Mandan, North Dakota
Mandan is a city on the eastern border of Morton County and is the seventh-largest city in North Dakota. Founded in 1879 on the west side of the upper Missouri River, it was designated in 1881 as the county seat of Morton County; the U. S. Census Bureau estimated the 2017 population at 22,228. Located across the Missouri River from the state capital of Bismarck, Mandan is a core city of the Bismarck-Mandan Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city was named after the historic indigenous Mandan of the area. The Mandan are now part of the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation, spanning the upper Missouri River in the western part of the state, their people live in cities of the state and other areas. In the 2010 census, nearly five percent of the people in the city of Mandan identified as Native American; the Mandan Indian village located at the southern base of Crying Hill prominent in east Mandan today was recorded as early as 1738 and referred to as the village of Good Fur Robe, named after their chief.
This settlement would be recorded as the village of the Crying Hill as well the village of the Two Face Stone, after their corresponding geographic features. The village was one of six Mandan villages on the west river bank between today's Knife River and Cannonball River; the credit for the city's incorporated name is a point of debate. John Andrew Rea arrived across the river in Bismarck in 1876 to serve as temporary editor of its newspaper during one of its founder's extended absences. Rea subsequently served as the register in the governmental land office in the territorial capital of Bismarck for eight years starting in June 1880. Rea claimed he and Northern Pacific Railroad engineer Thomas L. Rosser created the name. Rea would write to the St. Paul Pioneer Press which published and popularized the name which remains in use today. However, the more accepted version of the truth gives credit for the city's name to Frederic Gerard. Gerard had married Helena Catherine, an Arikara/Ree woman when he ran the Fort Berthold trading post.
Gerard was appointed by the Dakota Territorial governor as Morton County's first assessor when it was established in March 1878. He was one of the first three men elected as a Morton County Commissioner in November 1878. While Native Americans had long established settlements in the area along the river, the first white explorer was Frenchman Sieure de la Verendyre and his expedition in 1738. Not until the early 1800s did Euro-American frontiersmen come to the area with any regularity; the Fort Clark Trading Post was established in 1830 by the American Fur Company 40 miles upstream on the Missouri River to support trappers. To provide protection for the approaching rail line from the east and the homesteaders who would follow, the US Army established two outposts in the area in 1872 and 1873. Fort Greeley was founded first on the east side of the river. On the west side, an infantry post named Fort McKeen was constructed on bluffs above the confluence of Heart and Missouri Rivers. In 1873 Congress authorized the addition of a cavalry post and changed its designation to Fort Abraham Lincoln when foot soldiers were deemed ineffective against their mounted adversaries.
A permanent civilian settlement known as "Lincoln" was adjacent to the north side of the fort. When the Northern Pacific Railroad announced a pending river crossing in 1872, land speculators rushed to establish claims at probable locations for the inevitable city to be established on the west side of the crossing, but due to the national financial crisis in 1873, Northern Pacific would postpone the river bridge project. Once its final location was announced five miles north of Fort Abraham Lincoln, a work camp appeared on the west river bank in December 1878 complete with its own post office; the settlement would serve as the base for the westward survey of the rail line. On March 3, 1879, the post office was moved from the west bank of the Missouri River to the railroad's city site within blocks of Mandan's first railroad depot and freight building at Main Street and Stark Avenue Four city names coincided with four postmasters; the original railroad work camp's post office in 1878 was known as "Morton."
The name "Mandan" stuck for only eight days in March 1879 before being renamed "Cushman" by a postmaster with an identical surname. In September 1879, the post office returned to its current designation of "Mandan."The City of Mandan was formally incorporated on February 24, 1881 and was named for the Mantani Indians, or "people of the bank." Mandan became the county seat for the replatted Morton County after the North Dakota legislature restored the prior county boundaries 1881 after the land grab in 1879 by Burleigh County. The city of Lincoln had been county seat from 1878 through 1879. Upon completion of the railroad to Montana in 1881, Fort Abraham Lincoln had fulfilled its primary purpose and declined until formally abandoned in 1891; the City of Lincoln dwindled into obscurity. In the earliest days of Euro-American settlement, the main commercial transportation route was the Missouri River. After the rail arrived in the 1870s, the river remained the main north/south route until the mid-1930s with the development of the national highway system.
Steamboats used coal for fuel and the mine at Sims seven miles west of Mandan was a major source of lignite coal. If unavailable, steamboat crews bought wood from farmers along the river. Bellows Landing, the site of today's R M Hesket Power Station, was a refueling station with an icehouse. Historical records indicate it served st
Girl Scouts of the USA
Girl Scouts of the United States of America referred to as Girl Scouts in the US, is a youth organization for girls in the United States and American girls living abroad. Founded by Juliette Gordon Low in 1912, it was organized after Low met Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, in 1911. Upon returning to Savannah, she telephoned a distant cousin, saying, "I've got something for the girls of Savannah, all of America, all the world, we're going to start it tonight!"Girl Scouts prepares girls to empower themselves and promotes compassion, confidence, leadership and active citizenship through activities involving camping, community service, learning first aid, earning badges by acquiring practical skills. Girl Scouts' achievements are recognized with various special awards, including the Girl Scout Gold and Bronze Awards. Girl Scout membership is organized with activities designed for each level. GSUSA is a member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts and accepts girls of all backgrounds.
A 1994 Chronicle of Philanthropy poll showed Girl Scouts ranked by the public as the eighth "most popular charity/non-profit in America" among more than 100 charities. It describes itself as "the world's preeminent organization dedicated to girls." Girl Scouting in the United States of America began on March 12, 1912, when Juliette "Daisy" Gordon Low organized the first Girl Guide troop meeting of 18 girls in Savannah, Georgia. It has since grown to 3.7 million members. Low, who had met Baden-Powell in London while she was living in the United Kingdom, dreamed of giving the United States and the world "something for all the girls." She envisioned an organization that would bring girls out of their homes to serve their communities, experience the out-of-doors, have the opportunity to develop "self-reliance and resourcefulness." From its inception, the Girl Scouts has been organized and run by women, for girls and women. Juliette Gordon Low was the granddaughter of Juliette Magill Kinzie and John Harris Kinzie, whose childhood family was one of the earliest settlers of Chicago, IL.
Juliette Kinzie wrote about her experiences in the Northwest Territory in her book Wau-Bun: The Early Day. Some of what her granddaughter, Juliette Gordon Low, knew firsthand about her grandmother's experiences on the frontier were incorporated into the beginnings and traditions of Girl Scouts; the early home of Juliette Low's grandparents can be visited May 15 through October 15 in Portage, Wisconsin. In late 1912, Low proposed that the Camp Fire Girls merge with the Girl Guides but was rejected in January 1913 as Camp Fire was the larger group. Next, Low attempted to merge her organization with the Girl Scouts of America, founded in Des Moines, Iowa by Clara Lisetor-Lane, she thought their similarities would make this easier but Lisetor-Lane felt Daisy copycatted her organization and threatened to sue. Lisetor-Lane claimed Low's organization was luring members away but the GSA's growth was limited by a lack of financial resources which led to its eventual demise; the Girl Guides of America in 1913 changed its name to Girl Scouts of the United States and moved its headquarters to Washington, DC.
In 1915 the organization was incorporated and the national headquarters was moved to New York City. The name reached its current form, Girl Scouts of the United States of America, in 1947; the organization was given a congressional charter on March 16, 1950. GSUSA started with 18 members. Within months, members were hiking through the woods in knee-length blue uniforms, playing basketball on a curtained-off court, going on camping trips. In 1916, Low established an aviation badge --. By 1920, there were nearly 70,000 members. By 1923 the organization had branches in every state in the union, Alaska and Puerto Rico, a total membership of 125,738. In 1930 it had over 200,000. In 2013 there were over 3.2 million Girl Scouts: 2.3 million girl members and 890,000 adult members in the United States. More than 50 million American women have participated in Girl Scouts. Through its membership in WAGGGS, GSUSA girls and adults are among over 10 million members in 146 countries; the names and ages of the levels and the larger structure of the program have changed over time.
In 1923 Girl Scouts were organized into patrols, local councils, the National Council. Troops were fairly independent before joining together into small councils, which merged to form larger councils. Today there are over 100 councils across the U. S; the Juliette Gordon Low Birthplace, located in Savannah, Georgia, in the former Gordon family home, became the national Girl Scout program center in 1956. It provides tours to thousands of Girl Scouts yearly. Upon Low's death in 1927, she willed her carriage house, which would become The Girl Scout First Headquarters, to the local Savannah Girl Scouts for continued use. In 1923 national headquarters was located at New York. During World War II, 1943–1945, many young Japanese American girls were confined in internment camps with their families. Girl Scout troops were organized in these camps; these girls participated in many activities, including dramatic presentations that took place in the Crystal City Internment Camp in Crystal City, Texas. Most Girl Scout units were segregated by race according to state and local laws and customs.
The first troop for African American girls was founded in 1917. In 1933, Josephine Groves Holloway f
Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders (Scouts-in-Exile)
The Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders is one of the two large Russian Scouting in Exile movements. This organization has drawn the conservative side of the spectrum of Russians in exile. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the organization Русский Скаут went into exile, continued in many countries where fleeing White Russian émigrés settled, establishing groups in France, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Poland, Hungary, Argentina, Canada, United States and for a short time in the Netherlands and Surinam. A much larger mass of Russian Scouts moved through Vladivostok to the east into Manchuria and south into China and Hong Kong; the most important leader of Russian Scouting in exile was Oleg Pantyukhov. Oleg Pantyukhov, Chief Scout of Russia, first went to Turkey and resided in France and moved to the United States, where large troops of Russian Scouts were established in cities such as San Francisco, California, Los Angeles, etc, he returned to France where he died. He served as Chief Scout of N.
O. R. S. until his death on October 25, 1973 and was involved in Russian Scouting since 1908/1909. National Organization of Russian Scouts was recognized as a Member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, in exile, from 1922 to 1945; the Headquarters was first in Constantinople in Brussels and Belgrade. After World War II Russian Scout and Guide troops were founded in Displaced Persons camps in i.e. in Austria and West Germany. In Monchehof Displaced Persons Camp the Russian Scouts provided postal delivery and issued Scout stamps. So from November 14 to November 15, 1945 a Conference of Russian DP-Scout leaders took place in Munich and the Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders was founded. Among the founders were Boris Borisovitsch Martino. Oleg Pantyukhov was appointed to the Chief Scout of the Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders and so he was at this time the Chief Scout of both Russian Scouts-in-exile associations, he tried to unite the associations, but it failed and so he resigned as Chief Scout from ORYuR in 1957.
As neither organization was created ex nihilo, they may both be considered legitimate successors to the Русский Скаут heritage. ORYuR became a member of the Displaced Persons Scout Division from 1947 to 1950. There are groups of this Scout association in Germany, the United States and other countries in Europe, the Americas and Australia. In Germany the name "Russische St. Georgs-Pfadfinder" is sometimes used. Together with N. O. R. S. ORYuR helped to restart Scouting in Russia and other parts of the former USSR. So there are today groups of ORYuR in Lithuania. Scouting in Russia National Organization of Russian Scouts National Association of Russian Explorers Orthodox Organization of Russian Pathfinders
Grand Forks, North Dakota
Grand Forks is the third-largest city in the state of North Dakota and is the county seat of Grand Forks County. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 52,838, while the total of the city and surrounding metropolitan area was 98,461. Grand Forks, along with its twin city of East Grand Forks, forms the center of the Grand Forks, ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area, called Greater Grand Forks or the Grand Cities. Located on the western banks of the north-flowing Red River of the North, in a flat region known as the Red River Valley, the city is prone to flooding; the Red River Flood of 1997 devastated the city. Called Les Grandes Fourches by French fur traders from Canada, who had long worked and lived in the region, steamboat captain Alexander Griggs platted a community after being forced to winter there; the Grand Forks post office was established in 1870, the town was incorporated on February 22, 1881. The city was named for its location at the fork of the Red Lake River. Dependent on local agriculture, the city's economy now encompasses higher education, health care, food processing, scientific research.
Grand Forks is served by Grand Forks Air Force Base. The city's University of North Dakota is the oldest institution of higher education in the state; the Alerus Center and Ralph Engelstad Arena host athletic and other events, while the North Dakota Museum of Art and Chester Fritz Auditorium are the city's largest cultural venues. Prior to settlement by Europeans, the area where the city developed, at the forks of the Red River and Red Lake River, for thousands of years had been an important meeting and trading point for Native Americans. Early French explorers, fur trappers, traders called the area Les Grandes Fourches, meaning "The Grand Forks". By the 1740s, French fur trappers relied on Les Grandes Fourches as an important trading post; this was French colonial territory. The United States acquired the territory from British Rupert's Land with the Treaty of 1818, but indigenous tribes dominated the area until the late 19th century. After years of warfare, the United States made treaties to extinguish the land claims of the Ojibwe and other Native American peoples.
When a U. S. post office was established on the site on June 15, 1870, the name was changed to the English "Grand Forks". Alexander Griggs, a steamboat captain, is regarded as "The Father of Grand Forks". Griggs' steamboat froze in the Red River on a voyage in late 1870, forcing the captain and his crew to spend the winter camping at Grand Forks. Griggs platted a community in 1875, Grand Forks was incorporated on February 22, 1881. Thousands of settlers were attracted to the Dakota Territory in the 1870s and 1880s for its cheap land, the population began to rise. Many established small family farms, but some investors bought thousands of acres for bonanza farms, where they supervised the cultivation and harvesting of wheat as a commodity crop; the city grew after the arrival of the Great Northern Railway in 1880 and the Northern Pacific Railway in 1887. In 1883, the University of North Dakota was established, six years before North Dakota was admitted as an independent state born from the Dakota Territory.
During the first half of the 20th century, new residential neighborhoods were developed south and west of downtown Grand Forks. In the 1920s, the state-owned North Dakota Mill and Elevator was constructed on the city's north side. In 1954, Grand Forks was chosen as the site for an Air Force base. Grand Forks Air Force Base brought thousands of new residents to the community; the military base and the University of North Dakota became integral to the city's economy. With construction of federal highways, during the postwar years residential and business development became suburbanized, spreading to new areas as land was available. Interstate 29 was built on the western side of the city, two enclosed shopping malls – South Forks Plaza and Columbia Mall – were built on the south side; the Red River had a history of seasonal flooding, aggravated by the broad ancient lake bed that formed the Red River Valley. The 1997 Red River Flood caused extensive damage in the city. Fargo was upstream from the bulk of the flood waters that season, Winnipeg had built an extensive system of flood control structures in the 1960s.
In 1997, Grand Forks suffered the most damage of any major city in the Red River Valley. During the height of the flooding, a major fire destroyed 11 buildings in the downtown area; the government began developing a new levee system to protect the city, completed 10 years later. It required the relocation of numerous residents, as some neighborhoods were emptied for this construction; the city and government decided to change the type of development allowed near the river. The floodplain bordering the Red River was converted into a large park known as the Greater Grand Forks Greenway; this provided new recreation space for city residents, as well as space for future floodwaters to be absorbed by trees and other plants, without damage to infrastructure. East Grand Forks developed a related greenway park on its side of the river, as it has suffered extensive flooding that year. Since the 1997 flood and private developments have been constructed throughout Grand Forks. Two new, large sports venues opened in 2001: the Alerus Center and the Ralph Engelstad Arena.
In 2007, the Winnipeg-based Canad Inns hotel chain opened a 13-story hotel and waterpark next to the Alerus Center. By 2007 Grand Forks had a larger population. Area employment and taxable sales had surpassed pre-flood levels. Grand Forks is 74 miles north of
Boy Scouts of America
The Boy Scouts of America is one of the largest scouting organizations and youth organizations in the United States, with about 2.4 million youth participants and about one million adult volunteers. The BSA was founded in 1910, since about 110 million Americans have been participants in BSA programs at some time; the BSA is part of the international Scout Movement and became a founding member organization of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1922. The mission of the Boy Scouts of America is to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law. Youth are trained in responsible citizenship, character development, self-reliance through participation in a wide range of outdoor activities, educational programs, and, at older age levels, career-oriented programs in partnership with community organizations. For younger members, the Scout method is part of the program to instill typical Scouting values such as trustworthiness, good citizenship, outdoors skills, through a variety of activities such as camping and hiking.
To further these outdoor activities, the BSA has four high-adventure bases: Northern Tier, Philmont Scout Ranch, Sea Base, Summit Bechtel Reserve, as well as close to a hundred separate camps and reservations dedicated to scouts. The traditional Scouting divisions are Cub Scouting for ages 5 to 11 years, Scouts BSA for ages 11 to 17, Venturing for ages 14 through 21. Learning for Life is a non-traditional affiliate. On February 1, 2019, the Boy Scouts of America renamed their flagship program, Boy Scouting, to Scouts BSA to reflect their change of policy to allow girls to join in separate troops; the BSA operates traditional Scouting by chartering local organizations, such as churches, civic associations, or educational organization, to implement the Scouting program for youth within their communities. Units are led by volunteers appointed by the chartering organization, who are supported by local councils using both paid professional Scouters and volunteers; the progressive movement in the United States was at its height during the early 20th century.
With the migration of families from farms to cities, there were concerns among some people that young men were no longer learning patriotism and individualism. The YMCA was an early promoter of reforms for young men with a focus on social welfare and programs of mental, physical and religious development.:72–82 BSA had two notable predecessors in the United States: the Woodcraft Indians started by Ernest Thompson Seton in 1902 in Cos Cob and the Sons of Daniel Boone founded by Daniel Carter Beard in 1905 in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1907, Robert Baden-Powell, founded the Scouting movement in England using elements of Seton's works among other influences. Several Scout programs for boys started independently in the US.. Many of these Scout programs in the US merged with the BSA.:52 In 1909, Chicago publisher W. D. Boyce was visiting London, where he encountered a boy who came to be known as the Unknown Scout. Boyce was lost on a foggy street when an unknown Scout came to his aid, guiding him to his destination.
The boy refused Boyce's tip, explaining that he was a Boy Scout and was doing his daily good turn. Interested in the Boy Scouts, Boyce met with staff at the Boy Scouts Headquarters and, by some accounts, Baden-Powell. Upon his return to the US, Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America on February 8, 1910. Edgar M. Robinson and Lee F. Hanmer became interested in the nascent BSA and convinced Boyce to turn the program over to the YMCA for development in April 1910. Robinson enlisted Seton, Charles Eastman, other prominent leaders in the early youth movements. Former president Theodore Roosevelt, who had long complained of the decline in American manhood, became an ardent supporter. In January 1911, Robinson turned the movement over to James E. West who became the first Chief Scout Executive and Scouting began to expand in the US:148 The BSA's stated purpose at its incorporation in 1910 was "to teach patriotism, self-reliance, kindred values.":7 Later, in 1937, Deputy Chief Scout Executive George J. Fisher expressed the BSA's mission: "Each generation as it comes to maturity has no more important duty than that of teaching high ideals and proper behavior to the generation which follows."
The current mission statement of the BSA is "to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law." Boy Scouts of America is distinct in its use of the term "Scout Oath" rather than "Scout Promise". The difference is that while the former phrase implies that a Scout is making his promise before God, the latter phrasing indicates that the Scout makes his commitment in the presence of fellow human beings; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was the first partner to sponsor Scouting in the United States, adopting the program in 1913 as part of its Mutual Improvement Association program for young men. In May 2018, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints announced that, effective year-end 2019, it would no longer sponsor scouting units with the Boy Scouts of America to focus on its own global youth leadership and development program, although Mormon youth are free to join scouting units sponsored by other organizations.
The BSA holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, which means that it is one of the comparatively rare "Title
Polish Scouting and Guiding Association
The Polish Scouting and Guiding Association is the coeducational Polish Scouting organization recognized by the World Organization of the Scout Movement and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. It was founded in 1918 and is the largest Scouting organization in Poland; the first ZHP was founded in 1916, the current one is the fourth organization with this name. It is a public benefit organization as defined by Polish law; the Polish Scout movement was started in 1910. The ideas of Scouting were implemented by Andrzej Małkowski and his wife Olga; the three main branches of Polish Scouting included the Strzelec paramilitary organization for boys, a sport and education society Sokół and the anti-alcoholic association Eleusis. However, it wasn't until the Partitions of Poland came to an end that the ZHP would be founded by the merging of existing groups. Soon after the merger in 1918, the ZHP members fought in all the conflicts Poland was engaged in around this time: Great Poland Uprising, Polish-Bolshevik War, Silesian Uprisings, Polish-Ukrainian War, much like their predecessors during the Siege of Mafeking.
All of the units joined together in 1918 and formed the ZHP, one of the founding members of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. Although many units retained their own traditions, a common law, common symbols and a common oath was introduced; the primary difference between most Scouting organizations and the Polish Harcerstwo was described by Andrzej Małkowski: Harcerstwo is Scouting plus independence. Before 1939 the ZHP was one of the largest social and educational associations in Poland with over 200,000 members. Among the "sponsors" of Polish Harcerstwo were all the presidents of Poland and several high-ranking officers, including general Józef Haller. After the invasion of Poland of 1939, the ZHP were branded criminals by Nazi Germany, who had executed many Scouts and Guides, along with other possible resistance leaders, but the ZHP carried on as a clandestine organization. In 1940, the Soviet Union executed most of the Boy Scouts held at Ostashkov prison; the wartime Scouts evolved into the paramilitary Szare Szeregi, cooperating with the Polish underground state and the Armia Krajowa resistance.
Older Scouts carried out sabotage, armed resistance, assassinations. The Girl Guides formed auxiliary units working as nurses and munition carriers. At the same time the youngest Scouts were involved in so-called small sabotage under the auspice of the Wawer organization, which included dropping leaflets or painting the kotwica sign on the walls. During Operation Tempest, during the Warsaw Uprising, the Scouts participated in the fighting, several Szare Szeregi units were some of the most effective in combat. In December 1944 the Polish Committee of National Liberation reformed the Scouting movement under the name of the pre-WWII Scouting organization, though with authorities loyal to the puppet government and an ethos in line with that of the Soviet Pioneer Movement, pressuring the organization to become a member thereof altogether disbanding in in that form in 1949; the organization was integrated into the Polish United Workers' Party, with most of its members now part of a new Soviet style, government-sponsored Pioneer organization - the Scouts of the Working Youth of Poland, which retained the original Polish Scouting movement's motto while adopting Pioneer traditions of Eastern Bloc countries, save for the uniform.
The only existing part of pre-war ZHP is the ZHP pgK, established to serve Polish Scouts outside their homeland. In 1956, after Stalin's and Bolesław Bierut's death, the Polish United Workers' Party youth movement ZMP OH was transformed and renamed to ZHP; however the new ZHP did not consider itself as a continuation of the pre-war ZHP, but as a new organization. After 1958 many pre-war instructors were removed from the new ZHP or marginalized and the original oath, educational content and methods were changed, but the most visible change was the transformation from the Pioneer salute back to the two-finger salute. Despite this, the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association became one of the few official organizations that retained some independence from the communist party; because of this, its growth was rapid, in 1980 it had more than three million active members. The Polish Scouts were engaged in a variety of duties, varying from helping in the fields of the most poor regions to organizing the visits of Pope John Paul II.
After the martial law was imposed in 1981 the ZHP was the only large social organization not to be banned. The "VIII ZHP Convention" supported the martial law. However, many of its high-ranking officials were interned because of their involvement in the Solidarność movement, as well as several Scoutmasters; the ZHP would be admitted in the 1980s as part of the Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth. In 1989 after the period of peaceful transformation began, many groups of instructors formed separate Scouting organizations; these moves were prompted by political disagreements with the character of ZHP. ZHR's founding will serve as an adequate ex
Scouting in North Dakota
Scouting in North Dakota has a long history, from the 1910s to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. In 1922 the Devils Lake Council was founded, changing its name to the Lake Region District Council in 1923; the council folded in 1925. In 1918 Minot Council was founded, changing its name to the Minot District Council in 1922, it changed its name again in 1929 to Great Plains Area Council. In 1922 the Grand Forks Council was founded, changing its name to the Grand Forks County Council in 1924, it changed its name again in 1926 to Greater Grand Forks Area Council. In 1920 the Red River Valley Council was founded. In 1920 the Fargo Council was founded, it merged into Red River Valley Council in 1925. In 1923 the Park Region Area Council was founded, it merged into Red River Valley Council in 1929. In 1924 the Williston Council was founded; the council folded in 1925. In 1927 the Bismarck Area Council was founded, changing its name to the Missouri Valley Council in 1929.
In 1926 the Greater Grand Forks Area Council was founded, changing its name to the Grand Forks Area Council in 1931. It changed its name again in 1929 to Lake Aggasiz Council in 1933. Boy Scouts in North Dakota was organized into 4 councils from 1925 until 1974; the four Councils were: Red River Valley Council - headquartered in Fargo. All of North Dakota is in the Northern Lights Council, formed in 1974 when several councils were merged into one; as of 2006, Northern Lights Council serves all of North Dakota, parts of South Dakota, northwestern Minnesota and northeast Montana. There are two Girl Scout district offices in North Dakota in Fargo and Bismarck and two field offices in Minot and Grand Forks. Girl Scout camps in North Dakota are: Camp Owettii, Minot, ND Camp Sakakawea, Pick City, ND Camp Ocankasa, Mandan, ND Camp Neche, Bismarck, ND Camp Tonweya, Valley City, ND Scouting in Manitoba Scouting in Saskatchewan Northern Lights Council Site Pa-Hin Site