In prehistoric archaeology, scrapers are unifacial tools thought to have been used for hideworking and woodworking. Many lithic analysts maintain that the only true scrapers are defined on the base of use-wear, are those that were worked on the distal ends of blades—i.e. "end scrapers". Other scrapers include the so-called "side scrapers" or racloirs, which are made on the longest side of a flake, notched scrapers, which have a cleft on either side that may have been used to attach them to something else. Scrapers are formed by chipping the end of a flake of stone in order to create one sharp side and to keep the rest of the sides dull to facilitate grasping it. Most scrapers are either blade-like in shape; the working edges of scrapers tend to be convex, many have trimmed and dulled lateral edges to facilitate hafting. One important variety of scraper is a scraper shaped much like its namesake; this scraper type is common at Paleo-Indian sites in North America. Scrapers are one of the most varied lithic tools found at archaeological sites.
Due to the vast array of scrapers there are many typologies that scrapers can fall under, including tool size, tool shape, tool base, the number of working edges, edge angle, edge shape, many more. The edge of the scraper, angled is the working edge; this edge is used to soften hides or to clean meat off of the hides, in addition to being used for wood work. As the term scraper suggests, this tool was scraped at the hide or wood in order to reach the end goal. Scrapers were made in order to skin animals. Scrapers tended to be large enough to fit comfortably in the hand and could be used without being mounted on wood or bone. However, it is likely that scrapers were mounted on short handles though it is rare to find mounted scrapers; as scrapers are used they have to be resharpened in order to stay effective. This causes them to get progressively smaller as they are used, used and used again; the majority of the scrapers that are found on sites are ones that have been resharpened and used to the point of being no longer functional.
The two main classifications of scrapers are either end scrapers or side scrapers. End scrapers have working edges on one or both ends of a blade or flake, whereas side scrapers have a working edge along one of the long sides. There are a couple of types of scrapers based on their specific use when it comes to wood and hide or based on the shape and design of the scraper itself; the grattoir is a type of scraper made made of flint and its main uses were to work wood and to clean hides. This type of scraper has its working edge along the long axis of the blade; the nose scraper has a smaller working edge either at both ends or just one end. This type of scraper is used in more fine tuning work; the hollow scraper is a type of scraper that has a notch worked into the end of the scraper. Tool size: This can be determined by either weight or dimensions and divided into either large or small scrapers. Tool shape: There are many different shapes scrapers can be, including rectangular, irregular, domed, or keeled.
In many cases it can be hard to determine the classification for the shape of the scraper. The shape of the scraper is considered diagnostic. Shaping vs. Use Damage: Scrapers are divided between ones that have been purposefully shaped for a specific use and ones that have been shaped due to their use. Tool base: Scrapers are classified based on if they originated from a blade or a flake. Number of working edges: Some scrapers have only one working edge while other scrapers have 2 working edges, it is uncommon for there to be a scraper with three working edges. Edge angle: Some scrapers have vertical working edges while other scrapers have acute working edges. Edge shape: There is distinction between concave and convex working edges on scrapers. Location of functional edges: One of the main distinctions in scrapers, depends on if the working edge is on the end or the side of the scraper. Http://www.archaeologywordsmith.com/lookup.php?category=&where=headword&terms=Scraper http://www.sandiegoarchaeology.org/Laylander/Issues/funct.scraper.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20130525042012/http://www.ou.edu/cas/archsur/OKArtifacts/scrapers.htm
Rowdy Ramudu Konte Krishnudu is a 1980 Telugu action film produced by N. T. Rama Rao under his Ramakrishna Cine Studios banner and directed by K. Raghavendra Rao, it stars N. T. Rama Rao, Nandamuri Balakrishna, Sridevi in the lead roles and music composed by Chakravarthy; the film begins on Bhaji Prasad a dreadful gangster one. His acolyte Giri a malicious, always attempts to double-cross him. Both of them maintain twin brothers Satyam & Narayana. Besides, Ramu a valiant, inclines any risk for money. Once, he falls for her. Parallelly, a young charm Krishna works as a clerk in a bank, lives with his mother and loves Bhaji Prasad's niece Lakshmi. Ramu & Krishna twice meet in crazy situations and become good friends. Meanwhile, Bhaji Prasad gets a disclosure of an ancient treasure secluded at the Himalayas and that an archaeologist Haragopal aimed its route map. Upon it, Giri too gains ploys. Just before they hit Haragopal, he safeguards the map in a locker of Krishna's bank. At the same time, Bhaji Prasad learns the love affair of Lakshmi.
So, he bids Krishna for the cover when he refuses, Bhaji Prasad endangers his mother and as helpless he heists the map. Giri plans an attack Krishna absconds and shields the map at his friend Ranga. Spotting it, the blackguards slaughters unable to identify the map. Right now, Krishna is sentenced. Yet, Bhaji Prasad wants to win him back. Thereupon, Ramu feels something dubious, however, he hides him secretly. Afterward, they are enlightened as own brothers through their mother, separated long back because of a mishap, they acquire the map, Bhaji Prasad reverts it, by imperiling Lakshmi. At present, the swindlers start their journey, when as a flabbergast, Satyam & Narayana appear as a single entity Satyanarayana, a person that falsified for his expediency. Before long, Ramu & Krishna chase them in disguise as guides. After making an adventurous tour they touch down the treasure. At last, Ramu & Krishna ceases the hand over the treasure to the government; the movie ends on a happy note with the marriages of Ramu & Mutyam and Krishna & Lakshmi.
Art: Gokhale Choreography: Saleem Dialogues: Jandhyala Lyrics: Veturi Sundararama Murthy Playback: SP Balu, P. Susheela, Madhavapeddi Ramesh Music: Chakravarthy Story: Jandhyala, Satyanand Editing: Ravi Cinematography: K. S. Prakash Producer: N. T. Rama Rao Screenplay - Director: K. Raghavendra Rao Banner: Ramakrishna Cine Studios Release Date: 8 August 1980 Music composed by Chakravarthy. Lyrics written by Veturi Sundararama Murthy. Music released on EMI Columbia Audio Company. VCDs and DVDs on - Universal Videos, SHALIMAR Video Company, Hyderabad
Magical Somera-chan is a Japanese four-panel manga series written and illustrated by Choborau Nyopomi, author of Ai Mai Mi. It ran in Ichijinsha's Manga Palette Lite magazine until the magazine was cancelled in 2011, was relaunched as Fushigi na Somera-chan Haute Couture in Manga 4-koma Palette in 2015, where it ran until 2018. An anime television series adaptation began airing in October 2015. Somera Nonomoto Voiced by: Sayaka Nakaya Somera Nonomoto or Somera-chan is a girl who can wield the mysterious and invincible "Nonomoto Mahou-ken" form of magical kenpō, which she inherited from her late mother. Kukuru Nonomoto Voiced by: Kaede Hondo Kukuru Nonomoto is Somera-chan's younger sister. Shizuku Tendō Voiced by: Rika Momokawa Shizuku Tendō is Somera-chan's friend and neighbor. Ai Matsushima Voiced by: Maria Naganawa Ai Matsushima is a girl, looking for her missing sister. Choborau Nyopomi published the Fushigi na Somera-chan manga in Ichijinsha's Manga Palette Lite magazine beginning in its 6th issue and ending in its 38th issue in April 2011, when the magazine ceased publication.
The series was compiled into two tankōbon volumes, both of which are out of print and only available on Amazon Kindle. A sequel, titled Fushigi na Somera-chan Haute Couture, began publication in the June issue of Ichijinsha's Manga 4-koma Palette on 22 April 2015 after the announcement of the anime television prompted a number of readers to request the return of the series; the series ended on 22 May 2018. Fushigi na Somera-chan Haute Couture An anime adaptation, directed by Itsuki Imazaki, was teased as an April Fools' Day joke, but Imazaki confirmed that production had begun and he was working on storyboards for the series, it was revealed that the anime, a television series, would be animated by animation studio Seven and produced by Dream Creation. Imazaki was confirmed to be writing and creating character designs for the series. Masakatsu Oomuro serves as the show's sound director, Fūga Hatori produces the music. Sound production for the series is provided by DAX Production; the anime will adapt material both from the sequel.
The anime is the third installment in the "Choborau Nyopomi Theater", after the Ai Mai Mi and Choboraunyopomi Gekijō Dainimaku Ai Mai Mi: Mōsō Catastrophe television series, both of which were directed by Imazaki. The series began airing on 7 October 2015 on AT-X, TV Saitama, KBS, TVK, Sun TV, it is streamed worldwide by Crunchyroll. Magical Somera-chan at Ichijinsha Magical Somera-chan anime official website Magical Somera-chan at Anime News Network's encyclopedia