern, with most flanked on both sides by narrow irrigation channels, watering innumerable trees to provide shade in the hot summers. A caravan rest stop on one of the branches of the Silk Road through the Tian Shan range, the location was fortified in 1825 by the Uzbek khan of Kokhand with a mud fort.
In the last years of Kokhand rule, the Pishpek fortress was led by the Datka. In 1860, the fort was conquered and razed by the military forces of Colonel Zimmermann when Tsarist Russia annexed the area. Colonel Zimmermann rebuilt the town over the destroyed fort and put field Poruchik Titov as head of a new Russian garrison; the site was redeveloped from 1877 onward by the Russian government, which encouraged the settlement of Russian peasants by giving them fertile land to develop. In 1926, the city became the capital of the newly established Kirghiz ASSR and was renamed "Frunze" after Mikhail Frunze, Lenin's close associate, born in Bishkek and played key roles during the revolutions of 1905 and 1917 and during the Russian civil war of the early 1920s; the early 1990s were tumultuous. In June 1990, a state of emergency was declared following severe ethnic riots in southern Kyrgyzstan that threatened to spread to the capital; the city was renamed Bishkek on 5 February 1991 and Kyrgyzstan achieved independence that year during the breakup of the Soviet Union.
Before independence, the majority of Bishkek's population were ethnic Russians. In 2004, Russians made up 20% of the city's population, about 7–8% in 2011. Today, Bishkek is a modern city with many restaurants and cafes, with many second-hand European and Japanese cars and minibuses crowding its streets; however and sidewalks have fallen into disrepair since the 1990s. At the same time, Bishkek still preserves its former Soviet feel with Soviet-period buildings and gardens prevailing over newer structures. Bishkek is the country's financial center, with all of the country's 21 commercial banks headquartered there. During the Soviet era, the city was home to a large number of industrial plants, but most have been shut down since 1991 or now operate on a much reduced scale. One of Bishkek's largest employment centers today is the Dordoy Bazaar open market, where many of the Chinese goods imported to CIS countries are sold. Though the city is young, the surrounding area has some sites of interest dating to prehistorical times.
There are sites from the Greco-Buddhist period, the period of Nestorian influence, the era of the Central Asian khanates, the Soviet period. The central part of the city is laid out on a rectangular grid plan; the city's main street is the east–west Chui Avenue, named after the region's main river. In the Soviet era, it was called Lenin Avenue. Along or near it are many of the most important government universities; these include the Academy of Sciences compound. The westernmost section of the avenue is known as Deng Xiaoping Avenue; the main north–south street is Yusup Abdrakhmanov Street, still referred to by its old name, Sovietskaya Street. Its northern and southern sections are called Yelebesov and Baityk Batyr Streets. Several major shopping centers are located along it, in the north it provides access to Dordoy Bazaar. Erkindik Boulevard runs from north to south, from the main railroad station south of Chui Avenue to the museum quarter and sculpture park just north of Chui Avenue, further north toward the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In the past it was called Dzerzhinsky Boulevard, named after a Communist revolutionary, Felix Dzerzhinsky, its northern continuation is still called Dzerzhinsky Street. An imp
Mongolyn Skautyn Kholboo
The Mongolyn Skautyn Kholboo, the national Scouting organization of Mongolia, was founded in 1992, became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1994. The coeducational Mongolyn Skautyn Kholboo has 8,822 members as of 2011. Scouting started in the Republic of Mongolia after the fall of the communist regime in 1990 at the initiative of a group of young Mongol students who created the first Scout troops in Ulaanbaatar, in early 1991; that year, the first Scout troop was organized and 39 Scouts took the oath. On April 16, 1992, the Mongolyn Skautyn Kholboo was founded by Myagmaryn Esunmönkh, a professor at Ulaanbaatar University; that year, the first Scout camp was organized near Ulaanbaatar, 200 Scouts participated. Mongolia is wellsuited for Scouting, with many picturesque places to camp and take part in traditional Scouting activities, a young population, where about 40% are children under 16. Mongolyn Skautyn Kholboo, the Scout Association of Mongolia, was recognized and declared the 136th member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement on November 5, 1994.
That year, the first Mongolian contingent of 50 Scouts participated in the Asia-Pacific Jamboree, the first Scout Newsletter was published. In 1995, 45 Mongolian Scouts participated in the World Jamboree in the Netherlands. In 1996, the first Mongolian National Jamboree was held. A Global Development Village was organized during the jamboree. In 1997, Scottish and Mongolian Rovers built the "Children's Development Center". In 1999, Mongolia hosted the 11th Asia Pacific/First Mongolian National Rover Moot; as of 2004, Mongolyn Skautyn Kholboo had 8,209 members, in every district of Mongolia. Scouts in Mongolia had a successful third National Jamboree August 10-17, 2004 in the Khentii Mountains in the outskirts of Ulaanbaatar. A total of 1,183 Scouts and 170 staff members came from all provinces of Mongolia and from Ulaanbaatar. From 25 July to 01 August 2016, the Scout Association of Mongolia held the Second International Jamboree, the test-jamboree for the 2017 Asia-Pacific Jamboree, at the Nairamdal Children's Centre, on the outskirts of Ulaanbaatar.
Foreign contingents who attended included The Scout Association from the United Kingdom, Scouts of China from Taiwan, small number of representatives from South Korea, Singapore and the United States. Mongolyn Skautyn Kholboo is active in the community and focuses on a variety of charitable causes, in particular, at risk youth and street children. Mongolian Scouts are committed to assisting with the growth of the country during this historic period; the Scouts of Mongolia are presently involved in a national campaign to alleviate poverty, are focusing their efforts on abandoned children and disabled youth, working in collaboration with the national authorities and with the United Nations agencies active in the country, notably UNICEF. Scouts of Mongolia have a partnership project with Danish Scouting. Cubs-ages 7 to 11 Scouts-Boys and girls ages 12 to 17 Rovers-ages 17 and olderThe Cub Scout Motto is Let's Do Good Things Every Day; the Mongol noun for a single Scout is Скаут. The Scout emblem incorporates elements of the national emblem.
Mongolian culture extends to the light blue Scout uniforms, as light blue is a traditional Central Asian color of courage and generosity. The Scout Association of Mongolia now runs a street Scout group in Ulaanbaatar starting August 2008. Presently, it has 32 members, 18 boys and 14 girls, ranging from eight to 14 years of age under the guidance of Ariunbold Buuveibaatar as the unit leader, who holds Scouting activities in a school located in Ulaanbaatar. In 2010, Mongolia restructured its national Scouting leadership, now consisting of: Chief Commissioner Mr. Erdenejamiayn Erdenebileg International Commissioner Mr. Adiyabold Namkhai Secretary General Mr. Bayarjargal Damdindagva Girl Scout Association of Mongolia World Buddhist Scout Brotherhood Official website
The snow leopard known as the ounce, is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because the global population is estimated to number less than 10,000 mature individuals and decline about 10% in the next 23 years, it is threatened by habitat destruction following infrastructural developments. The snow leopard inhabits alpine and subalpine zones at elevations from 3,000 to 4,500 m, ranging from eastern Afghanistan to Mongolia and western China. In the northern range countries, it occurs at lower elevations. Taxonomically, the snow leopard was classified in the monotypic genus Uncia. Since 2008, it is considered a member of the genus Panthera based on results of genetic studies. Two subspecies were described based on morphological differences, but genetic differences between the two have not been confirmed, it is therefore regarded a monotypic species. Both the Latinized specific epithet uncia and the occasional English name ounce are derived from the Old French once used for the European lynx.
Once itself is believed to have arisen by false splitting from an earlier variant of lynx, lonce – where lonce was interpreted as l'once, in which l' is the elided form of the French definite article la, leaving once to be perceived as the animal's name. This, like the English version ounce, came to be used for other lynx-sized cats, for the snow leopard; the word panther derives from classical Latin panthēra, itself from the ancient Greek pánthēr. Felis uncia was the scientific name used by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1777 who described a snow leopard based on an earlier description by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, assuming that the cat occurred in Barbary, East India, China. Uncia was proposed by John Edward Gray in 1854 who grouped Asian cats with a long and thick tail into this genus. Felis irbis was proposed by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg in 1830 who described a skin of a female snow leopard collected in the Altai Mountains in Siberia, he clarified that several leopard skins were misidentified as snow leopard skins.
Felis uncioides was proposed by Thomas Horsfield in 1855 for a snow leopard skin presented to the Museum of the East India Company. Uncia uncia was used by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1930 when he reviewed skins and skulls of Panthera species from Asia, he described morphological differences between leopard and snow leopard skins. Panthera baikalensis-romanii was proposed by a Russian scientist in 2000 for a dark brown snow leopard skin from the Petrovsk-Zabaykalsky District, southern Transbaikal region; until spring 2017, there was no evidence available for the recognition of subspecies. Results of a phylogeographic study published in September 2017 indicate that three subspecies should be recognised: P. u. uncia in the Pamir Mountains range countries, P. u. uncioides in the Himalayas and Qinghai, P. u. irbis in Mongolia. The snow leopard is part of one of the eight lineages of Felidae; this lineage comprises the species of Neofelis. The Neofelis lineage diverged first from the remainder of the Felinae.
Subsequent branching between the snow leopard and clouded leopard began two to three million years ago, but the details of this are disputed. Results of a phylogenetic study published in 2006, based on nDNA and mtDNA analysis, indicate that snow leopard and tiger are sister taxa, whereas the leopard is sister taxon to two clades within Panthera – one consisting of the tiger and the snow leopard, the other of the lion and the jaguar. Results of a similar study published in 2009 corroborated this assessment. Results obtained during two subsequent phylogenetic studies indicate a swapping in the cladogram between the leopard and the jaguar. A 2016 study indicates that, at some point in their evolution, snow leopards interbred with lions, as their mitochondrial genomes are more similar to each other than their nuclear genomes; these results indicate that a female hybrid offspring of male ancestors of modern snow leopards and female ancestors of modern lions interbred with the male ancestors of modern snow leopards.
The snow leopard's fur is whitish to gray with black spots on head and neck, but larger rosettes on the back and bushy tail. The belly is whitish; the fur is thick with hairs between 12 cm long. Its body is stocky, short-legged and smaller than the other cats of the genus Panthera, reaching a shoulder height of 56 cm, ranging in head to body size from 75 to 150 cm, its tail is 80 to 105 cm long. Its eyes are grey in color, its muzzle is short and its forehead domed. Its nasal cavities are large, it weighs between 22 and 55 kg, with an occasional large male reaching 75 kg and small female of under 25 kg. The snow leopard shows several adaptations for living in a mountainous environment, its body is stocky, its fur is thick, its ears are small and rounded, features that help to minimize heat loss. Its broad paws well distribute the body weight for walking on snow, have fur on their undersides to increase their grip on steep and unstable surfaces, its long and flexible tail helps to maintain balance in the rocky terrain.
The tail is very thick due to fat storage, is thickly covered with fur, which allows the cat to use it like a blanket to protect its face when asleep. The snow leopard cannot roar, despite possessing partial ossification of the hyoid bone; this partial ossification was thought to be essential for allowing the big cats to roar, but new studies show that the ability to roar is due