Scouting in South Dakota
Scouting in South Dakota has a long history, from the 1910s to the present, serves thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. In 1917 the Centerville Council was founded, it folded in 1918. In 1917 the Mitchell Council was founded, it folded in 1920. In 1920 the Yankton Council was founded, it folded in 1924. In 1930 the Black Hills Area Council was founded. In 1920 the Huron Council was founded, it reformed as the Huron Area Council in 1925, changing its name to the Central South Dakota Council in 1928. In 1942 it changed its name to Pheasant Council. In 1925 the Southern South Dakota Council was founded. In 1927 it merged into the Sioux Council. In 1926 the Hiawatha Council was founded. In 1927 it merged into the Sioux Council. In 1925 the Aberdeen Area Council was founded. In 1928 it changed its name to Northern South Dakota Council, changing the name again in 1931 to the Dasota Council. In 1933, the Dasota Council splt, with half of the council going to Central South Dakota and half going to Arrowhead.
In 1934 the Arrowhead Council was founded. In 1942 the Pheasant Council was founded. In 1943 Arrowhead merged into Pheasant. In 1927 the Sioux Council was founded. In 1978, the Pheasant Council merged into the Sioux Council. There are two Boy Scouts of America local councils serving South Dakota. All of South Dakota lies within Central Region, except for Harding, Lawrence, Custer, Fall River, Shannon, Haakon and Bennett counties, as part of Western Region; the Black Hills Area Council was granted a charter by the National Council, Boy Scouts of America in 1930, charged with the responsibility of organizing and supporting successful Cub Scout Packs, Boy Scout Troops, Varsity Scout Teams, Venturing Crews, Explorer Posts and Learning for Life Groups within its 30,000-square-mile geographical boundaries. It serves over 3,700 youth members in Western South Dakota and Eastern Wyoming and are one of the largest youth serving organizations in our community; until 2014 the Council was composed of three districts: Bear Butte District serves the Northern Hills Area of South Dakota and Sundance and Moorcroft, Wyoming.
Penjahame District serves the South Dakota Counties of Pennington, Jackson and Southern Meade. Pine Tree District serves the Southern Hills area of Newcastle, Wyoming. Since August 2014, the Black Hills Area Council is now the Rushmore District. In 1976 the Black Hills Area Council established Medicine Mountain Scout Ranch, its year-round camping facility which hosts both unit and family groups; the Mid-America Council of the Boy Scouts of America offers programs in 58 counties in Nebraska and South Dakota. The Mid-America Council was formed from a merger of the Covered Wagon Council and the Southwest Iowa Council in 1965; the first recorded Scouting in the area was in 1918 as the Omaha Council. In 2000 the council merged with the Prairie Gold Council in Iowa; the Northern Lights Council serves North Dakota, counties in South Dakota, northwest Minnesota and northeast Montana. Sioux Council serves Scouts in South Dakota and Minnesota. Buffalo Ridge District Five Rivers District Lewis and Clark Trail District North Star District Pheasant District Prairie Hills District Sioux Council operates the Lewis & Clark Scout Camp at Tabor, SD.
Tetonwana Lodge is the local lodge of the Order of the Arrow for Sioux Council. The Tetonwana Lodge was chartered in 1937 and serves Boy Scouts in the states of South Dakota, Minnesota, and Iowa. On January 1, 1978, Tetonwana Lodge #105 and Iyatonka Lodge #460 merged; this merger was the result of a merger between Pheasant Council. Two Girl Scout Councils serve South Dakota. Girl Scouts - Dakota Horizons serves 11,000 girls and has 4,100 adult volunteers in North and South Dakota and in thirteen counties in north-western Minnesota and Lyon County, Iowa; the council has seven offices. Girl Scouts—Dakota Horizons is headquartered in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. On July 1, 2007 the three Girl Scout councils of South Dakota and the three in North Dakota merged to form the current council; the councils it replaces are: Girl Scouts of The Black Hills Council. Bismarck, North Dakota - Northwest District Fargo, North Dakota - Northeast District Rapid City, South Dakota - Southwest District Sioux Falls, South Dakota - Southeast DistrictDistrict Field Offices: Minot, North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota Camp MOE - near Thief River Falls, Minnesota Camp Neche - near Bismarck, North Dakota Camp Ocankasa - near Mandan, North Dakota Camp Owetti - near Minot, ND Camp Sakakawea - near Pick City, North Dakota Camp Tonweya is north of Valley City, North Dakota Wall Lake Camp is near Sioux Falls, SD Camp Nyteepeota - on Lake Kampeska in Watertown, South Dakota Camp Arroya is near Mitchell, SD Camp Woodlands - near Huron, South Dakota Robin's Nest is near Aberdeen, SD TDAF Lodge is near Aberdeen, SD Cedar Canyon Camp is near Rapid City, SDFormer Camps: Camp PahaSapa was near Rapid City, South Dakota Serves South Dakota girls in Union and part of Clay counties.
Scouting in North Dakota Black Hills Area Council
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States. The state is the 10th largest by area, the least populous, the second most sparsely populated state in the country. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho and Montana; the state population was estimated at 577,737 in 2018, less than 31 of the most populous U. S. cities including Denver in neighboring Colorado. Cheyenne is the state capital and the most populous city, with an estimated population of 63,624 in 2017; the western two-thirds of the state is covered by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie called the High Plains. Half of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U. S. government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth by area and fifth by proportion of a state's land owned by the federal government. Federal lands include two national parks—Grand Teton and Yellowstone—two national recreation areas, two national monuments, several national forests, historic sites, fish hatcheries, wildlife refuges.
Original inhabitants of the region include the Crow, Arapaho and Shoshone. Southwestern Wyoming was in the Spanish Empire and Mexican territory until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican–American War; the region acquired the name Wyoming when a bill was introduced to the U. S. Congress in 1865 to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming"; the name was used earlier for the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, is derived from the Munsee word xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat". The main drivers of Wyoming's economy are mineral extraction—mostly coal, natural gas, trona—and tourism. Agricultural commodities include livestock, sugar beets and wool; the climate is semi-arid and continental and windier than the rest of the U. S. with greater temperature extremes. Wyoming has been a politically conservative state since the 1950s, with the Republican Party candidate winning every presidential election except 1964. Wyoming's climate is semi-arid and continental, is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with greater temperature extremes.
Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 and 95 °F in most of the state. With increasing elevation, this average drops with locations above 9,000 feet averaging around 70 °F. Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with the hottest locations averaging in the 50–60 °F range at night. In most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is a dry state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging 5–8 inches; the lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains average around 10–12 inches, making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches or more, much of it as snow, sometimes 200 inches or more annually.
The state's highest recorded temperature is 114 °F at Basin on July 12, 1900 and the lowest recorded temperature is −66 °F at Riverside on February 9, 1933. The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during early summer; the southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those that occur farther east; as specified in the designating legislation for the Territory of Wyoming, Wyoming's borders are lines of latitude 41°N and 45°N, longitude 104°3'W and 111°3'W, making the shape of the state a latitude-longitude quadrangle. Wyoming is one of only three states to have borders along only straight latitudinal and longitudinal lines, rather than being defined by natural landmarks.
Due to surveying inaccuracies during the 19th century, Wyoming's legal border deviates from the true latitude and longitude lines by up to half of a mile in some spots in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho, it is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97,814 square miles and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles; the Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau broken by many mountain ranges. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet, to the Belle Fourche River val
University of Wyoming
The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet, between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW to people close to the university; the university was founded in March 1886, four years before the territory was admitted as the 44th state, opened in September 1887. The University of Wyoming is unusual in that its location within the state is written into the state's constitution; the university offers outreach education in communities throughout Wyoming and online. The University of Wyoming consists of seven colleges: agriculture and natural resources and sciences, education and applied sciences, health sciences, law; the university offers over 120 undergraduate and certificate programs including Doctor of Pharmacy and Juris Doctor. The University of Wyoming was featured in the 2011 Princeton Review Best 373 Colleges. In addition to on-campus classes in Laramie, the university's Outreach School offers more than 41 degree and endorsement programs to distance learners across the state and beyond.
These programs are delivered through the use of technology, such as online and video conferencing classes. The Outreach School has nine regional centers in the state, with several on community college campuses, to give Wyoming residents access to a university education without relocating to Laramie. On September 27, 1886, the cornerstone of Old Main was laid marking the beginning of the University of Wyoming; the stone is inscribed Domi Habuit Unde Disceret, translated, "He need not go away from home for instruction." The following year, the first class of women began their college education. For the next decade the building housed a library and administration offices; the style of Old Main set a precedent for all future University buildings. The main stone used is rough-cut sandstone from a quarry east of Laramie and the trim stone is smooth Potsdam Sandstone from a quarry near Rawlins. Old Main was designed to be a monumental structure and was designed to be a symmetrical building with a prominent central spire as the focal point.
The building was designed to reflect the character of Wyoming and the rough stone and smooth trim represented the progressing frontier. The design of Old Main had a lasting effect on university structures, most visible by the use of sandstone façade on nearly every building. In 1916, the central spire was removed due to structural concerns and the auditorium was reduced in size during a 1936 renovation. In 1949, the building was remodeled—the auditorium and exterior stairs were removed, it became known as Old Main and the name was carved above the east entrance. Old Main houses university administration including the President's Office and the board room where the Trustees meet. Prexy's Pasture is a large grassy area located within a ring of classroom and administrative buildings and serves as the center mall of the campus; the name is attributed to an obscure rule that the university president, or "prexy", is given exclusive use of the area for livestock grazing. During the administration of Arthur G. Crane the name, "Prexy's Pasture", was formally declared.
Prexy's, as it is called today, is known for the unique pattern formed by concrete pathways that students and faculty use to cross the pasture. When the University of Wyoming first opened its doors in 1887, Prexy's Pasture was nothing more than an actual pasture covered in native grasses; the football team played their games on the pasture until 1922, when Corbett Field opened at the southeast corner of campus. Over time, as the needs of the university has changed, the area has been redesigned; the original design was established in 1924 and in 1949 the area was landscaped with Blue Spruce and Mugo Pine. In February 1965, the Board of Trustees decided to construct the new science center on the west side of Prexy's Pasture; the board president, Harold F. Newton, concerned about the location, leaked the decision to the local press; the uproar that followed caused the board to decide on a new location for the science center and resulted in a new state statute making it necessary for any new structure built on the pasture to receive legislative approval.
The statue known as "University of Wyoming Family" was installed in 1983 by UW Professor Robert Russin in anticipation of the centennial celebration. In the summer of 2004, Prexy's Pasture was remodeled as the first step in a two part redesign project; this step involved removing the asphalt roadway that circled the pasture and replacing it with concrete walkways to make the area a walking campus, as recommended by the 1966 and 1991 Campus Master Plans. The grassy area was increased and new lampposts were installed for better lighting; the second phase of the project involves the construction of a plaza at each corner featuring trees and rocks styled after the rocky outcrops of nearby Vedauwoo. Two of the plazas, Simpson Plaza and Cheney Plaza, have been completed. Several exhibits from the exhibition Sculpture: A Wyoming Invitational are featured along the exterior walkway. Outside of its primary use by students travelling to and from classes or socializing, the area is host to campus barbecues and fall welcome events.
In September 1937, the university obtained a Public Works Administration loan during the Great Depression for $149,250 for construction of a student union. On March 3, 1938, ground was broken and construction began on what would become the Wyoming Union. Many students were involved in the construction and twenty-five students were trained to be stone-cutters. From the begin
Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming and Idaho. It was established by the U. S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872. Yellowstone was the first national park in the U. S. and is widely held to be the first national park in the world. The park is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features Old Faithful geyser, one of its most popular features, it has many types of ecosystems. It is part of the South Central Rockies forests ecoregion. Native Americans have lived in the Yellowstone region for at least 11,000 years. Aside from visits by mountain men during the early-to-mid-19th century, organized exploration did not begin until the late 1860s. Management and control of the park fell under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior, the first being Columbus Delano. However, the U. S. Army was subsequently commissioned to oversee management of Yellowstone for a 30-year period between 1886 and 1916. In 1917, administration of the park was transferred to the National Park Service, created the previous year.
Hundreds of structures have been built and are protected for their architectural and historical significance, researchers have examined more than a thousand archaeological sites. Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,468.4 square miles, comprising lakes, canyons and mountain ranges. Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-elevation lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent; the caldera is considered an active volcano. It has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world's geysers and hydrothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism. Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone; the park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest remaining nearly-intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone. In 1978, Yellowstone was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Hundreds of species of mammals, birds and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened.
The vast forests and grasslands include unique species of plants. Yellowstone Park is the largest and most famous megafauna location in the contiguous United States. Grizzly bears and free-ranging herds of bison and elk live in this park; the Yellowstone Park bison herd is the largest public bison herd in the United States. Forest fires occur in the park each year. Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, boating and sightseeing. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobiles; the park contains the headwaters of the Yellowstone River. Near the end of the 18th century, French trappers named the river Roche Jaune, a translation of the Hidatsa name Mi tsi a-da-zi. American trappers rendered the French name in English as "Yellow Stone". Although it is believed that the river was named for the yellow rocks seen in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Native American name source is unclear.
The human history of the park begins at least 11,000 years ago when Native Americans began to hunt and fish in the region. During the construction of the post office in Gardiner, Montana, in the 1950s, an obsidian projectile point of Clovis origin was found that dated from 11,000 years ago; these Paleo-Indians, of the Clovis culture, used the significant amounts of obsidian found in the park to make cutting tools and weapons. Arrowheads made of Yellowstone obsidian have been found as far away as the Mississippi Valley, indicating that a regular obsidian trade existed between local tribes and tribes farther east. By the time white explorers first entered the region during the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805, they encountered the Nez Perce and Shoshone tribes. While passing through present day Montana, the expedition members heard of the Yellowstone region to the south, but they did not investigate it. In 1806, John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, left to join a group of fur trappers.
After splitting up with the other trappers in 1807, Colter passed through a portion of what became the park, during the winter of 1807–1808. He observed at least one geothermal area near Tower Fall. After surviving wounds he suffered in a battle with members of the Crow and Blackfoot tribes in 1809, Colter described a place of "fire and brimstone" that most people dismissed as delirium. Over the next 40 years, numerous reports from mountain men and trappers told of boiling mud, steaming rivers, petrified trees, yet most of these reports were believed at the time to be myth. After an 1856 exploration, mountain man Jim Bridger reported observing boiling springs, spouting water, a mountain of glass and yellow rock; these reports were ignored because Bridger was a known "spinner of yarns". In 1859, a U. S. Army Surveyor named Captain William F. Raynolds embarked on a two-year survey of the northern Rockies. After wintering in Wyoming, in May 1860, Raynolds and his party – which included naturalist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden and guide Jim B
Scouting in Idaho
Scouting in Idaho has a long history, from the 1910s to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. The Ashton Council was founded in Ashton, Idaho in 1917, it closed in 1918. The Rupert Council was founded in Rupert, Idaho in 1922, it closed in 1924. The Boise Council was founded in 1919, changed its name in 1927 to the Boise Area Council. In 1951 the council changed its name to the Mountainview Council. In 1968 the council merged with the Ore-Ida Council; the Western Idaho Council was founded in 1927, changed its name in 1929 to the Oregon-Idaho Area Council. In 1933 the council changed its name to the Ore-Ida Council; the Bonner-Boundry Council merged with the Inland Northwest Council. The Idaho Falls Council was founded in 1922, changed its name in 1925 to the Teton Peaks Council. In 1993, the council merged with the Tendoy Area Council to become Grand Teton Council; the Nez Perce County Council was founded in 1919 and changed its name in 1922 to the Lewiston Council.
It changed its name in 1925 to the Lewis-Clark Area Council. In 1928 the council changed its name to the Lewis-Clark Council; the council merged with the Inland Northwest Council in 1992. The Pocatello Council was founded in 1919, changed its name in 1925 to the Eastern Idaho Council, it changed its name in 1934 to the Tendoy Area Council. In 1993, the council merged with the Teton Peaks Council to become Grand Teton Council; the Shoshone County Council was founded in 1918, changed its name in 1923 to the Shoshone-Kooteni Council. In 1928 the council changed its name to the Idaho Panhandle Council; the council merged with the Inland Northwest Council in 1992. The Twin Falls Council was founded in 1922, changed its name in 1924 to the Snake River Area Council, it changed its name in 1993 to the Snake River Council. The 1969 National Scout Jamboree was held at Farragut State Park. Half of the 1973 National Scout Jamboree was held at the same location; the park hosted the 12th World Scout Jamboree in 1967.
International Girl Scout gatherings named Senior Roundups were held every three years from 1956 until 1965. The last one was held at Farragut Reservation, from July 17 to July 26, 1965, with 12,000 girls in attendance. There are five Boy Scouts of America local councils in Idaho. Grand Teton Council was formed as a result of a 1994 merger between Tendoy Area Council, headquartered in Pocatello, Teton Peaks Council, headquartered in Idaho Falls, they serve over 22,000 Scouts and 12,000 leaders in eastern Idaho, western Wyoming, southwestern Montana. Their main office is in Idaho Falls, with other offices in Pocatello and Rexburg. BingPow District Blackfoot District Centennial District Eagle Rock District Jackson District Lost River District Malad District North Caribou District Portneuf District Salmon District South Caribou District South Fork District Star Valley District Tendoy District Teton District Wolverine District Yellowstone District Grand Teton Council operates six camping properties.
This camp, located east of the town of Last Chance in Fremont County, was established in 1975. The camp grounds are owned by the Council; this camp operates for four to five weeks during the summer. It includes both a low COPE course; the aquatics program includes the only Sailboat program for the Council camps as it features a large lake. During the first week of August this camp is the home of the new Family Scouting Experience where programs are offered for all family members. Programs include Wood Badge, Powder Horn, Cedar Badge, another non-Scouting programs for family members; this camp was founded in 1959. It is located east of the town of Irwin, across the South Fork of the Snake River; the summer camp program runs six weeks, in June and July. This camp's first season was 1936, it features beautiful views of the Grand Teton, Table Rock, Big Medicine Falls. The camp is located in the town of Wyoming; the traditional summer camp season is 5 weeks long in June and July. The acclaimed "Cedar Badge" Junior Leader Training, which adopted the BSA National Youth Leadership Training as its curriculum in 2005, is offered during the last two weeks of June at this camp.
It is filled with springs as well. Blue Bear is 10 ft deep, Morning Glory is 40 ft deep. In 1966, Teton Peaks Council started a whitewater kayaking program on the upper reaches of the Snake River. Within a few years, the program shifted to the Salmon River. In 1986, the council acquired a permanent property for the base at Hale Gulch 13 miles downriver from North Fork, Idaho; this base known as SRHAB, is open in June and July, with 2.5 day sessions starting every Monday and Thursday. The primary program consists of rafting and whitewater kayaks. Secondary programs include low COPE, archery and rappelling, frisbee gold; the base will celebrate two anniversaries in 2015, being the 30th anniversary of the current location and the 50th anniversary of the overall program. This former 40-acre farm and orchard was acquired in the 1980s for the purpose of Cub Scout activities, it is the home of a Cub Scout Day Camp. It includes a large frontier fort, an original Union Pacific cabo