Orders, decorations, and medals of Luxembourg
The orders and medals of Luxembourg have their foundation in the Duchy of Nassau. The top tier order of Luxembourg being the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau is the House Order of the House of Nassau; the next in the order of honours precedence is the Order of Adolphe of Nassau, was founded by Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, in 1858 while he was the last reigning Duke of Nassau. Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau Order of Adolphe of Nassau Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Order of the Oak Crown Order of the Resistance National Order of the Medal of Merit for Sport Military Medal Cross of Honour and Military Merit War Cross 1914-18 Volunteers Medal 1940-45 Volunteers Medal Volunteer Long Service Cross Military Merit Veterans Medal Badge of the Resistance National Medal of Recognition Medal of Merit for Blood Donation Medal of Merit for Civil Defense Service Cross for Customs Officers Service Cross for Prison Guards Service Cross for Water and Forest Officers Golden Wedding Medal 1901 Commemorative Medal 1953 Jubilee Medal 1981 HRH Henri and Maria Teresa Grand Duke Jean Silver Jubilee Medal 1989 Medals of the World, Orders and Medals of Luxembourg DISTINCTIONS HONORIFIQUES
House of Luxembourg
The House of Luxembourg was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia and Hungary. Their rule over the Holy Roman Empire was twice interrupted by the rival House of Wittelsbach; the Luxembourg line was a cadet branch of the ducal House of Limburg–Arlon, when in 1247 Henry, younger son of Duke Waleran III of Limburg inherited the County of Luxembourg upon the death of his mother Countess Ermesinde, a scion of the House of Namur. Her father, Count Henry IV of Luxembourg, was related on his mother's side to the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty, which had ruled the county since the late 10th century. Count Henry V's grandson Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg upon the death of his father Henry VI at the 1288 Battle of Worringen, was elected Rex Romanorum in 1308; the election was necessary after the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany had been murdered, Henry, backed by his brother Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, prevailed against Charles, Count of Valois.
Henry arranged the marriage of his son John with the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia in 1310, through whom the House of Luxembourg acquired the Kingdom of Bohemia, enabling that family to compete more for power with the Habsburg and Wittelsbach dynasties. One year after being crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome, Henry VII, still on campaign in Italy, died in 1313; the prince-electors, perturbed by the rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria. John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and vassalized the Piast dukes of adjacent Silesia from 1327 until 1335, his son Charles IV, in 1346 mounted the Imperial throne. His Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant and Limburg in the west, but the former March of Lusatia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373 under the Kingdom of Bohemia.
The family's decline began under Charles' son King Wenceslaus, deposed by the prince-electors in 1400 who chose the Wittelsbach Elector Palatine Rupert. In 1410 rule was assumed by Wenceslaus' brother Sigismund, who once again stabilized the rule of the Luxembourgs and contributed to end the Western Schism in 1417, he was succeeded by his son-in-law, the Habsburg archduke Albert V of Austria. The Habsburgs prevailed as Luxembourg heirs, ruling the Empire until the extinction of their senior branch upon the death of Maria Theresa in 1780. Henry VII — elected King of the Romans in 1308 succeeding assassinated Albert of Habsburg, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1312, he was succeeded by Louis IV from the House of Wittelsbach. Baldwin — brother of Henry, Prince-Archbishop of Trier and thereby Archchancellor of Burgundy 1307–54. John the Blind — only son of Henry, he was enfeoffed with Bohemia by his father in 1310, married the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia and deposed the Bohemian king Henry the Carinthian.
Charles IV — eldest son of John. He was elected King of the Romans in opposition to Louis IV in 1346 and succeeded his father as king of Bohemia in the same year, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1355. John Henry, Margrave of Moravia — younger brother of Charles, he married Margaret, Countess of Tyrol, daughter of Henry the Carinthian in 1330. Jobst of Moravia — eldest son of John Henry. Margrave of Brandenburg 1388–1411, elected King of the Romans in 1410. Wenceslaus — eldest surviving son of Charles; as Margrave of Brandenburg from 1373 to 1378, he was elected King of the Romans in 1376 and succeeded his father as King of Bohemia in 1378. Declared deposed by the prince-electors in 1400, he was succeeded by Rupert of Wittelsbach. Sigismund — younger son of Charles. Margrave of Brandenburg from 1378 to 1388, he was King of Hungary from 1387 in right of his wife Mary of Anjou, was elected King of the Romans in 1411, succeeding his brother as King of Bohemia in 1419, being crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1433 yet he left no heirs male.
Jacquetta of Luxembourg — Mother of Queen Consort, Elizabeth Woodville and subsequent ancestress of all English and British monarchs since Henry VIII including the current monarch, Elizabeth II. Elizabeth of Luxembourg, only child of Emperor Sigismund, married Archduke Albert V of Austria from the Albertinian line of the House of Habsburg in 1422, becoming queen consort of Hungary from 1437 as well as Queen of the Romans and queen consort of Bohemia from 1438 until Albert's death in 1439: she was the heiress who conveyed the major portion of the Luxembourg inheritance to the Habsburgs and the Jagiellons through her daughter Elisabeth of Austria. According to the Salic law, the succession could have been disputed, in which case it would have passed collaterally to the cadet branch of Ligny; that branch descended from a younger son of Henry V, was headed by Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, before he was executed for treason by Louis XI of France. The first instance of the house of Luxembourg seems to be: Two houses descended from the women of the counts of Luxembourg, the Counts of Loon and the Counts of Grandpré, wear a shield barry.
Both families had a place in relation to the succession of the House of Ardennes. Indeed, the Count of Grandpré was the next heir of Conrad II of Luxembourg, the last representative of the Ardennes dynasty, but Emperor Frederick Barbarossa preferred that Luxembourg was held by a lord Germanic rather than French and attributed the co
Valley of the Seven Castles
Valley of the Seven Castles is an informal name given to the Eisch valley, in central Luxembourg. The valley stretches from the confluence with the Alzette upstream to Steinfort, on the border with Belgium; the entire route can be traversed in about an hour by car, starting near the town of Arlon on the Belgian/Luxembourg border. There is a 37-kilometre footpath that takes hikers along the valley and past the castles, it is named after the group of seven castles. Those seven castles are: Mersch Schoenfels Hollenfels Ansembourg Castle New Castle of Ansembourg Septfontaines Koerich Castle
Scouting or the Scout Movement is a movement that aims to support young people in their physical and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society, with a strong focus on the outdoors and survival skills. During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls, it is one of several worldwide youth organizations. In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance and scouting. Baden-Powell wrote Scouting for Boys, based on his earlier books about military scouting, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham, Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, his publisher Pearson. In the summer of 1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book; this camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys are regarded as the start of the Scout movement.
The movement employs the Scout method, a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, aquatics, hiking and sports. Another recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges and other patches; the two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement, for boys-only and co-educational organizations, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts for girls-only organizations but accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. Scouting started itself, but the trigger that set it going was the 1908 publication of Scouting for Boys written by Robert Baden-Powell.
At Charterhouse, one of England's most famous public schools, Baden-Powell had an interest in the outdoors. As a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India in the 1880s where he took an interest in military scouting and in 1884 he published Reconnaissance and Scouting. In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia as Chief of Staff to Gen. Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War. In June 1896 he met here and began a lifelong friendship with Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army in Africa; this was a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas originated here. During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham augmented Baden-Powell's woodcraft skills, inspiring him and sowing seeds for both the programme and for the code of honour published in Scouting for Boys.
Practised by frontiersmen of the American Old West and indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was little known to the British Army but well-known to the American scout Burnham. These skills formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, the fundamentals of Scouting. Both men recognised that wars in Africa were the British Army needed to adapt. During this time in the Matobo Hills Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, acquired his kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses. Three years in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafikeng by a much larger Boer army; the Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defence of the town, were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement.
Each member received a badge that illustrated spearhead. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis shaped arrowhead that Scouting adopted as its international symbol; the Siege of Mafeking was the first time since his own childhood that Baden-Powell, a regular serving soldier, had come into the same orbit as "civilians"—women and children—and discovered for himself the usefulness of well-trained boys. In the United Kingdom, the public, through newspapers, followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking, when the siege was broken he had become a national hero; this rise to fame fuelled the sales of the small instruction book he had written in 1899 about military scouting and wilderness survival, Aids to Scouting, that owed much to what he had learned from discussions with Burnham. On his return to England, Baden-Powell noticed that boys showed considerable interest in Aids to Scouting, unexpectedly used by teachers and youth organizations as their first Scouting handbook, he was urged to rewrite this book for boys during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade, a large youth movement drille
The Moselle Valley is a region in north-eastern France, south-western Germany, eastern Luxembourg, centred on the river valley formed by the Moselle. The Moselle runs through, along the borders of, the three countries, drains a fourth, Belgium; the Moselle has been promoted as a quality white wine-producing region since the nineteenth century and "Moselle wine" is produced in three countries. The Moselle has developed a strong tourism industry around its reputation as a rural idyll; the tourism sector is most prominent in the German parts of the Moselle. Luxembourg's part of the valley corresponds with the central and eastern parts of the cantons of Grevenmacher and Remich. All of the lowest-lying communes in Luxembourg lie along the Moselle. There are no large towns in Luxembourg's part of the Moselle valley, but the main settlements are Grevenmacher, Mondorf-les-Bains and Wasserbillig, all of which have populations in excess of 2,000 people. Media related to Moselle valley at Wikimedia Commons
Luxembourg in World War II
The involvement of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in World War II began with its invasion by German forces on 10 May 1940 and lasted beyond its liberation by Allied forces in late 1944 and early 1945. Surrendering after just a day of fighting, Luxembourg was placed under occupation and was annexed into Germany in 1942. During the occupation, the German authorities orchestrated a programme of "Germanisation" of the country, suppressing non-German languages and customs and conscripting Luxembourgers into the Wehrmacht, which led to extensive resistance, culminating in a general strike in August 1942 against conscription; the Germanisation was facilitated by a collaborationist political group, the Volksdeutsche Bewegung, founded shortly after the occupation. Shortly before the surrender, the government had fled the country along with Grand Duchess Charlotte arriving in London, where a Government-in-exile was formed. Luxembourgish soldiers fought in Allied units until liberation; the Luxembourgish government had pursued a policy of neutrality since the "Luxembourg Crisis" of 1867 had highlighted the country's vulnerability.
During the First World War, the 400 men of the Corps des Gendarmes et Volontaires had remained in barracks throughout the German occupation. In March 1939, in a speech to the Reichstag, Adolf Hitler promised that Luxembourgish sovereignty would not be breached; the strength of the military was increased as international tension rose during Appeasement and after Britain and France's declaration of war against Germany in September 1939. By 1940, the Luxembourgish army numbered 255 armed gendarmes and 425 soldiers; the popular English-language radio station Radio Luxembourg was taken off-air in September 1939, amid fears that it might antagonize the Germans. Apart from that, normal life continued in Luxembourg during the Phoney War. In Spring 1940, work began on a series of roadblocks across Luxembourg's eastern border with Germany; the fortifications, known as the Schuster Line, were made of steel and concrete. On 9 May 1940, after increased troop movements around the German border, the barricades of the Schuster Line were closed.
The German invasion of Luxembourg, part of Fall Gelb, began at 04:35 on the same day as the attacks on Belgium and the Netherlands. An attack by German agents in civilian clothes against the Schuster Line and radio stations was however repulsed; the invading forces encountered little resistance from the Luxembourgish military who were confined in their barracks. By noon, the capital city had fallen; the invasion was accompanied by an exodus of tens of thousands of civilians to France and the surrounding countries to escape the invasion. At 08:00, several French divisions crossed the frontier from the Maginot Line and skirmished with the German forces before retreating; the invasion cost 7 Luxembourgish soldiers wounded, with 1 British pilot and 5 French Spahis killed in action. The departure of the government left the state functions of Luxembourg in disorder. An administrative council under Albert Wehrer was formed in Luxembourg to attempt to reach an agreement with the occupiers whereby Luxembourg could continue to preserve some independence while remaining a Nazi protectorate, called for the return of the Grand Duchess.
All possibility of compromise was lost when Luxembourg was incorporated into the German Gau Koblenz-Trier and all its own government functions were abolished from July 1940, unlike occupied Belgium and the Netherlands which preserved their state functions under German control. From August 1942, Luxembourg was made part of Germany. From August 1940, speaking French was forbidden by proclamation of Gustav Simon in order to encourage the integration of the territory into Germany, proclaimed by posters carrying the slogan "Your language is German and only German" This led to a popular revival of the traditional Luxembourgish language, which had not been prohibited, as a form of passive resistance. From August 1942, all male Luxembourgers of draft age were conscripted into the German armed forces. Altogether, 12,000 Luxembourgers served in the German military, of whom nearly 3,000 died during the war; the most significant collaborationist group in the country was the Volksdeutsche Bewegung. Formed by Damian Kratzenberg shortly after the occupation, the VdB campaigned for the incorporation of Luxembourg into Germany with the slogan "Heim ins Reich".
The VdB had 84,000 members at its height, but coercion was exercised to encourage enlistment. All manual workers were forced into the German Labour Front from 1941 and certain age groups of both genders were conscripted into the Reichsarbeitsdienst to work on military projects. Membership of the Nazi youth movement, the "Luxemburger Volksjugend", created with little success in 1936, was encouraged and it merged into the Hitler Youth. Conscription was introduced in Luxembourg from August 1942 under the same terms as in Germany. 12,000 men were conscripted, of whom 3,000 were killed in action, died of wounds or were posted missing-presumed dead. A further 1,500 were wounded. Armed resistance to the German occupiers began in winter 1940–41 when a number of small groups were formed across the country; each had differing political objectives and some were directly affiliated to pre-war political parties, social groups or groups of students or workers. Because of the small size of the pre-war Luxembourgish military, weapons were difficult to come by and so the resistance fighters were armed until much in the war.
The resistance was involved in printing anti-German lea
Extreme points of Luxembourg
This is a list of the extreme points of Luxembourg, the points that are farther north, east or west, higher or lower than any other location in the territory of the state. Northernmost point — in Schmëtt Southernmost point — near Rumelange Easternmost point — on Sauer River near Rosport, Fënterwier Westernmost point — near Surré Highest point — Kneiff, in Troisvierges Lowest point — confluence of Sauer and Moselle Rivers, in Wasserbillig Extreme points of Earth Geography of Luxembourg