Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl
Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana
Calcasieu Parish is a parish located on the southwestern border of the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 192,768; the parish seat is Lake Charles. Calcasieu Parish is part of the Lake Charles, LA Metropolitan Statistical Area with a population of 194,138, it is located near the Beaumont–Port Arthur and Alexandria metropolitan areas. Calcasieu Parish was created March 24, 1840, from the parish of Saint Landry, one of the original nineteen civil parishes established by the Louisiana Legislature in 1807 after the United States acquired the territory in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803; the original parish seat was Comasaque Bluff, a settlement east of the river and called Marsh Bayou Bluff. On December 8, 1840, it was renamed as Louisiana. In 1852 Jacob Ryan, a local planter and businessman, donated land and offered to move the courthouse in order to have the parish seat moved to Lake Charles; as the population in this area grew over the years, the original Calcasieu Parish has since been divided into five smaller parishes.
The original area of Calcasieu Parish is called Imperial Calcasieu. The name Calcasieu comes from the Atakapa word, spelled quelqueshue in a French transliteration, meaning "crying eagle." This was the name of an Atakapa chief, which French colonists applied to the local river, the Calcasieu River. When the Spanish controlled this area, they referred to this river as the Rio Hondo River; the Americans adopted an English transliteration of the French name for the parish. The early history of the parish dates to the period of the Spanish occupation of Louisiana, after France had ceded this territory following its defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. In 1797, Jose M. Mora was granted a large tract of land between the Rio Hondo and the Sabine River, known for years as the "Neutral Strip" between Louisiana and Texas; the area became a refuge for outlaws and filibusters from Carolina and Mississippi of the United States, which had gained independence from Great Britain. The territory was disputed for years between Spain and the United States after France had ceded Louisiana to the American government as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.
It was definitively acquired by the United States from Spain with the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819. The treaty was formally ratified on February 22, 1821. By an act of Congress, approved on March 3, 1823, this strip of land was attached to the district of the Louisiana Territory south of the Red River. Early settlers to the area included the Ryan, Perkin, LeBleu and Henderson families. Acadian settlers, from the eastern parishes of Louisiana migrated to this area. Of French descent and exiled by the British from Acadia, many of these refugees had settled in Louisiana; the parish had a diverse ethnic mix of French and Spanish Creoles, Anglo-Americans, enslaved African Americans, Indians. When "Imperial Calcasieu Parish" was created in 1840 from the Parish of Saint Landry, it comprised a large area. With the growth of population in the area, this was subsequently divided into five parishes. On August 24, 1840, six men met to organize as representatives for six wards that became five parishes; the meeting was held in the house of Arsene LeBleu near present-day Chloe.
The first police jury men were David Simmons, Alexander Hébert, Michel Pithon, Henry Moss, Rees Perkins, Thomas M. Williams, their first order of business was to elect officers, appoint a parish clerk, settle on simple parliamentary rules that would enable the president to keep the meetings orderly and progressive. The jury adopted all of the laws in force in Saint Landry Parish, they appointed a parish constable, a parish treasurer, two parish assessors, an operator of the ferry at Buchanan's crossing. The assessors were given two months to assess all of the property in the parish and a salary of $90. On September 14, 1840, a survey was authorized of land known as Marsh Bayou Bluff in order to establish a seat of justice and construct a courthouse and jail. On December 8, 1840 the jury chose to rename this community as Marion. In 1843, the Legislature authorized a vote to move the parish seat. In 1852, Jacob Ryan was successful in having the parish seat relocated from Marion to the east bank of Lake Charles.
This parish seat was incorporated in 1857 as the town of Charleston. It is located about six miles from Marion, now known as Old Town; the name Lake Charles commemorates one of the first European settlers, Charles Sallier, a Frenchman who acquired land in this area at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1870 Cameron Parish was taken from the south portion of Imperial Calcasieu, it was one of several parishes organized during the Reconstruction era by the Republican-dominated legislature, in an effort to build Republican strength. Because areas had been developed as cotton plantations, Calcasieu Parish had numerous African-American slaves. After emancipation, most of the freedmen joined the Republican Party, but the area set aside for Cameron Parish had a majority-white population. In the late 1870s, white Democrats regained control of the state legislature through fraud and intimidation. At the turn of the century, they disenfranchised most blacks in the state by creating barriers to voter registration passed racial segregation and other Jim Crow laws.
In 1912 Calcasieu Parish still comprised an area of more than 3,600 square miles, was the largest parish in the state by geography. For this reason it is sometimes called "Imperial Calcasieu". In 1912, the three parishes of Allen and Jefferson Davis, wit
St. Francisville, Louisiana
St. Francisville is a town in, the parish seat of, West Feliciana Parish, United States; the population was 1,712 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Baton Rouge Metropolitan Statistical Area. St. Francisville is located at 30°47′5″N 91°22′50″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.8 square miles, all land. The town of St. Francisville was established in 1809, a number of historic structures from that period still exist. Called "the town two miles long and two yards wide" because it was developed atop a narrow ridge overlooking the Mississippi River, it was the commercial and cultural center of the surrounding plantation country. Below St. Francisville's bluffs, another early settlement called Bayou Sara had been established by French colonists in the early 1790s, it was at one time the largest antebellum Mississippi River port between New Orleans and Memphis, but was superseded by Natchez. The settlement was destroyed by repeated flooding and fires, nothing exists of Bayou Sara today.
A few of its surviving structures were hauled up the hill into St. Francisville in the 1920s; this area and other former French-controlled territories east of the Mississippi River was taken over by Great Britain after it defeated France in the Seven Years' War in 1763. At the end of the American Revolutionary War, Great Britain ceded what it called West Florida to Spain in 1783, as part of the Treaty of Paris. There were years of contention as to where the eastern boundary of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase was—depending on which treaty was cited, as France, Great Britain, Spain had redrawn the boundaries among themselves during the second half of the 18th century. Spain continued to claim territory on the eastern side of the Mississippi River until it and the United States settled this issue in the Pinckney Treaty; this region is today called the Florida Parishes. In 1810, St. Francisville served as the capital of the Republic of West Florida, when area planters ousted the Spanish government of the Baton Rouge District and set up their own independent republic for 74 days, before being annexed to the Territory of Orleans, as a possession of the United States.
In 1824, when Feliciana Parish was split into East and West, St. Francisville became the seat of West Feliciana Parish's government. In June 1863, Confederate Army officer William Walter Leake arranged for the burial here of Union Navy officer John E. Hart, who had died aboard his ship while taking part in the Union blockade of the Mississippi River; this event is re-enacted every June during a three-day commemoration called "The Day the War Stopped."After the American Civil War, some Jewish emigrants fleeing religious persecution in Germany settled here. They made important contributions to commerce in the lean years following the war. Becoming successful merchants, they provided credit when the banks failed and built impressive Victorian homes, such as the Wolf-Schlessinger House, it is now operated as Breakfast. In recent years, community efforts have focused on restoration and preservation of the town's historic homes. St. Francisville is a popular tourist destination, with a number of restored historic plantations open for tours, including Rosedown Plantation State Historic Site, Audubon State Historic Site, Butler Greenwood Plantation, the Myrtles, the Cottage Plantation, as well as several antebellum gardens.
In May 2011, low-lying parts of Saint Francisville flooded in the Mississippi River floods of that year. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,712 people, 693 households, 456 families residing in the town; the population density was 936.9 people per square mile. There were 783 housing units at an average density of 428.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 71.03% White, 27.22% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.06% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.93% of the population. There were 693 households out of which 34.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 17.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.1% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.04. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $42,262, the median income for a family was $54,333. Males had a median income of $41,563 versus $25,083 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,639. About 5.8% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.2% of those under the age of 18 and 12.4% of those 65 and older. The United States Postal Service operates the St. Francisville Post Office. Anne Butler, noted author born in the town of St. Francisville. Hattie Moseley Austin, born Hattie Gray in St. Francisville in 1900, founder of Hattie's Chicken Shack in Saratoga Springs, New York. Robert H. Barrow, 27th Commandant of the Marine Corps Chris Broadwater, current District 86 state representative, was born in St. Francisville in 1972. Herschel F. Harrington and impressionist painter Billy Cannon, former L. S. U. football great and a dentist in St. Francisville Gil Dozier, former state commissioner of the Dept. of Agriculture and Forestry.
Rod Dreher and journalist Cheston Folkes, st
Lake Charles, Louisiana
Lake Charles is the fifth-largest incorporated city in the U. S. state of Louisiana, located on Lake Charles, Prien Lake, the Calcasieu River. Founded in 1861 in Calcasieu Parish, it is a major industrial and educational center in the southwest region of the state; as of the 2010 census, the population was 71,993. Lake Charles is the principal city of the Lake Charles Metropolitan Statistical Area, having a population of 202,040, it is the larger principal city of the Lake Charles-Jennings Combined Statistical Area, with a population of 225,235. The 2010 population of the five-parish area of Southwest Louisiana was 292,619, it is considered a regionally significant center of petrochemical refining, gaming and education, being home to McNeese State University and Sowela Technical Community College. Because of the lakes and waterways throughout the city, metropolitan Lake Charles is referred to as the Lake Area. On March 7, 1861, Lake Charles was incorporated as the town of Charleston, Louisiana.
Lake Charles was founded by merchant and tradesmen Marco Eliche as an outpost —- a Sephardic Jewish trader of either Basque-Spanish or Venetian-Italian origins. He had arrived to Louisiana after hitchhiking and was invited onto a Spanish vessel due to his determination and loyalty to volunteer and work for the Spanish Empire. Long before incorporation and before the Louisiana Purchase, other names for Lake Charles were known as Porte du Lafitte or Rivière Lafitte. Eliche had founded other outposts and towns in Louisiana prior. There are urban tales he had planned to name the settlement Nouveau Cadix", after the city in Spain – but this is uncertain; the town was first incorporated in 1857 as Charleston after Charles Sallier. Ten years on March 16, 1867, Charleston was reincorporated as the City of Lake Charles. In 1910, a fire, known as the "Great Fire of 1910", devastated much of the city. However, Lake Charles soon continued to grow and expand in the twentieth century; the Charleston Hotel was completed during the administration of Mayor Henry J. Geary.
During and after World War II, Lake Charles experienced industrial growth with the onset of the petrochemical refining industries. The city grew to a high of some 75,000 people in the early 1980s, but with local economic recession, the population declined. With the advent of the gaming and aviation maintenance industries, the city rebounded with a population of 71,993 as of 2010. Lake Charles, located on a level plain about 30 miles from the Gulf of Mexico, has an elevation of 13 feet, is located on the banks of the Calcasieu River in southwestern Louisiana, it borders both Lake Prien Lake. Contraband Bayou, Henderson Bayou, English Bayou flow through the city. Oak trees and pine trees dot the landscape, as the lumber industry, once the main economic engine of the area, can attest to; the Calcasieu Ship Channel, which allows large ocean-going vessels to sail up from the Gulf borders the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 44.8 square miles, of which 42.0 square miles is land and 2.7 square miles, or 6.12%, is water.
Lake Charles is tied with Port Arthur and Astoria, Oregon, as the most humid city in the contiguous United States, the second-most humid measured location behind unincorporated Quillayute, Washington. The average relative humidity in Lake Charles is 90% in the morning, 72% in the afternoon; as of the 2010 census, the population was 71,993. In 2010, the population density was 1,711.8 people per square mile. There were 32,469 housing units; the racial makeup of the city was 47% White, 47% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.47% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.9% of the population. There were 28,228 households, out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.8% were married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.4% were non-families. 33.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.13.
In 2010, the population was spread out with 27% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 20 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 25% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.9 males. The percentage of males was 45.7% versus 54.3% for females. The median income for a household in the city was $36,001; the per capita income for the city was $22,855. 20.9% of the population was below the poverty line. The top employer, the Calcasieu Parish School System, employs 5,000 workers; the second-largest employer is L'Auberge Casino Resort. Several petrochemical plants and an oil refinery are located nearby along the Calcasieu Ship Channel. Turner Industries, Westlake Chemical Corporation, Citgo each employ over a thousand engineers; the Trunkline LNG terminal southwest of Lake Charles, is one of the United States' few liquified natural gas terminals. It has facilities for LNG receipt, re-gasification. Other industrial companies include PPG Industries, Phillips 66, W. R. Grace.
Local industry includes a number of manufacturing companies. Chennault International Airport hosts AAR Corp, which services airplanes, a Northrop Grumman facility; the S
For the 1980s Canadian new wave band, see Boys Brigade. Not to be confused with the Church Lads' and Church Girls' Brigade; the Boys' Brigade is an international interdenominational Christian youth organisation, conceived by Sir William Alexander Smith to combine drill and fun activities with Christian values. Following its inception in Glasgow in 1883, the BB spread across the United Kingdom and became a worldwide organisation by the early 1890s; as of 2018, there were 750,000 Boys' Brigade members in 60 countries. The stated object of the Boys' Brigade is "The advancement of Christ's kingdom among Boys and the promotion of habits of Obedience, Discipline, Self-respect and all that tends towards a true Christian manliness." Except for the addition of the word "obedience" in 1893, the contents of the object has remained unchanged from the beginning. However, some countries those which permit girls on their membership roll, have re-worded the object for gender neutrality. For example, in Malaysia, the word "manliness" has been changed to "character".
When designing the Brigade's motto and crest, William Smith referred directly to Hebrews 6:19 in the King James Version of the Bible, "Which hope we have as an anchor of the soul, both sure and stedfast...". From this verse came the BB motto, "Sure and Stedfast", retaining the old spelling of the latter word. Today, some parts of the movement have adopted the modern spelling of "steadfast", whilst all others continue to use the older spelling; the crest was a plain anchor, bearing the BB motto with a capital'B' on either side. Upon the merger between the Boys' Brigade and the Boys' Life Brigade in 1926, the red Greek cross was placed behind the anchor to form the current emblem; the cross formed part of emblem of the Boys' Life Brigade. The Boys' Brigade was founded in Glasgow by Sir William Alexander Smith on 4 October 1883 to develop Christian manliness by the use of a semi-military discipline and order, summer camps and religious services and classes. By 1910, there were about 2200 companies connected with different churches throughout the British Empire and the United States, with 10,000 officers and 100,000 boys.
Companies of The Boys' Brigade used manuals on scout training in their programmes. In May 1903, Robert Baden-Powell became a vice-president. Baden-Powell promoted the idea of scouting and outdoor pursuits in the Boys' Brigade and other boys' organisations and schools; the Boys' Brigade formally began its boy scout scheme in 1906. Scout badges were awarded in The Boys' Brigade and there were specialised Boys' Brigade Scout sections, which operated as part of a BB Company, but met at different times to train in scouting, who wore khaki or blue uniforms, neck scarves and the distinctive four dented broad brimmed fur felt hats. Boys of the Bournemouth & Poole Battalion of The Boys' Brigade participated in Baden-Powell's experimental camp on Brownsea Island in 1907. Baden-Powell did not intend to start a separate organisation. Many Boys' Brigade Scouts made dual registration with The Boy Scouts Association; the 1st Bournemouth Scouts was run by the 1st Bournemouth Boys' Brigade as a'BP' Scout group and never a'BB Scout'Section'.
The Boys' Life Brigade, which merged with The Boys' Brigade in 1926 operated its own boy scouts and was a member organization of the National Peace Scouts with the British Boy Scouts. The Boys' Brigade Scouts continued until 1927; some former Boys' Brigade Scout units continued independently after 1927 or affiliated with The Boy Scouts' Association or British Boy Scouts. Two of the original Boys' Brigade Scout units continue as 1st Parkstone Scout Group and 1st Hamworthy Scout Group, both sub units of the 1st Poole Boys Brigade. In October 1926 The Boys' Brigade united with The Boys' Life Brigade; the merger prompted the abandonment of dummy drill rifles, used in The Boys' Brigade, due to the Life Brigade's objection to use of weapons or their representations. The Junior organisation of the Boys' Brigade prior to 1926 was called'The Boy Reserves' but after amalgamation the juniors were called'The Life Boys'; the name came from the fact that the junior reserve of The Boys' Life Brigade had been known as'Lifeboys'.
The Life Boys remained as the'Junior Reserve of The Boys' Brigade until 1966 when the name was changed to'The Junior Section'. The Boys' Life Brigade was one of many similar movements formed following the formation of The Boys' Brigade; the BLB was formed by the National Sunday School Union and was strongest amongst non-conformist churches. It substituted first aid drill for the military and weapons drill used in The Boys' Brigade. Others organisations similar to The Boys' Brigade included the Church Lads' Brigade and London Diocesan Lads' Brigade, the Catholic Boys' Brigade and the Jewish Lads' Brigade. There were many more smaller Brigades in other denominations and some in individual churches. Drawing from his military experience, William Smith introduced the concept of camping into the Brigade to allow boys and officers to remain in contact when other activities ceased for the summer break; the notion was ill-received due to concerns for the boys' safety. A mother has been quoted saying, "Camp!
My children have always had a roof over their heads, as long as I live, always will!". They did have a roof over their heads because William Smith proceeded with the idea and 1st Glasgow Company held its inaugural one-week camp beginning on Friday, 16 July 1886, at Auchinlochan Hall, Tighnabruaich in a hall. In years they took to canvas camping on a site at Portavadie in the Kyles of Bute. The
Baden-Powell Scouts' Association
The Baden-Powell Scouts' Association is a worldwide youth organisation originating in the United Kingdom, with friendly relationships with similar traditional scouting organisations in various countries. Baden-Powell Scouting focuses on the importance of tradition in the scout movement; the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association shares the heritage of the youth scouting movement, however they believe in a traditional way of scouting which follows the programme set out by Lt. General Robert Baden-Powell in his book: Scouting for Boys; the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association was formed in the United Kingdom in 1970 by the Reverend William Dowling when it was felt that the Scout Association was abandoning the traditions and intentions set out by Baden-Powell in 1908. The Baden-Powell Scouts retain the belief that the essence of the movement should be based on outdoor activities related to the skills of explorers and frontiersmen, it is a non-formal educational charity association for young people. It is an independent, non-political, non-military organisation.
The B-PSA believes. As an independent scout association, they are members of the World Federation of Independent Scouts; the WFIS was formed in Laubach, Germany, in 1996 by Lawrie Dring, a scouter and President of the B-PSA, scouts from Laubach. The WFIS is an international body that recognises independent scouts associations in countries around the world that teach traditional Baden-Powell scouting values, their aim is to improve the standard of future citizens with the object of using their efficiency for service for their fellows. For the origins and history of the scout movement see: Scouting Following the origin of the Boy Scout Movement and, in 1908, the publication of Robert Baden-Powell's book, Scouting for Boys, the Boy Scouts Association was formed in 1910 and, until 1967, it followed the programme established by Baden-Powell. However, the publication of the Chief Scouts' Advance Party Report, introduced major changes to that association's name, uniform and programme. In 1969, some of those, led by the Reverend William Dowling, who did not agree with changes being introduced following the Advance Party Report formed a pressure group within the Scout Association, known as'the Scout Action Group'.
They asked that Scout Groups wishing to maintain a more traditional approach to Scouting should be allowed to do so. In mid-1970 the Scout Action Group published A Boy Scout Black Paper; as a result of discussions, the whole organisation factioned into two groups on 20 September 1970 – The Scout Association and the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association. In 1979, due to internal arguments, the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association split into two organisations, with both claiming the name and charity number of the association; the two factions reconciled their differences in June 1990, in 1994 there were nearly 70 groups in the association. In the 1990s there was a dip in the number of active groups in the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association, in common with a fall in numbers experienced by the various United Kingdom Scout organisations at that time, the number of groups had dropped to around 40 in 2001; the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association, as with Scouting in the United Kingdom has shown subsequent growth in numbers with the opening of new groups.
The B-PSA celebrated 100 years of Scouting in 2007, issuing centenary badges and holding their own Centenary Camp in Southampton. Jamboree 2008, marked the centenary of the first official Scout Camp held by Baden-Powell at Humshaugh; the event included parades at a ceremony at the original Carr Edge camp site. The main policy is Traditional Scouting –, taking Baden-Powell's original nine Scout Laws and the 10th Scout Law and using them, along with Baden-Powell's original training programme and rank system. Once a Scout is invested Baden-Powell believed; this law is kept by Scouts from the age of ten and Adult Leaders must renew their promise on regular occasions. The original Scout Law, written by Baden-Powell, appeared in 1908; the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association uses his 1911 version, as follows: A Scout's honour is to be trusted A Scout is loyal to the King and to his officers, to his country, to his employers. A Scout's duty is to help others. A Scout is a friend to all and a brother to every other Scout, no matter to what social class the other belongs.
A Scout is courteous. A Scout is a friend to animals. A Scout obeys orders of his patrol Scout master without question. A Scout whistles under all difficulties. A Scout is thrifty. A Scout is clean in thought and deed; the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association hold to the ideals of Scouting that were created by Baden-Powell. The association's heritage dates back to the foundations of Scouting in the UK in 1908; the association follows a charter set down in their Policy Association Rules. They have Leaders; the traditional programme develops a sense of duty, personal discipline and honour. In addition to a wide range of activities Scouts in the B-PSA continue to practise traditional Scouting skills: lighting fire by friction navigating by means other than a compass backwoods cooking camping in self erected "bivvys"The Baden-Powell Scouts' Association are members of the World Federation of Independent Scouts; the Baden-Powell Scouts wear traditional uniforms. Wolf Cubs continue to use the Grand Howl at the end of their meetings.
The advancement program for members of the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association is symbolised by the earning of badges and awards. In Wolf Cubs this consists of Ten
Camp Fire (organization)
Camp Fire Camp Fire USA and Camp Fire Girls of America, is a co-ed inclusive youth development organization. Camp Fire was the first multicultural organization for girls in America, its programs emphasize other outdoor activities for youth. Its informal roots extend back to 1910, with efforts by Mrs. Charles Farnsworth in Thetford and Luther Gulick M. D. and his wife Charlotte Vedder Gulick on Sebago Lake, near South Casco, Maine. Camp Fire Girls, as it was known at the time, was created as the sister organization to the Boy Scouts of America; the organization changed its name in 1985 to Camp Fire Boys and Girls when membership eligibility was expanded to include boys. In 2001, the name Camp Fire USA was adopted, in 2012 it became Camp Fire. Camp Fire's programs, including small group experiences, after-school programs and environmental education, child care and service learning, build confidence in younger children and provide hands-on, youth driven leadership experiences for older youth. In 1910, young girls in Thetford, watched their brothers and schoolmates – all Boy Scouts – practice their parts in the community's 150th anniversary, which would be celebrated the following summer.
The pageant's organizer, William Chauncey Langdon, promised the girls that they, would have an organized role in the pageant, although no organization such as Boy Scouts existed for girls. Langdon consulted with Mrs. Charles Farnsworth, preceptress of Horace Mann School near Thetford, Vermont. Both approached Luther Halsey Gulick M. D. about creating a national organization for girls. Gulick introduced the idea to friends, among them G. Stanley Hall, Ernest Thompson Seton, James West, executive secretary of the Boy Scouts. After many discussions and help from Gulick and his wife Charlotte, Langdon named the group of Thetford girls the Camp Fire Girls. In 1907, the Gulicks had established Camp WoHeLo, a camp for girls, on Lake Sebago, near South Casco, Maine. There were seventeen WoHeLo maidens at the camp in the summer of 1910. Both the Vermont group and the Maine group would lead to the creation of the organization formally organized as Camp Fire Girls in 1912. On March 22, 1911 Dr. Gulick organized a meeting "To consider ways and means of doing for the girls what the Boy Scout movement is designed to do for the boys".
On April 10, 1911 James E. West issued a press release from Boy Scouts of America headquarters announcing that with the success of the Boy Scout movement a group of preeminent New York men and women were organizing a group to provide outdoor activities for girls, similar to those in the Boy Scout movement. In 1911, the Camp Fire Girls planned to merge with the Girls Scouts of America formed by Clara A. Lisetor-Lane of Des Moines and Girl Guides of America to form the Girl Pioneers of America, but relationships fractured and the merger failed. Grace Seton quit the group over the rejection of her committee's draft of a handbook, followed by Linda Beard in September 1911 over difference with the Gulicks. However, there was an organization meeting held by Lina Beard on February 7, 1912 in Flushing, New York of a Girl Pioneers of America organization. Camp Fire Girls of America was incorporated in Washington, D. C, as a national agency on March 17, 1912. In late 1912, Juliette Gordon Low proposed that the Camp Fire Girls merge with her group, Girl Guides of America, but was rejected in January 1913 as the Camp Fire Girls were the larger group.
By December 1913, Camp Fire Girls' membership was an estimated 60,000, many of whom began attending affiliated summer camps. The Bluebird program was introduced that year for younger girls, offering exploration of ideas and creative play built around family and community. In 1989 the Bluebirds became Starflight; the first official Camp Fire handbook was published in 1914. During World War I Camp Fire Girls helped to sell over one million dollars in Liberty Bonds and over $900,000 in Thrift Stamps; the first local Camp Fire council was formed in 1918 in Mo.. In 1977 Kansas City would become the national headquarters for Camp Fire. Camp Fire celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1960 with the "She Cares... Do You?" program. During the project, Camp Fire planted more than two million trees, built 13,000 bird houses, completed several other conservation-oriented tasks. To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Camp Fire Girls, in connection with their Golden Jubilee Convention celebration, a stamp designed by H. Edward Oliver was issued featuring the Camp Fire Girls insignia.
A new program, Junior Hi, wherein twelve- and thirteen-year-old girls explore new interests as a group and as individuals was created in 1962. This program name changed to Discovery; that same year, the WoHeLo medallion became honor. In 1969, Camp Fire Girls were allowed to be "Participants" in BSA's Explorer Posts; this arrangement ended in 1971. Membership was at 274,000 by 1974 in 1,300 communities of the United States. Camp Fire expanded its horizons in 1975. While boys were invited to Camp Fire Girls Horizon Conferences in the late 1960s and early 1970s, official membership was not offered them until 1975, when the organization became coeducational. Camp Fire decided boys and girls should be together in one organization, so they learn to play and work alongside each other and appreciate their similarities and differences in positive ways. In 1975, the Camp Fire Girls of America changed its membership policy to being co-ed and its name to Ca