click links in text for more info


In telecommunications, a scrambler is a device that transposes or inverts signals or otherwise encodes a message at the sender's side to make the message unintelligible at a receiver not equipped with an appropriately set descrambling device. Whereas encryption refers to operations carried out in the digital domain, scrambling refers to operations carried out in the analog domain. Scrambling is accomplished by the addition of components to the original signal or the changing of some important component of the original signal in order to make extraction of the original signal difficult. Examples of the latter might include removing or changing vertical or horizontal sync pulses in television signals; some modern scramblers are encryption devices, the name remaining due to the similarities in use, as opposed to internal operation. In telecommunications and recording, a scrambler is a device that manipulates a data stream before transmitting; the manipulations are reversed by a descrambler at the receiving side.

Scrambling is used in satellite, radio relay communications and PSTN modems. A scrambler can be placed just before a FEC coder, or it can be placed after the FEC, just before the modulation or line code. A scrambler in this context has nothing to do with encrypting, as the intent is not to render the message unintelligible, but to give the transmitted data useful engineering properties. A scrambler replaces sequences into other sequences without removing undesirable sequences, as a result it changes the probability of occurrence of vexatious sequences, it is not foolproof as there are input sequences that yield all-zeros, all-ones, or other undesirable periodic output sequences. A scrambler is therefore not a good substitute for a line code, through a coding step, removes unwanted sequences. A scrambler can be either: An algorithm that converts an input string into a random output string of the same length, thus avoiding long sequences of bits of the same value. An analog or digital source of unpredictable and independent output bits.

A "truly" random generator may be used to feed a deterministic pseudo-random random number generator, which extends the random seed value. There are two main reasons why scrambling is used: To enable accurate timing recovery on receiver equipment without resorting to redundant line coding, it facilitates the work of a timing recovery circuit, an automatic gain control and other adaptive circuits of the receiver. For energy dispersal on the carrier, reducing inter-carrier signal interference, it eliminates the dependence of a signal's power spectrum upon the actual transmitted data, making it more dispersed to meet maximum power spectral density requirements. Scramblers are essential components of physical layer system standards besides interleaved coding and modulation, they are defined based on linear feedback shift registers due to their good statistical properties and ease of implementation in hardware. It is common for physical layer standards bodies to refer to lower-layer encryption as scrambling as well.

This may well be. Some standards for digital television, such as DVB-CA and MPE, refer to encryption at the link layer as scrambling. Additive scramblers Multiplicative scramblers Additive scramblers transform the input data stream by applying a pseudo-random binary sequence. Sometimes a pre-calculated PRBS stored in the read-only memory is used, but more it is generated by a linear-feedback shift register. In order to assure a synchronous operation of the transmitting and receiving LFSR, a sync-word must be used. A sync-word is a pattern, placed in the data stream through equal intervals. A receiver searches for a few sync-words in adjacent frames and hence determines the place when its LFSR must be reloaded with a pre-defined initial state; the additive descrambler is just the same device as the additive scrambler. Additive scrambler/descrambler is defined by the polynomial of its initial state. Multiplicative scramblers are called so because they perform a multiplication of the input signal by the scrambler's transfer function in Z-space.

They are discrete linear time-invariant systems. A multiplicative scrambler is recursive, a multiplicative descrambler is non-recursive. Unlike additive scramblers, multiplicative scramblers do not need the frame synchronization, why they are called self-synchronizing. Multiplicative scrambler/descrambler is defined by a polynomial (for the scrambler on the picture it is 1 + z − 18 + z − 23

Belk Hudson Lofts

Belk Hudson Lofts is an apartment building in Huntsville, Alabama. Two buildings, the first was built on the corner of Washington Street and Holmes Avenue in 1930 to house Fowler's Department Store, one of several department stores on Washington Street; the second building, adjacent to the first along Holmes, was constructed in 1936 as a farm supply store. Fowler's went bankrupt in 1938, Belk Husdon purchased the corner building in 1940. Beginning in 1944, they leased the Holmes building, the two were joined. After Belk Husdon left the downtown area, the building was renovated into offices in the 1980s; the one-story Holmes building was occupied by Olde Towne Brewing Company from 2004 until 2007, when the building was destroyed by fire. In the 2010s, the corner building was reconstructed into a loft apartment building, with the original façade kept intact; the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996

Agro (puppet)

Agro is an Australian puppet and media personality, operated by comedian and voice artist Jamie Dunn. He was prominent on Australian television in the 1990s due to his co-hosting opposite Ann-Maree Biggar and Terasa Livingstone of Agro's Cartoon Connection, a children's program, aired from 1989 to 1997 on weekday mornings by the Seven Network; the word "agro" is English slang for "aggression". Agro is sometimes said to have the surname Vation, though the puppet is credited with a surname. Agro's humour tends to be adult, with much sexual suggestion and uninhibited behaviour, he has appeared with an innocent-acting female offsider, subjected to mocking and innuendo. His pre-taped performances in shows intended for a juvenile or family audience were vetted before broadcast, but in the adult-oriented shows his uncensored antics were given full rein. Unlike many characters children's puppets, Agro broke the fourth wall, making reference, for example, to the facts that he was a puppet, that his limbs did not move, that a hand was up his back.

Agro appears to be somewhat similar to a grouch. Agro was a fan of the Australian rugby league footballer; the original puppet was created by BTQ-7 employee Garry Rhodes, a floor manager at the time. It was an altered vintage 1978 Fisher-Price puppet of Animal from The Muppet Show, although it is joked that he is made from a bathmat, the Agro puppet is more-or-less a version of the Muppet character Animal; the producer of Agro's Cartoon Connection claimed that Agro had been "altered by the Red Cross", after Jim Henson's Muppets made a claim regarding copyright. It was Rhodes who coined the concept of "eating flies" and other naughty quirks that continued as part of the puppet's character. After a fall-out with Seven led to Rhodes' resignation, several different'operators' were involved in working the puppet. Jamie Dunn fell into that role after a not-so-startling singing career, it was Dunn who took the character to greater heights and created an iconic part of Australian television history. Dunn's marketing prowess resulted in the Agro concept becoming a lucrative career for him.

The Agro puppet produced by Fisher-Price was unusual in its construction. The puppeteer could open and close the mouth, could manipulate the eyebrows via a plastic lever in the head; this allowed Dunn to create a sexually-suggestive leering expression, which he used. The eyes and limbs do not move. After Agro's rise to fame there was some dispute between Rhodes and Jamie Dunn because Dunn attempted to claim creative ownership of the puppet. A court case loomed, but BTQ-7 and the parties involved reached a settlement that allowed Jamie Dunn to retain the rights. Agro belongs to Channel Seven. In 2001 Channel Seven Productions enlisted puppeteer and puppet builder Warren Duxbury to rebuild Agro because the original Agro had deteriorated beyond repair; the new puppet was built for use on the revival of dating show Perfect Match, hosted by Shelley Craft. The nose of the new puppet was noticeably different from the old one. Agro hosted the following Australian television shows: Boris' Breakfast Club Wombat Agro's Cartoon Connection Super Sunday Show Perfect Match Agro has appeared as a panel member on the Channel Seven Perth Telethon, but after 10 p.m. Agro was a guest host for Tonight Live with Steve Vizard on four occasions.

He appeared many times as a guest on Tonight Live. Agro has appeared as a guest on the following television shows: The Don Lane Show Everybody Hey Dad..! Hey Hey It's Saturday Wheel of Fortune Family Feud The Main Event Talk With the Animals Concentration The Daily EditionAgro features in the film clip of the American rock band Trixter for their song One In A Million, he has appeared on a number of Australian telethons those that raise money for the Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane. Agro's radio credits include: The Morning Crew, B105 FM's breakfast show. Agro performed prank telephone calls and presented a segment Agro to the Rescue, in which he would provide money or resources to a family or individual in trouble. The'Agro' performances were credited to Jamie Dunn, the'Agro' character was marginalised; the Zinc Morning Zoo, with Ian Calder and Courtney Burns on Sunshine Coast FM radio station "Zinc 96". Agro at his height was a feature of much publicity and merchandising including having released four recorded studio albums, a Game Boy game, an arcade game, a range of other merchandise including action figures, stickers and children's clothing, annual show bag's at the Easter Show.

He is patron of a charity for children with cancer. Dunn has never appeared alongside Agro; when Agro appears on camera or on stage, Dunn is always hidden by furniture. Agro's on-camera roles became less frequent in the late 1990s as his radio commitments grew and the novelty of the character wore off; when Agro performed on radio, Jamie Dunn would sit in the studio and provide the Agro voice without operating the puppet. In time, these performances were credited to Dunn himself. Dunn aspired to become a show-business personality in his own right, so in tim


CHAN-DT, virtual channel 8, is a Global owned-and-operated television station licensed to Vancouver, British Columbia, which serves as the West Coast flagship station of the network. The station is owned by Corus Entertainment. CHAN-DT's studios are located on Enterprise Street in the suburban city of Burnaby, which houses Global's national news centre; the station's transmitter is located atop Mount Seymour. On cable, CHAN-DT is available on Shaw Cable channel 11. On satellite, the station is available on Bell TV channel 252, Shaw Direct channel 336 on the classic lineup and channel 5 on the advanced lineup, Rogers Personal TV channel 119. There is a high-definition feed available on Shaw Cable digital channel 211, Shaw Direct on classic lineup channel 002 or advanced lineup channel 502; the station is available throughout British Columbia through a large network of rebroadcasters. The station first signed on the air at 4:45 p.m. on October 31, 1960. Founded by Vantel Broadcasting, it operated as an independent station.

It acquired several programs from CTV upon that network's launch on October 1, 1961. The station operated from a temporary studio housed at 1219 Richards Street in Downtown Vancouver, until its full-time studio facility at 7850 Enterprise Street in Burnaby was opened in 1962 Soon after the station's launch, CHAN began installing relay transmitters across the province, now reaches 96% of British Columbia. Through its over-the-air signal, CHAN reaches an American audience in neighbouring Whatcom County, Washington. In 1963, local entrepreneur Frank Griffiths, owner of radio station CKNW, purchased CHAN-TV from Vantel, along with nearby CBC affiliate CHEK-TV in the Vancouver Island city of Victoria, from its original owner, David Armstrong. At that point, CHEK began airing a few CTV programs scheduled at different times than when CHAN aired them, it maintained a shuffled schedule. Griffiths' Western Broadcasting Communications sold a minority share of the station to Selkirk Communications, before buying back full control in 1989.

In 1986, BCTV set up a functional broadcast studio pavilion at the Vancouver Expo 86, whose theme was transportation and communication. The BCTV pavilion allowed visitors to see, participate, in every step of how a television station operates, as well as how newscasts and television shows were produced; the pavilion was used by the station for coverage of the Expo, by visiting journalists. As early as 1971, CHAN unofficially began using the brand "BCTV". In 1973, BCTV became CHAN's official on-air branding, which remained in use until 2001, when it adopted the "Global BC" brand; the "BCTV" brand was retained for its local newscasts until February 2006. However, the "BCTV" brand became so established in the province that many people still call the station by that name today. CHAN was CTV's third-largest affiliate, by far the largest in Western Canada; as such, it was one of the backbones of the CTV network for many years and one of the network's most successful affiliates. However, it was always somewhat hostile toward CTV.

Management believed that the network's flagship station, CFTO-TV in Toronto, had too much influence over the network. In particular, CHAN felt CFTO received favouritism in the production of CTV's Canadian programming in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Nonetheless, until 1997, CHAN bought the provincial rights to several popular series from CFTO's parent company, Baton Broadcasting. However, tensions were exacerbated that year when Baton won a licence to operate a new television station in Vancouver, CIVT-TV, moved much of CHAN's stronger programs there. Baton won controlling interest in CTV soon after channel 32's launch, it became an open secret that CIVT would replace CHAN as the CTV station for the Vancouver market. CHAN had signed a long-term contract with CTV several years earlier that would not expire until 1999, but was extended to 2001. However, outside of the 40 hours of programming per week that this allowed for, CHAN's own local news programs, the station had to rely on lower-profile programming supplied by parent company Western International Communications.

A small amount of CHUM Limited-produced programs aired on CHAN at times during the period from 1997 to 2001, including CityLine. On June 6, 2000 WIC's stations were purchased by Canwest; as a result, CHAN was due to become the Global outlet for all of British Columbia. Although Global owned a station in Vancouver, CKVU, it opted to sell CKVU to CHUM Limited and move its affiliation to CHAN, evidently due to that station's higher coverage and local news viewership. CHAN-TV's affiliation agreement with CTV expired on September 1, 2001, sparking a major shakeup in British Columbia television: The CTV affiliation, jointly held by CHAN and sister station CHEK, moved to CIVT, which became a CTV O&O station that branded for a short time as "BC CTV". Both switches left CTV dependent on cable and satellite coverage to reach the rest of the province, as CTV has refused to set up rebroadcasters in the rest of the province. CHAN retained the rights to The Oprah Winfrey Show, carried by CTV in all of its other O&O markets, until the talk show ended its run in 2011.

The Global affiliation, held by CKVU, moved to CHAN, which became the network's new O&O under the "Global BC" brand. CKVU meanwhile adopted the "ckvu13" brand and became an independent station carrying CHUM-supplied programming, some of which had aired the previous season on KV

Pint Shot Riot

Pint Shot Riot are an indie rock band from Coventry, England. Their line-up consists of Richard'Rocket' Emerson, Chris'Mini Rocket' Connoll, David'Baby Dave' Page and Rob Clements. Pint Shot Riot's line-up was completed in January 2007 when, after a successful rehearsal, guitarist Rob Clements joined cousins Richard Emerson and Chris Connoll and their new-found bass player David Page; the name of the band was derived from an observation made by Emerson who, when using predictive text to message a friend, noticed that the three words are all entered using the same numerical combination and, according to Page, "it just seemed a perfect fit". In the summer of 2007, the band appeared on the BBC Introducing stage at Glastonbury Festival and released their début single "Punches, Trenches & Swords" through their own Life In The Big City label the following October. In July and October 2008, the band released the singles "Start Digging" and "Holes" and signed a publishing deal with the EA Games / Nettwerk Music Group in the year.

March 2009 saw the release of their first EP, Round One, comprising the three earlier singles and their B-sides plus an acoustic version of the new track "Not Thinking Straight". In October 2009, the full band version of "Not Thinking Straight" was featured on the soundtrack for EA Sports, FIFA 10 computer game. A Redanka remix of the band's next single, "Nothing From You", would be included on a computer game soundtrack, this time on the soundtrack for Electronic Arts' game Need For Speed: Hot Pursuit. In June 2010, to coincide with the 2010 FIFA World Cup, the band recorded and released "Viva England", a charity single for the Homeless World Cup charity; that summer, the band made their second appearance at Coventry's Godiva Festival, following up a performance at the event a year earlier. In May 2012, "Viva England" was re-released with a new'Extra Time' version for UEFA Euro 2012, again with all proceeds going towards the Homeless World Cup charity; the band's début album, Spell It Out, was released in March 2011.

The record's single "Twisted Soul" featured on the soundtrack for FIFA 12, appeared on the BBC's Final Score bulletin. The album's release coincided with a performance at an official South By Southwest Festival showcase in Austin and soon after they began a West Coast US tour, their year of sporadic US touring ended with a show at New York's CMJ Music Marathon, when the group appeared at the Brooklyn Bowl with The Duke Spirit. The song "Nothing From You" was remixed by Redanka. "Punches, Trenches & Swords" featured in the computer games The Sims 3 and Ricky Hatton's walk on music in Fight Night Round 4. Not Thinking Straight was Need for Speed: Nitro. "Treacle Town" and the band were featured in the trailer for the computer game Army of Two. "Somebody Save Me" was used on Soccer AM during their Championship goals round-up. Twisted Soul was included on the EA Trax for FIFA 12; the radio edit of the Redanka Remix of "Nothing from You" was featured on Need for Speed: Hot Pursuit. The actual remix clocks in at 4:11, the original song clocks in at 7:58.

Official website

William Sutherland (Ontario politician)

William "Bill" Sutherland was a municipal politician in Toronto, Canada. He served on the North York City Council and the Metropolitan Toronto Council for several years, challenged Mel Lastman for Mayor of North York in 1976. Sutherland was born in Toronto, received a journalism degree from Ryerson Polytechnical Institute, worked for a large electrical manufacturing firm before entering political life. Sutherland was elected to North York's eleventh ward in 1964, following failed bids in 1960 and 1962, he remained a ward councillor until 1974, when he was elected to a seat on the North York Board of Control. The position gave him an automatic place on the Metropolitan Toronto council. Sutherland campaigned for Mayor of North York in 1976, as the primary challenger to incumbent mayor Mel Lastman. A The Globe and Mail editorial from the election campaign indicates that his area of expertise was finance, that his approach to politics was "responsible - if somewhat stiff", he said that North York's council had developed a "circus image" under Lastman, promised to restore dignity and respect to the institution.

Lastman argued. Lastman won by a convincing margin. Sutherland spent two years out of politics after losing to Lastman, he was elected to a position on the North York Hydro Commission in 1978, was chosen as Commission Chair. In 1980, he encouraged North York residents to delay washing their dishes to preserve electricity during peak hours. After two years on the Hydro Commission, Sutherland was re-elected to North York's Board of Control in 1980 and re-assumed his position on the Metro Council, he was re-elected in 1982. Sutherland supported the autonomy of municipal councils over perceived encroachments from the provincial and federal governments, he was critical of the degree of power centred in Metro Chairman Paul Godfrey. As a Metro Councillor, Sutherland was entrusted with overseeing the police budget, he was a prominent advocate of the SkyDome and the Metro Zoo. He once advocated against a proposal to study the feasibility of a bridge or tunnel to the Toronto Islands, speaking on the joys of ferry travel.

His speech is believed to have helped defeat the proposal. He opposed an affirmative action plan for North York in 1984, arguing that women in the city were not discriminated against. Sutherland supported an extension of the Spadina Expressway into downtown Toronto. Near the end of his term in 1985, he called for the abolition of North York's Board of Control, his wife, Betty Sutherland, was a municipal councillor for Ward 14 in North York from 1972 to 1985. At one time, the Sutherlands were the only elected husband-and-wife duo on a major municipal council in Canada, she was Chairman of Metropolitan Toronto's Parks and Property Committee from 1982 to 1985, a member of the authority's Don Valley Advisory Board from 1981 to 1984. The Betty Sutherland Trail, which runs along the Don River in her old ward, was named in her honour by the former Metropolitan Toronto Council on March 1, 1988, in recognition of her significant contribution to the development of the regional parks system. Both Sutherlands supported the Progressive Conservative Party, although William Sutherland acknowledged that he was more conservative than his wife.

They both retired from council in 1985. Their son, Paul Sutherland, was a North York and Toronto city councillor, an unsuccessful candidate for the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party. Early in 1986, Sutherland wrote against a plan to make the North York Hydro Commission a city department and directly responsible to council, he argued that plans to roll the city's Hydro surplus into general revenue would result in higher electricity rates. He supported a plan for Toronto to incinerate its own garbage, he moved to Parry Sound after retiring, died there in 1998 at age 71. Mike Hanlon, "Politician served North York well", Toronto Star, 13 June 1998, A22