The Pocono Mountains referred to as The Poconos, are a geographical and cultural region in Northeastern Pennsylvania, United States. The Poconos are an upland of the larger Allegheny Plateau. Forming a 2,400-square-mile escarpment overlooking the Delaware River and Delaware Water Gap to the east, the mountains are bordered on the north by Lake Wallenpaupack, on the west by the Wyoming Valley and the Coal Region, to the south by the Lehigh Valley; the name comes from the Munsee word Pokawachne, which means "Creek Between Two Hills." Much of the Poconos region lies within the Greater New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area. The wooded hills and valleys have long been a popular recreation area, accessible within a two-hour drive to millions of metropolitan area residents, with many communities having resort hotels with fishing, hunting and other sports facilities; the Pocono Mountains are a popular recreational destination for regional visitors. While the area has long been a popular tourist destination, many communities have seen a rise in population in Coolbaugh Township and other communities within Monroe County.
The region has a population of about 340,300, growing at a rapid pace attributable to vacationers from New York and New Jersey turning vacation homes into permanent residences. The region lacks a major population center, although there are municipalities such as Stroudsburg, East Stroudsburg, Mount Pocono, the townships around them which are all in Monroe County where the population is 165,058, about half of the total population in the Poconos; the Poconos now serves as a commuter community for northern New Jersey. The commute takes as much as two hours each way due to traffic; the Pocono Mountains of northeastern Pennsylvania is divided into six regions: Mountain Region, Lake Region, Delaware River Region, Upper Delaware River Region, Wyoming Valley, Lehigh River Gorge Region. Located in Monroe, Southern Lackawanna, Northern Carbon Counties. Located in Pike and Wayne counties: Newfoundland Located in Monroe and Pike counties: Eshback Milford Located in Pike and Wayne counties: Greeley Lackawaxen Shohola Located in Luzerne county: The boundary of the region can be at times and these Lehigh Valley, Carbon County, Schuylkill County, Greater Hazleton communities fall on the periphery of the Poconos: The Poconos Region is served by many state highways.
The most-used of these highways include Pennsylvania Route 115, Pennsylvania Route 715, Pennsylvania Route 903, Pennsylvania Route 33, Pennsylvania Route 940, Pennsylvania Route 611. Pennsylvania Route 309, a major north–south route connecting Northeastern Pennsylvania with the Delaware Valley region passes through the western end of the region. There are two U. S. Highways in the Pocono Mountains region; the most used is U. S. Route 209, which goes from Ulster, New York to Millersburg, Pennsylvania; the halfway point of the route is in the region north of Stroudsburg. The other main U. S. Highway in the region is U. S. Route 6, a transcontinental highway that starts near Bishop and runs for over 3,000 miles to its eastern terminus in Provincetown, Massachusetts, it is designated a scenic route in Pennsylvania. U. S. Route 11, U. S. Route 22, U. S. Route 46 are not far from the region and serve it indirectly; the main east–west Interstate Highway in the region is Interstate 80, off of which branches Interstate 380, which connects the Poconos to Scranton.
The other Interstate Highways in the region in Interstate 476, the Pennsylvania Turnpike's Northeast Extension, which has interchanges near Lehighton and White Haven, Interstate 81, which serves as an alternate route for the much-busier Interstate 95 for travelers from Toronto and Montreal to Washington, D. C. Philadelphia, Baltimore. Other Interstates that serve the region are Interstate 84, which begins in Scranton and goes east to New England, Interstate 78, by way of Route 33 or Route 309. NJ Transit is rebuilding trackage on the Lackawanna Cut-Off route from Scranton through the Poconos to Hoboken, New Jersey. There is no clear estimated target year when the Lackawanna Cut-Off Restoration Project will be completed; the service would consist of nine trains per day in each direction. Until 1970, the Erie Lackawanna Railway operated long distance trains through the Poconos to Buffalo and Chicago to the west, Hoboken to the east; the Pocono Mountains is a defined area encompassing portions of Carbon, Monroe and southern Wayne counties of Pennsylvania.
In total, the Poconos encompasses over 2,500 square miles. Some definitions extend the Poconos to Lackawanna, eastern Schuylkill, Susquehanna counties; the Poconos are geologically part of the Allegheny Plateau, like the nearby Catskills. The Poconos' highest summit, Camelback Mountain, reaches 2,133 feet, while its lowest elevation is 350 feet in Pike County; the Delaware River flows through the Pocono Mountains and gives the region its name, from a Native American term translating to "stream between two mountains." The Lehigh and Lackawaxen Rivers flow through the region, totaling about 170 miles of waterways. During the Revolutionary War in 1779, General John Sullivan marched his troops through the Pocono Mountains on their expedition to fight the Iroquois tribe in New York State. Sergeant Moses Fellows of the Third New Hampshire Regiment described the area as "...very poor & Barre
James E. West (Scouting)
James Edward West was a lawyer and an advocate of children's rights, who became the first professional Executive Secretary, soon renamed Chief Scout Executive, of the Boy Scouts of America, serving from 1911 to 1943. Upon his retirement from the BSA, West was given the title of Chief Scout. West's father died around the time of his birth in Washington, D. C, his mother was hospitalized with tuberculosis in 1882 and young Jimmie was placed in the Washington City Orphan Home. In 1883, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis, by 1885 he was crippled, with one leg shorter than the other. At the orphanage, Jimmie was put to work with the girls and caning chairs, he took charge of the orphanage library. After convincing the staff that he could continue his chores he entered public school at the fifth grade. In 1895, he graduated with honors from Business High School, where he had edited the school newspaper, was business manager of the football team and had acted as a substitute math teacher. In late 1896, West was out of the orphanage and working as a bicycle mechanic.
He attended National Law School while working as the assistant to the general secretary of the YMCA, during the Spanish–American War, he acted as general secretary. He worked as a clerk in the War Office, he received his Bachelor of Laws in 1900 and Master of Laws in 1901 and was admitted to the Washington, D. C. bar. President Theodore Roosevelt appointed him to the Board of Pension Appeals in the Department of the Interior in 1902, he was instrumental in pushing a bill through Congress. West was a Mason, a member of the Knights of Pythias and the Sunday school superintendent for the Mount Pleasant Congregational Church. In the early 1900s, he was the finance chairman for the Boys' Brigade and the secretary of the Washington Playground Association the Playground Association of America, he served as secretary of the National Child Rescue League, responsible for placing orphaned children into homes. West was the secretary of the White House Conference on Dependent Children, pushing for reforms in the management of orphanages.
In 1910, West was looking to open a private law office. Meanwhile, John M. Alexander was serving as Managing Secretary from May to October, under the general auspices of Edgar M. Robinson, who had set up BSA's original one-room national office and recruited Alexander to run it. Neither Robinson nor Alexander wanted to run BSA permanently, so Colin H. Livingstone, the president of the BSA put out inquiries. Ernest Bicknell of the American Red Cross wrote to Luther Gulick, president of the Playground Association of America and recommended West for the position. After much persuasion West accepted the position on a temporary basis and moved to New York City, while Robinson returned to the YMCA and turned BSA's reins over to West; the Russell Sage Foundation provided the initial funding for West to become the first Chief Scout Executive of the Boy Scouts of America. He accepted for a six-month tenure, but he held the position for 32 years. West married Marion Speaks on June 19, 1907, their children were: James "Jimmie" Ellis West, Marion and Bob.
Jimmie died of pneumonia in 1916. Their daughter Marion West Higgins would go on to serve as the first female Speaker of the New Jersey General Assembly, his great-great-grandson Tucker West is an Olympian. The new BSA office on 5th Avenue opened in January 1911 with West at the helm and the movement began to grow at a rapid pace. Sixty local councils were organized in January and hundreds of Scoutmasters were commissioned; the office grew from six to thirty-five employees by May. One of his first tasks was the first edition of The Official Handbook for Boys. West was instrumental in expanding the third part of the Scout Oath: To help other people at all times, he pushed to add three parts to the Scout Law: brave and reverent. West changed his title, in November 1911 he became the first Chief Scout Executive, his starting salary was raised to $6,000 per year in July. West dealt with many early issues. Labor unions protested over wording in the original Official Handbook, copied from the British Scouting for Boys, perceived as anti-union — this had been removed from the first edition.
West dealt with those who protested against the inclusion of African Americans. West held that they should be included, but that local communities should follow the same policies that they followed in the school systems. Thus, much of the American South as well as many major northern communities had segregated programs with "colored troops" until the late 1940s, with some councils not desegregated until 1974. Since the BSA had early and enduring ties with the YMCA, a Protestant organization, the Roman Catholic Church forbade their boys to join. West argued that Scouting was non-sectarian and the Catholics accepted the BSA program in 1913; as early as 1910, Daniel Carter Beard and Ernest Thompson Seton had various arguments over, the founder of Scouting. Programs for boys had been advanced by Seton in 1902, Beard in 1905 and Baden-Powell in 1907. Since Baden-Powell had based parts of the program on Seton's work, Seton claimed to be the founder. By 1915, the conflicts between them had escalated and West attempted to defuse the situation.
This led directly to the creation of Horsehoe Bend Scout
Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English journalist, short-story writer and novelist. He was born in India. Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King", his poems include "Mandalay", "Gunga Din", "The Gods of the Copybook Headings", "The White Man's Burden", "If—". He is regarded as a major innovator in the art of the short story. Kipling was one of the most popular writers in the United Kingdom, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me as the most complete man of genius, as distinct from fine intelligence, that I have known." In 1907, at the age of 41, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English-language writer to receive the prize and its youngest recipient to date. He was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, both of which he declined. Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century.
George Orwell saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting". Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: " is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled, but as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with." Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, to Alice Kipling and John Lockwood Kipling. Alice was a vivacious woman, about whom Lord Dufferin would say, "Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist in the same room." Lockwood Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the Principal and Professor of Architectural Sculpture at the newly founded Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Bombay. John Lockwood and Alice had met in 1863 and courted at Rudyard Lake in Rudyard, England.
They married and moved to India in 1865. They had been so moved by the beauty of the Rudyard Lake area that when their first child was born they named him after it. Two of Alice's sisters married artists: Georgiana was married to the painter Edward Burne-Jones, her sister Agnes to Edward Poynter. Kipling's most famous relative was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin, Conservative Prime Minister three times in the 1920s and'30s. Kipling's birth home on the campus of the J J School of Art in Bombay was for many years used as the Dean's residence. Although the cottage bears a plaque noting it as the site where Kipling was born, the original cottage may have been torn down decades ago and a new one built in its place; some historians and conservationists are of the view that the bungalow marks a site, close to the home of Kipling's birth, as the bungalow was built in 1882—about 15 years after Kipling was born. Kipling seems to have said as much to the Dean. Kipling wrote of Bombay: According to Bernice M. Murphy, "Kipling's parents considered themselves'Anglo-Indians' and so too would their son, though he spent the bulk of his life elsewhere.
Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent in his fiction."Kipling referred to such conflicts, for example: "In the afternoon heats before we took our sleep, she or Meeta would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution'Speak English now to Papa and Mamma.' So one spoke'English', haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in". Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay ended; as was the custom in British India, he and his three-year-old sister Alice were taken to the United Kingdom—in their case to Southsea, Portsmouth—to live with a couple who boarded children of British nationals who were serving in India. For the next six years, the children lived with the couple, Captain Pryse Agar Holloway, once an officer in the merchant navy, Sarah Holloway, at their house, Lorne Lodge, at 4 Campbell Road, Southsea. In his autobiography, published 65 years Kipling recalled the stay with horror, wondered if the combination of cruelty and neglect which he experienced there at the hands of Mrs Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life: "If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day's doings he will contradict himself satisfactorily.
If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture—religious as well as scientific, yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort". Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge; the two Kipling children, did have relatives in England who
Bucks County, Pennsylvania
Bucks County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 625,249, making it the fourth-most populous county in Pennsylvania and the 99th-most populous county in the United States; the county seat is Doylestown. The county is named after the English county of Buckinghamshire or more its shortname. Bucks County constitutes part of the northern boundary of the Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD Metropolitan Statistical Area, more known as the Delaware Valley, it is located northeast of Philadelphia and forms part of the southern tip of the eastern state border. Bucks County is one of the three original counties created by colonial proprietor William Penn in 1682. Penn named the county after Buckinghamshire, the county, he built a country estate called Pennsbury Manor in Bucks County. Some places in Bucks County were named after locations in Buckinghamshire, including Buckingham Township, named after the county town of Buckinghamshire.
Bucks County was much larger than it is today. Northampton County was formed in 1752 from part of Bucks County, Lehigh County was formed in 1812 from part of Northampton County. General George Washington and his troops camped in Bucks County as they prepared to cross the Delaware River to take Trenton, New Jersey, by surprise on the morning of December 26, 1776, their successful attack on Britain's Hessian forces was a turning point in the American War of Independence. The town of Washington Crossing and Washington Crossing Historic Park were named to commemorate the event. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 622 square miles, of which 604 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water; the southern third of the county between Philadelphia and Trenton, New Jersey called Lower Bucks, resides in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, is flat and near sea level, the county's most populated and industrialized area. Bucks County shares a western border with Montgomery County, borders Philadelphia to the southwest, Northampton and Lehigh Counties to the north.
From north to south, it is linked to Warren, Hunterdon and Burlington Counties in New Jersey by bridges. Tohickon Creek and Neshaminy Creek are the largest tributaries of the Delaware in Bucks County. Tohickon Creek empties into the river at Point Neshaminy at Croydon. Lehigh County Northampton County Warren County, New Jersey Hunterdon County, New Jersey Mercer County, New Jersey Burlington County, New Jersey Philadelphia County Montgomery County Relatively speaking, Bucks County experiences warm/hot and humid summers with chilly/cold and somewhat snowy winters. Episodes of high humidity occur every year during or close to the summer months occasionally reaching extreme levels; when high humidity combines with air temperatures in the mid-upper 90's, dangerous heat index values of >= 105 °F can sometimes result. Winter minimum air temperatures fall into the single digits to below 0 °F; when the coldest temperatures combine with higher winds, wind chill values can sometimes plummet below 0 °F to as cold as -20 °F. Spring and fall are comparatively tranquil.
The climate cools as one moves from the lower elevation, dense suburban areas in southern Bucks County, to the higher elevation, rural areas of northern Bucks. Precipitation is well-distributed throughout the year; the average seasonal snowfall, which can occur from as early as October to as late as April, is around 2 feet in extreme southern Bucks, around 3 feet in the highest elevations of far northern Bucks. The fall foliage season peaks in mid-October in northern Bucks, mid-late October in central Bucks, late-October/early-November in southern Bucks; these dates correlate with the typical date of first freeze. Peak spring foliage occurs during the month of April, which correlates with the typical date of last freeze. Bucks County has four distinct seasons and has a hot-summer humid continental climate except for some far southern lowlands including Bristol which have a humid subtropical climate; the hardiness zones are 7a. Monthly climatic averages for Quakertown, upper Bucks County, PA. Monthly climatic averages for Doylestown, central Bucks County, PA.
Monthly climatic averages for Bristol, lower Bucks County, PA. As of the 2010 census, there were 625,249 people; the population density was 1,034.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.6% White non-Hispanic, 3.9% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 4.1% Asian 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.7% were of two or more races, 1.5% were of other races. 4.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 218,725 households, 160,981 families residing in the county. There were 225,498 housing units at an average density of 371 per square mile. 20.1 % were of 19.1 % Irish, 14.0 % Italian, 7.5 % English and 5.9 % Polish ancestry. There were 218,725 households, out of which 35.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.20% were married coup
Ocean County, New Jersey
Ocean County is a county located along the Jersey Shore in the central portion of the U. S. state of New Jersey. Its county seat is Toms River. Since 1990, Ocean County has been one of New Jersey's fastest-growing counties; as of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 597,943, a 3.7% increase from the 576,567 enumerated in the 2010 United States Census, making Ocean the state's sixth-most populous county. The 2010 population figure represented an increase of 65,651 from the 2000 Census population of 510,916, as Ocean surpassed Union County to become the sixth-most populous county in the state. Ocean County was the fastest growing county in New Jersey between 2000 and 2010 in terms of increase in the number of residents and second-highest in percentage growth. Ocean County was established on February 15, 1850, from portions of Monmouth County, with the addition of Little Egg Harbor Township, annexed from Burlington County on March 30, 1891; the most populous place was Lakewood Township, with 92,843 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Jackson Township, covered 100.62 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality in the county.
Ocean County is located 50 miles east of Philadelphia, 70 miles south of New York City, 25 miles north of Atlantic City, making it a prime destination for residents of these cities during the summer. As with the entire Jersey Shore, summer traffic clogs local roadways throughout the season. Ocean County is part of the New York metropolitan area but is home to many tourist attractions visited by Delaware Valley residents the beachfront communities of Seaside Heights, Long Beach Island, Point Pleasant Beach, as well as Six Flags Great Adventure, the home of the world's tallest and second-fastest roller coaster, Kingda Ka. Ocean County is a gateway to New Jersey's Pine Barrens, one of the largest protected pieces of land on the East Coast. Ocean County is part of Philadelphia's media markets. According to the United States Census Bureau, the county had as of the 2010 Census a total area of 915.40 square miles, making it the largest county in New Jersey in terms of total area, total 819.84 sq mi of which 628.78 square miles of land and 286.62 square miles of water.
Much of the county is coastal, with many beaches. The highest point is one of three unnamed hills; the lowest elevation in the county is sea level. It is home to many beaches on the Jersey Shore, such as Beach Haven, Ship Bottom, Surf City, Harvey Cedars and Barnegat Light. Monmouth County, New Jersey – north Atlantic County, New Jersey – south Burlington County, New Jersey – west Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge covers 47,000 acres of coastal habitat in Atlantic and Ocean counties. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Toms River have ranged from a low of 22 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −19 °F was recorded in January 1982 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1999. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.30 inches in February to 4.79 inches in March. Areas closer to the coast experience more mild winters and cooler summers due to the Atlantic Ocean's influence; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 576,567 people, 221,111 households, 149,249.925 families residing in the county.
The population density was 917 per square mile. There were 278,052 housing units at an average density of 442.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.98% White, 3.15% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 1.75% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.46% from other races, 1.47% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.29% of the population. There were 221,111 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families. 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.16. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 22.2% from 25 to 44, 25.9% from 45 to 64, 21% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.6 years. For every 100 females there were 92 males.
For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 88.3 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 510,916 people, 200,402 households, 137,876 families residing in the county; the population density was 803 people per square mile. There were 248,711 housing units at an average density of 151/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 93.05% White, 2.99% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.28% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.24% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. 5.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those who listed their ancestry, 25.3% were of Italian, 23.6% Irish, 18.7% German, 8.8% Polish and 8.5% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 200,402 households out of which 28.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.40% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.20% were non-f
Boy Scouts of America National Headquarters
The Boy Scouts of America National Headquarters were established in 1910 in New York City and opened in January 1911. From 1910 to 1927 the offices were at at 200 Fifth Avenue. In 1927, the National Office moved to 2 Park Avenue. In 1954, the National Council of the Boy Scouts of America moved its national headquarters from New York City to a new site at the southwest corner of U. S. Route 1 and U. S. Route 130 in North Brunswick, New Jersey, although the location appeared in BSA publications as "New Brunswick"; the former Boy Scouts building is now known as 100 Fidelity Plaza, is managed as part of the Offices at Campus Pointe business center. The Johnston Historical Museum and a conservation education trail were located there. Since 1978, the Boy Scouts of America National Council has been in Irving, Texas
Montclair, New Jersey
Montclair is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 37,669, reflecting a decline of 1,308 from the 38,977 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,248 from the 37,729 counted in the 1990 Census; as of 2010, it was the 60th-most-populous municipality in New Jersey. Montclair was first formed as a township on April 15, 1868, from portions of Bloomfield Township, so that a second railroad could be built to Montclair. After a referendum held on February 21, 1894, Montclair was reincorporated as a town, effective February 24, 1894, it derives its name from the French mont clair, meaning "clear mountain" or "bright mountain."In 1980, after multiple protests filed by Montclair officials regarding the inequities built into the federal revenue sharing system, Montclair passed a referendum changing its name to the "Township of Montclair," becoming the third of more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships to take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis.
Montclair, which opened the state's first dispensary in December 2012, joins Bellmawr, Egg Harbor Township and Woodbridge Township as one of the five municipalities that have authorized dispensaries for the sale of medical marijuana. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 6.315 square miles, including 6.308 square miles of land and 0.007 square mile of water. Montclair is on the east side of the First Mountain of the Watchung Mountains; some higher locations in the township provide excellent views of the surrounding area and of the New York City skyline about 12 miles away. Named localities in the township include Church Street, Frog Hollow, Montclair Heights, South End, Upper Montclair and Watchung Plaza. Montclair citizens use two main ZIP codes; the central and southern parts of the township are designated 07042. Upper Montclair lies north of Watchung Avenue and has a separate ZIP code, 07043; because the ZIP codes do not match municipal boundaries, a few homes near the borders with neighboring towns fall into the ZIP codes for those communities.
A few homes in some adjoining municipalities use one of the two ZIP codes assigned to Montclair, as does HackensackUMC Mountainside, whose campus straddles the border with Glen Ridge. Small areas in the southeast of the township fall into the Glen Ridge ZIP code 07028. Several streams flow eastward through Montclair: Toney's Brook in the center, Nishuane Brook in the southeast, the Wigwam Brook in the southwest, Pearl Brook in the northwest, Yantacaw Brook in the northeast – all in the Passaic River watershed. Yantacaw and Toney's brooks are dammed in parks to create ponds. Wigwam and Toney's brooks flow into the Second River, the others flow into the Third River. Montclair lies just north of the northernmost extent of the Rahway River watershed; the southern border of Montclair is a straight line between Eagle Rock, on the ridge of the First Watchung Mountain, the point where Orange Road begins at the foot of Ridgewood Avenue. The eastern border is a straight line between that point and a point just southwest of where Broad Street crosses the Third River.
The western border runs along the ridge of the First Watchung Mountain between Eagle Rock and the Essex County/Passaic County border. The northern border is the border between those two counties. Montclair has a temperate climate, with warm-to-hot, humid summers and cool to cold winters, as is characteristic of the Köppen climate classification humid continental climate. January tends to be the coldest month, with average high temperatures in the upper 30s Fahrenheit and lows averaging 21. July, the warmest month, features high temperatures in the mid-80s and lows in the 70s, with an average high of 86 degrees. From April to June and from September to early November, Montclair experiences temperatures from the lower 60s to the lower 70s. Montclair gets 50 inches of rain per year, above the United States average of 39 inches. Snowfall is common from December to early March, totals about 30 inches annually; the number of days each year in Montclair with any measurable precipitation is 90. Montclair is one or two degrees warmer than the neighboring towns of Verona and Cedar Grove because of the mountain between them, which sometimes blocks winds and clouds, including warmer air from the ocean to the east.
The township has long celebrated a feature that has attracted many to the community. The African American population has been stable at around 30% for decades, although it fell from 32% in 2000 to 27% in 2010. Montclair has attracted many who work for major media organizations in New York City, including The New York Times and Newsweek. A March 11, 2007, posting in the blog Gawker.com listed some of those who work in the media and live in Montclair. Many residents are commuters to the Metro Area; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 37,669 people, 15,089 households, 9,445.714 families residing in the township. The population density was 5,971.2 per square mile. There were 15,911 housing units at an average density of 2,522.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 62.16% White, 27.16% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 3.81% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.19% from other races, 4.50% f