click links in text for more info


Kundapur spelt as Kundaapra, Kundapura, Kundapore and Coondapore is a coastal town in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is administered by the Kundapur Town Municipal Council and serves as the headquarters of the Kundapura Taluk of Udupi district. Kundapura railway station, along the Konkan railway, is useful for Kerala pilgrims who visit Kolluru Mookambika Temple as best transport connection to Kollur along with facilities like lodges, many more tourist attraction such as beaches and resorts are near to the station; the name Kundapura can be traced to the Kundeshwar temple built by Kundavarma in the vicinity of the Panchagangavalli river. The name of the town may be derived from Kundavarma. Kunda means ` pillar' in kannada. Pura means town. Kundapura is surrounded by water from three sides. To the north lies the Panchagangavali river. To the east lies the Kalaghar river. To the west lie the Kodi backwaters and the Arabian Sea, leaving the south side as the main connecting land mass. All connecting roads to Kundapura enter the city from the southern direction.

North side of the town is vast backwaters of Panchagangavali river and a bridge has been constructed across it. The town consists of speakers of Kundagannada dialect of Kannada. There are few Konkani and Tulu speakers. Hindus belonging to Saraswat Brahmin and goldsmith castes, Mangalorean Catholics speak Konkani. Muslim communities speak Beary languages; as of the 2001 India census, Kundapur has a population of 30,450. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Literacy rate of 92%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 94%, female literacy is 88%. 9% of the population are under 6 years of age. Kundapur is well connected to other parts of the country by NH66. SH52 is the main State Highway; this Highway connects towns of different states. Kundapur is connected to the Konkan Railway, which runs from Mumbai to Mangalore; the railway station is about 4 kilometres from the town. The nearest airport is Mangalore International Airport, situated at Bajpe around 87 kilometres from Kundapur.

Kundapur is located at a distance of 38 km from Udupi, 40 km from Manipal, 54 km from Bhatkal, 91 km from Mangalore and 181 km from Karwar, which are the other major cities/towns in Coastal Karnataka. The major part of transportation around the town are private local buses and some out of the town is serviced by government owned. A High frequency of buses can be found for Udupi and Mangalore, there are multiple bus stands in the town; the main bus stand where all the buses to Udupi and Mangalore are available is called "New bus stand", is located near the police station. Another used mode of transportation is auto rikshaw

How Come

"How Come" is a song by the American rap group D12. It was released in June 2004 as the second single from their second album D12 World; the song was certified Gold by the RIAA. The song is about the relationship between the members of D12. Eminem makes reference to his relationship to Proof, Kon Artis talks about Eminem and Kim's relationship, Proof talks about the rift between him and Eminem. Bizarre and Swift had verses in the extended version, but these were cut from the official release of the song; the video depicts members of D12 fighting with Eminem in the Shady Records studio. It shows a detailed strain on the members relationships, they discuss how Eminem rose to stardom, they can't get a deal. They envy Eminem, but he doesn't think there is anything to envy, the song ends, leaving people wondering, with the members dissatisfied. In the second verse of the song, Kon Artis talks about a time when he claims to have seen Eminem's girlfriend Kim cheating on him; the video ends with a clip of another song from D12 World, "Git Up".

The beginning shows a home video of Eminem rapping at an underground show with Proof and Bizarre. UK CD singleEuropean CD singleNotes:^ This is an extended version of the song, containing Swifty McVay and Bizarre's verses, which were cut off the album version. A cover version was first performed by English rock band Embrace for BBC Radio 1's Live Lounge show; this version is shortened to Eminem's lyrics on the song, cutting out Kon Proof. The song was released B-sides to their single "Ashes" and on their album Dry Kids: B-Sides 1997–2005; when the video is played for this song, the song joins onto a shortened version of the D12 song, "Git Up." "How Come/Git Up" Official music video on YouTube

Carniolan honey bee

The Carniolan honey bee is a subspecies of the western honey bee. The Carniolan honey bee is native to Slovenia, southern Austria, parts of Croatia and Herzegovina, Hungary and Bulgaria; the Carniolan honey bee is the subspecies of the Western honey bee that has naturalised and adapted to the Kočevje sub-region of Carniola, the southern part of the Austrian Alps, Dinarides region, southern Pannonian plain and the northern Balkans. These bees are known as "Carnies" for short, in English. At present this subspecies is the second most popular among beekeepers, it is favored among beekeepers for several reasons, not the least being its ability to defend itself against insect pests while at the same time being gentle in its behavior toward beekeepers. These bees are adept at adjusting worker population to nectar availability, it relies on these rapid adjustments of population levels to expand worker bee populations after nectar becomes available in the spring, again, to cut off brood production when nectar ceases to be available in quantity.

It meets periods of high nectar with high worker populations and stores large quantities of honey and pollen during those periods. They are resistant to some parasites that can debilitate hives of other subspecies. Carniolan honey bees are about the same size as the Italian honey bee, but they are physically distinguished by their dusky brown-grey color, relieved by stripes of a subdued lighter brown color, their chitin is dark, but it is possible to find lighter colored or brown colored rings and dots on their bodies. They are known as the "grey bee". Carniolan bees are nearly as big and long as the Western European black bees, though their abdomens are much slimmer. Furthermore, the Carniolan bee has a long tongue, a high elbow joint and short hair. Strengths Considered to be gentle and non-aggressive Can be kept in populated areas Sense of orientation considered better than the Italian honey bee Less drifting of bees from one hive to a neighboring hive When compared to the Italian honey bee, they are not as prone to rob honey Able to overwinter in smaller numbers of winter bees Honey stores are conserved Able to adapt to changes in the environment Better for areas with long winters Fast rhythm of brood production and brood rearing reduction when available forage decreases Low use of propolis Resistant to brood diseases For areas with strong spring nectar flow and early pollination Forage earlier in the morning and in the evening, on cool, wet days Workers live up to 12% longer than other breedsWeaknesses More prone to swarming if overcrowded Low ability to thrive in hot summer weather Strength of broodnest more dependent on availability of pollen Unless marked the dark queen is difficult to find Anton Janša Slovenian beekeeper webpage Manuka Honey Tenpenh

Bodger & Badger

Bodger and Badger was a BBC children's comedy programme written by Andy Cunningham, first broadcast in 1989. It starred Cunningham as his talking badger companion, it was spawned from a pair of 1988 appearances the double act made in the Saturday morning BBC1 children's programme On the Waterfront. The programme followed the exploits of Simon Bodger and his puppeted companion, Badger, a badly-behaved badger with a proclivity for mashed potato; the first four series focused on Bodger's jobs as a handyman and his attempts to hide Badger from his superiors. Series 1 was set at Troff's Nosherama. Series 2 and 3 were set at Letsby Avenue Junior School. Series 4 was set at Chessington World of a real theme park in Surrey. From series 5, the character Mousey was introduced, a puppeted mouse with a fondness for cheese; the show was now set at Bodger's rented home and his B&B hotel. Series 5-7 mentioned Bodger's employment, suggesting he was now unemployed; the series still focused on Bodger's attempts to hide Badger from figures of authority, his landlady from Series 5-7 and the tourist information officer in series 9.

These episodes increased the slapstick humour with prominent comic sound effects and incidental music. The programme had a memorable theme song sung by children; the music was composed by the lyrics written by Andy Cunningham. There were a number of different edits of the song used over the years, with the full version used on the end credits of some episodes from 1989 to 1991; the full lyrics were as follows: Everywhere he goes, Bodger always knows Badger, his badger mate, is never far away Bodger and Badger and Badger La la la la la, Badger's never far away Everybody knows, Badger loves MASHED POTATO! He makes it into shapes and eats it every day Bodger and Badger and Badger La la la la la, la la la la la Everywhere he goes, Bodger always knows Badger, his badger mate, is never far away Bodger and Badger and Badger La la la la la, la la la la la Bodger and Badger are never far away! Simon Bodger - Simon Bodger is a handyman who has had various jobs throughout the series; however he is of a nervous disposition which causes him to be clumsy, make silly mistakes and from the trouble that comes from Badger's antics, he keeps getting sacked.

In the first series he was working as a cook for Troff's Nosherama. He got sacked after Badger accidentally revealed himself to praise Mr Troff for giving Simon the job of chef. In the second and third series he was a caretaker at the Letsby Avenue Junior School; this is not far from Troffs' Nosherama, as the Letsby Avenue football team are referenced in the first episode of series one. In the fourth series he was a zookeeper at Chessington World of Adventures. In the fifth and seventh series he was unemployed and renting a flat working as a casual handyman to his landlady, Mrs Dribelle. In the eighth and ninth series he was temporary manager of a Bed and Breakfast while a relative who owned it went on a round-the-world trip. All businesses Bodger worked. Badger is his anthropomorphic talking pet and best friend, although all the trouble that Bodger ends up in is down to Badger. Regular gags involve Badger covering Bodger in mashed potato or some other messy substance, either intentionally or accidentally.

Badger - Badger is named after what he is - a badger. He is anthropomorphic - he has the ability to talk and wears smaller versions of human clothes and is obsessed with mashed potato, which he likes to play with as well as eat; because he has a low, booming voice, he has a laugh. He gets Simon into trouble much of the time by playing around with mashed potato because some of the characters do not know about Badger, so instead Simon gets the blame for Badger's mishaps, it is Badger's childlike inability to continually behave that gets him into trouble with Simon, when Simon has to take the blame for many of Badger's antics to try and keep Badger secret. However Badger is still a good friend to Simon and tries to help him out every way he can, although Badger misunderstands a situation or can take things literally. Despite this, Badger still exhibits the natural instincts of a badger. For example, he still eats various items that he isn't supposed to in situations when it isn't helpful. On two occasions he has eaten smashed up cake at inappropriate times and on another he ate a biro pen when Bodger got one out to fill out a job application form.

He can run fast and can be heard scuttling away from any given situation or location. He has many catchphrases including: shouting "MASHED POTATO" when he comes across his favourite food, "wotcha" when greeting someone and hippy slang when expressing admiration for something such as "far out!", "cosmic!" and "groovy!". When expressing an emotion he follows the word for said emotion with "potatoes", e.g. "soppy potatoes" or "sad potatoes" and he is heard singing the words "mashed potato" to the melody of football chant Here We Go, e.g. "Maaaaashed po-tay, mashed potay, mashed potay-ay-ay, mashed potay, mashed potay, mashed potayyyy-to". It is not known for certain how Bodger met Badger although the opening titles for the fi

Intensional logic

Intensional logic is an approach to predicate logic that extends first-order logic, which has quantifiers that range over the individuals of a universe, by additional quantifiers that range over terms that may have such individuals as their value. The distinction between intensional and extensional entities is parallel to the distinction between sense and reference. Logic is the study of deduction as manifested in language. Logic is not a closed, completed science, it will never stop developing: the logical analysis can penetrate into varying depths of the language. In order to achieve its special goal, logic was forced to develop its own formal tools, most notably its own grammar, detached from making direct use of the underlying natural language. Functors belong to the most important categories in logical grammar: a functor can be regarded as an "incomplete" expression with argument places to fill in. If we fill them in with appropriate subexpressions the resulting completed expression can be regarded as a result, an output.

Thus, a functor acts like a function sign, taking on input expressions, resulting in a new, output expression. Semantics links expressions of language to the outside world. Logical semantics has developed its own structure. Semantic values can be attributed to expressions in basic categories: the reference of an individual name is called its extension; as for functors, some of them are simpler than others: extension can be attributed to them in a simple way. In case of a so-called extensional functor we can in a sense abstract from the "material" part of its inputs and output, regard the functor as a function turning directly the extension of its input into the extension of its output. Of course, it is assumed that we can do so at all: the extension of input expression determines the extension of the resulting expression. Functors for which this assumption does not hold are called intensional. Natural languages abound with intensional functors, this can be illustrated by intensional statements.

Extensional logic cannot reach inside such fine logical structures of the language, it stops at a coarser level. The attempts for such deep logical analysis have a long past: authors as early as Aristotle had studied modal syllogisms. Gottlob Frege developed a kind of two dimensional semantics: for resolving questions like those of intensional statements, he has introduced a distinction between two semantic values: sentences have both an extension and an intension; these semantic values can be interpreted, transferred for functors. As mentioned, motivations for settling problems that belong today to intensional logic have a long past; as for attempts of formalizations. The development of calculi preceded the finding of their corresponding formal semantics. Intensional logic is not alone in that: Gottlob Frege accompanied his calculus with detailed explanations of the semantical motivations, but the formal foundation of its semantics appeared only in the 20th century, thus sometimes similar patterns repeated themselves for the history of development of intensional logic like earlier for that of extensional logic.

There are some intensional logic systems that claim to analyze the common language: Transparent Intensional Logic Modal logic Modal logic is the earliest area in the study of intensional logic motivated by formalizing "necessity" and "possibility". Modal logic can be regarded as the most simple appearance of such studies: it extends extensional logic just with a few sentential functors: these are intensional, they are interpreted as quantifying over possible worlds. For example, the Necessity operator when applied to a sentence A says'The sentence "A" is true in world i if it is true in all worlds accessible from world i'; the corresponding Possibility operator when applied to A asserts that "A" is true in world i iff A is true in some worlds accessible to world i. The exact semantic content of these assertions therefore depends crucially on the nature of the Accessibility relation. For example, is world i accessible from itself? The answer to this question characterizes the precise nature of the system, many exist, answering moral and temporal questions (in a temporal system, the accessibility relation covers states or'instants' and only the future is accessible from a given moment.

The Necessity operator corresponds to'for all future moments' in this logic. The operators are related to one. I.e. Something is necessary. Syntactically, the operators are not quantifiers, they do not bind variables, but govern whole sentences; this gives rise to the problem of Referential Opacity, i.e. the problem of quantifying over or'into' modal contexts. The operators appear in the grammar as sentential functors, they are called modal operators; as mentioned, precursors of modal logic includes Aristotle. Medieval scholastic discussions accompanie