Sir Kenneth Charles Branagh is a Northern Irish actor, director and screenwriter. Branagh trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, in 2015 succeeded Richard Attenborough as its president, he has both directed and starred in several film adaptations of William Shakespeare's plays, including Henry V, Much Ado About Nothing, Hamlet, Love's Labour's Lost, As You Like It. Branagh has starred in numerous other films and television series including Fortunes of War, Woody Allen's Celebrity, Wild Wild West, as the voice of Miguel in The Road to El Dorado, as SS leader Reinhard Heydrich in Conspiracy, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Warm Springs, as Major General Henning von Tresckow in Valkyrie, The Boat That Rocked, Wallander, My Week with Marilyn as Sir Laurence Olivier, as Royal Navy Commander Bolton in the action-thriller Dunkirk, he has directed such films as Dead Again, in which he starred, Swan Song, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein in which he starred, The Magic Flute, the blockbuster superhero film Thor, the action thriller Jack Ryan: Shadow Recruit in which he co-stars, the live-action film Cinderella, the mystery drama adaptation of Agatha Christie's Murder on the Orient Express, in which he starred as Hercule Poirot.
He narrated the series Cold War, the BBC documentary miniseries Walking with Dinosaurs, Walking with Beasts and Walking with Monsters. Branagh has been nominated for five Academy Awards, five Golden Globe Awards, has won three BAFTAs, an Emmy Award, he was appointed a Knight Bachelor in the 2012 Birthday Honours and was knighted on 9 November 2012. He was made a Freeman of his native city of Belfast in January 2018. Branagh, the middle of three children, was born in Belfast, the son of working class Protestant parents Frances and William Branagh, a plumber and joiner who ran a company that specialised in fitting partitions and suspended ceilings, he was educated at Grove Primary School. At the age of nine, he moved with his family to Reading, England, to escape the Troubles, he was educated at Whiteknights Primary School and Meadway School, a local comprehensive in Tilehurst, where he appeared in school productions such as Toad of Toad Hall and Oh, What a Lovely War!. At school, he acquired Received Pronunciation to avoid bullying.
On his identity today he has said, "I feel Irish. I don't think you can take Belfast out of the boy", he attributes his "love of words" to his Irish heritage, he attended the amateur Reading Cine & Video Society as a member and was a keen member of Progress Theatre for whom he is now the patron. After disappointing A'levels results in English and Sociology, Branagh nonetheless went on to train at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London. In 1980 the Principal of RADA, Hugh Cruttwell, asked Branagh to perform a soliloquy from Hamlet for Queen Elizabeth II, during one of her visits to the academy. Branagh achieved some early measure of success in his native Northern Ireland for his role as Billy, the title character in the BBC's Play for Today trilogy known as the Billy Plays, written by Graham Reid and set in Belfast, he received acclaim in the UK for his stage performances, first winning the 1982 SWET Award for Best Newcomer, for his role as Judd in Julian Mitchell's Another Country, after leaving RADA.
Branagh was part of the'new wave' of actors to emerge from the Academy. Others included Jonathan Pryce, Juliet Stevenson, Alan Rickman, Anton Lesser, Bruce Payne and Fiona Shaw. In 1984 he appeared in the Royal Shakespeare Company production of Henry V, directed by Adrian Noble; the production played to sold out audiences at the Barbican in the City of London. It was this production that he adapted for the film version of the play in 1989, he and David Parfitt founded the Renaissance Theatre Company in 1987, following success with several productions on the London'Fringe', including Branagh's full-scale production of Romeo and Juliet at the Lyric Studio, co-starring with Samantha Bond. The first major Renaissance production was Branagh's Christmas 1987 staging of Twelfth Night at Riverside Studios in Hammersmith, starring Richard Briers as Malvolio and Frances Barber as Viola, with an original score by actor and composer Patrick Doyle, who two years was to compose the music for Branagh's film adaptation of Henry V.
This Twelfth Night was adapted for television. Branagh became a major presence in the media and on the British stage when Renaissance collaborated with Birmingham Rep for a 1988 touring season of three Shakespeare plays under the umbrella title of Renaissance Shakespeare on the Road, which played a repertory season at the Phoenix Theatre in London, it featured directorial debuts for Judi Dench with Much Ado About Nothing, Geraldine McEwan with As You Like It, Derek Jacobi directing Branagh in the title role in Hamlet, with Sophie Thompson as Ophelia. Critic Milton Shulman of the London Evening Standard wrote: "On the positive side Branagh has the vitality of Olivier, the passion of Gielgud, the assurance of Guinness, to mention but three famous actors who
Mahershalalhashbaz Ali, known professionally as Mahershala Ali, is an American actor, a recipient of several awards, including two Academy Awards and a Golden Globe Award. After pursuing a MFA degree from New York University, Ali began his career as a regular on television series, such as Crossing Jordan and Threat Matrix, before his breakthrough role as Richard Tyler in the science fiction series The 4400, his first major film release was in the David Fincher-directed fantasy The Curious Case of Benjamin Button. He gained wider attention for his supporting role in the Netflix political thriller series House of Cards, he featured as Boggs in the final two films of The Hunger Games film series and as Cornell "Cottonmouth" Stokes in the Netflix superhero series Marvel's Luke Cage. For playing a drug dealer in the drama film Moonlight, Ali won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, becoming the first Muslim actor to win an Oscar for acting, he won a second Academy Award and the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor for portraying Don Shirley in the comedy-drama Green Book.
This made him the first black actor to win two Academy Awards in the same category. In 2019, he played the lead role of a troubled police officer in the third season of the HBO anthology crime series True Detective. Ali was born Mahershalalhashbaz Gilmore in 1974, in Oakland, the son of Willicia and Phillip Gilmore, he was raised in California. His father was an actor, he attended St. Mary's College of California in Moraga, where he graduated in 1996 with a degree in mass communication. Though Ali entered SMC with a basketball scholarship, he became disenchanted with the idea of a sports career because of the treatment given to the team's athletes. Ali developed an interest in acting after taking part in a staging of Spunk; this landed him an apprenticeship at the California Shakespeare Theater following graduation. Following a sabbatical year where Ali worked for Gavin Report, he enrolled in New York University's graduate acting program at Tisch School of the Arts, earning his master's degree in 2000.
He was named after Maher-shalal-hash-baz, a biblical prophetic-name child and raised a Christian by his mother, an ordained minister. During his college basketball career, he went under the first name of Hershal. In 2000, he converted to Islam, changing his surname from Gilmore to Ali and joined the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community – a revivalist movement within Islam. In interviews, he has recounted numerous problems he has encountered at airports, with banks and otherwise in everyday life as an American Muslim since the September 11 attacks. Ali was known professionally by his full name, Mahershalalhashbaz Ali, from 2001 until 2010, when he began to be credited as Mahershala Ali. Ali had considered shortening his name for a while, saying that using his full first name was "a crazy thing to do considering that we're in Hollywood", although he had never been pressured by managers or agents to change it, he decided to use a shorter version of his first name after being told that his full name was too long to fit on the poster for the film The Place Beyond the Pines.
He did not want the alternative of "M. Ali" to represent himself on the poster, so he chose to adopt the shorter version of his name, he elaborated in an interview to Vanity Fair in October 2016: He is known for his portrayal of Remy Danton in the Netflix series House of Cards, Cornell Stokes in Marvel's Luke Cage, Colonel Boggs in The Hunger Games: Mockingjay – Part 1 and The Hunger Games: Mockingjay – Part 2, Tizzy in the 2008 film The Curious Case of Benjamin Button. His first major film role was that of Tizzy Weathers in the 2008 David Fincher-directed romantic fantasy drama film The Curious Case of Benjamin Button. Other notable films include Predators, The Place Beyond the Pines, Free State of Jones, Hidden Figures, as Boggs in The Hunger Games series. For his performance as mentor and drug dealer Juan in the drama film Moonlight, Ali received universal acclaim from critics and won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, the SAG Award and the Critics' Choice Award for Best Supporting Actor, received a Golden Globe and a BAFTA Award nomination.
His win at the 89th Academy Awards made him the first Muslim actor to win an Oscar. In 2017 Ali joined the video game Madden NFL 18's story mode Longshot, in which he played Cutter Wade, the father of protagonist Devin, he played Don Shirley in the 2018 film Green Book, receiving his second Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. He won a 2019 Golden Globe award for best supporting actor for his role, as well as a BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role. Ali starred as Arkansas State Police detective Wayne Hays in the third season of the HBO series True Detective, which premiered on January 13, 2019, in the United States. On Rotten Tomatoes, the site's critical consensus reads, "Driven by Mahershala Ali's mesmerizing performance, True Detective's third season finds fresh perspective by exploring real world events – though it loses some of the series' intriguing strangeness along the way." Ali was signed to Bay Area recording label Hieroglyphics Imperium during the late 2000s and recorded rap music as Prince Ali.
He released his album, Curb Side Service, in 2007, but did not tour to promote the album, choosing instead to focus on his acting career. Ali is an Ahmadi Muslim, he named his cat Nas, after the rapper. He is married to an actress and musician; the couple welcomed their first child, a daughter, a few days before his Oscar win in 2017. Curb Side Service List of awards and nominations received by Mahershala Ali List of actors with Academy Award nomi
Jerry Maguire is a 1996 American romantic comedy-drama sports film written and directed by Cameron Crowe, stars Tom Cruise, Cuba Gooding Jr. and Renée Zellweger. Produced in part by long time Simpsons producer James L. Brooks, it was inspired by sports agent Leigh Steinberg, who acted as Technical Consultant on the crew, it was released in North American theaters on December 13, 1996, produced by Gracie Films and distributed by TriStar Pictures. The film received critical acclaim, with critics writing; the film was a financial success, bringing in more than $273 million worldwide, against its $50 million budget. It was the ninth top-grossing film of 1996; the film was nominated for five Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Actor for Tom Cruise, with Cuba Gooding Jr. winning the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. The film was nominated for three Golden Globes, with Tom Cruise winning for Best Actor - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, three Screen Actors Guild Awards, with Cuba Gooding Jr. winning Best Supporting Actor.
Jerry Maguire is a glossy 35-year-old sports agent working for Sports Management International. After having a life-altering epiphany about his role as a sports agent, he writes a mission statement about perceived dishonesty in the sports management business and his desire to work with fewer clients so as to produce better quality. In turn, SMI management decides to send Jerry's protégé, to fire him. Jerry and Sugar each call all of Jerry's clients to try and convince them not to hire the services of the other. Jerry speaks to Arizona Cardinals wide receiver Rod Tidwell, one of his clients, disgruntled with his contract, he needs a $10 million contract for his family to live on. Jerry informed him if he gets injured for the season, he will get no money from the Cardinals. Rod tests Jerry's resolve through a long telephone conversation while Sugar is able to convince the rest of Jerry's clients to stick with SMI instead. Leaving the office, Jerry announces that he will start his own agency and asks if anyone is willing to join him, to which only 26-year-old single mother Dorothy Boyd agrees.
Meanwhile, Frank "Cush" Cushman, a superstar quarterback prospect who expects to be the number one pick in the NFL Draft also stays with Jerry after he makes a visit to the Cushman home. However, Sugar is able to convince Cushman and his father to sign with SMI over Jerry the night before the draft. Cushman's father implies they decided to sign with Sugar over Jerry when they saw Jerry attending to Tidwell instead of his son. After an argument, Jerry breaks up with his disgruntled fiancée Avery, he turns to Dorothy, becoming closer to her young son and starts a relationship with her. Dorothy contemplates moving to San Diego as she has a secure job offer there, however she and Jerry agree to get married. Jerry concentrates all his efforts on Rod, now his only client, who turns out to be difficult to satisfy. Over the next several months, the two direct harsh criticism towards each other with Rod claiming that Jerry is not trying hard enough to get him a contract while Jerry claims that Rod is not proving himself worthy of the money for which he asks.
Rod takes Jerry's advice to prove. Rod is playing well and his team is winning. Meanwhile, Jerry's marriage with Dorothy deteriorates and they separate. During a Monday Night Football game between the Cardinals and the Dallas Cowboys, Rod plays well but appears to receive a serious injury when catching a winning touchdown, securing a spot for the Cardinals in the playoffs, he recovers and dances for the wildly cheering crowd. Afterwards and Rod embrace in front of other athletes and sports agents and show how their relationship has progressed from a business one to a close personal one, one of the points Jerry made in his mission statement, he flies back home to meet Dorothy, telling her that he loves her and wants her in his life, which she accepts. Rod appears on Roy Firestone's sports show. Unbeknownst to him, Jerry has secured him an $11.2 million contract with the Cardinals allowing him to finish his pro football career in Arizona. The visibly emotional Rod extends warm gratitude to Jerry.
Jerry speaks with several other pro athletes, some of whom have read his earlier mission statement and respect his work with Rod. The movie ends with Ray throwing a baseball up in surprising Jerry. Jerry discusses Ray's possible future career in the sports industry with Dorothy. Janet Jackson auditioned and was accepted for the role of Marcee Tidwell, though it went to Regina King, who co-starred in Janet Jackson's debut film Poetic Justice. Jackson is referenced twice in the film, with a Janet poster seen hanging in Teepee's room and Cuba Gooding Jr.'s character Rod Tidwell asking "What Have You Done for Me Lately?", paying homage to Jackson's hit of the same name. Artie Lange was edited out of the final cut. Patricia Arquette, Bridget Fonda, Winona Ryder and Marisa Tomei were all considered for the part of Dorothy. Mira Sorvino was considered for Dorothy but the producers wouldn't meet her quote. Damon Wayans and Mykelti Williamson were considered for the role of Rod Tidwell. Diane Lane was considered for the role of Avery Bishop.
Billy Wilder was considered for the part of Jerry's mentor Dicky Fox. Philadelphia Eagles owner Jeffrey Lurie, ESPN draft guru Mel Kiper Jr. former NFL quarterbacks Drew Ble
Martin James Landau was an American actor, acting coach and editorial cartoonist. His career began in the 1950s, with early film appearances including a supporting role in Alfred Hitchcock's North by Northwest, he played regular roles in the television series Mission: Impossible and Space: 1999. Landau received the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture, as well as his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, for his role in Tucker: The Man and His Dream, his performance in the supporting role of Bela Lugosi in Ed Wood earned him an Academy Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award and a Golden Globe Award. He continued to perform in film and television, headed the Hollywood branch of the Actors Studio until his death in July 2017. Landau was born on June 1928, in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Selma and Morris Landau, his family was Jewish. His father was an Austrian-born machinist. After attending both James Madison High School and the Pratt Institute, he found work at the New York Daily News.
There he spent the next five years as an editorial cartoonist and worked alongside Gus Edson to produce the comic strip The Gumps. He quit the Daily News to concentrate on theater acting. "I told the picture editor I was going into the theater," he recalled. "I think he thought I was going to be an usher."After auditioning for the Actors Studio in 1955, Landau and Steve McQueen were the only applicants accepted out of 500 that applied. While there, he trained under Lee Strasberg, Elia Kazan, Harold Clurman, became an executive director with the Studio alongside Mark Rydell and Sydney Pollack. Influenced by Charlie Chaplin and the escapism of the cinema, Landau pursued an acting career, he attended the Actors Studio. He recalled, "James Dean was my best friend. We were two young would-be and still-yet-to-work unemployed actors, dreaming out loud and enjoying every moment... We'd spend lots of time talking about the future, our craft and our chances of success in this newly different, ever-changing modern world we were living in."
He was in the same class as Steve McQueen. In 1957, he made his Broadway debut in Middle of the Night. Landau made his first major film appearance in Alfred Hitchcock's North by Northwest as Leonard, the right-hand man of a criminal played by James Mason, he had featured roles in two 1960s epics and The Greatest Story Ever Told, played a ruthless killer in the western Nevada Smith, which starred Steve McQueen. Landau played the role of master of disguise Rollin Hand in the US television series Mission: Impossible. Landau at first declined to be contracted by the show because he did not want it to interfere with his film career, he became a full-time cast member in the second season, although the studio agreed to contract him only on a year-by-year basis rather than the then-standard five years. The role of Hand required Landau to perform a wide range of accents and characters, from dictators to thugs, several episodes had him playing dual roles—not only Hand's impersonation, but the person whom Hand is impersonating.
Landau co-starred in the series with his then-wife Barbara Bain. In the mid-1970s, Landau and Bain returned to TV in the British science-fiction series Space: 1999. Critical response to Space: 1999 was unenthusiastic during its original run, it was cancelled after two seasons. Landau was critical of the scripts and storylines during the series' second season, but praised the cast and crew, he wrote forewords to Space: 1999 co-star Barry Morse's theatrical memoir Remember with Advantages and Jim Smith's critical biography of Tim Burton. Following Space: 1999, Landau appeared in supporting roles in a number of films and TV series, including the TV film The Harlem Globetrotters on Gilligan's Island, which again co-starred Bain. In the late 1980s, Landau made a career comeback, earning an Academy Award nomination for his role in Tucker: The Man and His Dream, he said he was grateful to its director, Francis Ford Coppola, for the opportunity to play a role he enjoyed: "I've spent a lot of time playing roles that didn't challenge me," he said, "You want roles that have dimension.
The role of Abe Karatz gave me that." He won the Golden Globe Award for his part in the film. This was followed by a second nomination, for Crimes and Misdemeanors, in a role director Woody Allen had a hard time filling. Allen remembered: He won an Oscar for Ed Wood, a biopic in which he plays actor Bela Lugosi. Landau researched the role of Lugosi by watching about 25 old Lugosi movies and studying the Hungarian accent, which contributed to Lugosi's decline in acting. "I began to respect this guy and pity him," said Landau. "I saw the humor in him. This, for me, became a love letter to him. I got a chance to make a comeback in my career, and I'm giving him one. I'm giving him the last role he never got."Landau received a Screen Actors Guild Award, a Golden Globe Award and a Saturn Award for the role, as well as accolades from a number of critics groups. Gregory Walcott, in the film, watched the screening of
Robert Selden Duvall is an American actor and filmmaker whose career spans more than six decades. He has been nominated for seven Academy Awards and seven Golden Globe Awards, has won a BAFTA, a Screen Actors Guild Award, an Emmy Award, he received the National Medal of Arts in 2005. Duvall has starred in numerous films and television series, including To Kill a Mockingbird, The Twilight Zone, The Outer Limits, True Grit, MASH, THX 1138, Joe Kidd, The Godfather, The Godfather Part II, The Conversation, Apocalypse Now, The Great Santini, The Natural, Lonesome Dove, The Handmaid's Tale, Days of Thunder, Rambling Rose, Falling Down. Duvall began appearing in theatre during the late 1950s, moving into television and film roles during the early 1960s, playing Boo Radley in To Kill a Mockingbird and appearing in Captain Newman, M. D.. and the lead role in THX 1138, as well as Horton Foote's adaptation of William Faulkner's Tomorrow, developed at The Actors Studio and is Duvall's personal favorite.
This was followed by a series of critically lauded performances in commercially successful films. Duvall has continued to act in both film and television with such productions as Tender Mercies, The Natural, the television miniseries Lonesome Dove, Newsies, The Man Who Captured Eichmann, Phenomenon, A Family Thing, The Apostle, A Civil Action, Deep Impact, Gone in 60 Seconds, Open Range and Generals, Secondhand Lions, Broken Trail, Get Low, Jack Reacher, A Night in Old Mexico, The Judge, Wild Horses. Duvall was born January 5, 1931, in San Diego, the son of Mildred Virginia, an amateur actress, William Howard Duvall, a Virginia-born U. S. Navy admiral, he has English, smaller amounts of Belgian, French Huguenot, Scottish, Swiss-German, Welsh ancestry. His mother was a relative of American Civil War General Robert E. Lee, a member of the Lee Family of Virginia, while his father was a descendant of settler Mareen Duvall. Duvall was raised in the Christian Science religion and has stated that, while it is his belief, he does not attend church.
He grew up in Annapolis, site of the United States Naval Academy. He recalled: "I was a Navy brat. My father started at the Academy when he was 16, made captain at 39 and retired as a rear admiral." He attended Severn School in Severna Park and The Principia in St. Louis, Missouri, he graduated, in 1953, from Principia College in Elsah, with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Drama. Duvall served in the United States Army for a brief period shortly after the Korean War leaving the Army as private first class. "That's led to some confusion in the press," he explained in 1984, "Some stories have me shooting it out with the Commies from a foxhole over in Frozen Chosin. Pork Chop Hill stuff. Hell, I qualified with the M-1 rifle in basic training". While stationed at Camp Gordon in Georgia, Duvall acted in an amateur production of the comedy Room Service in nearby Augusta, Georgia. In the winter of 1955, Duvall began studies at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre in New York City, under Sanford Meisner, on the G.
I. Bill. During his two years there, Dustin Hoffman, Gene Hackman, James Caan were among his classmates. While studying acting, he worked as a Manhattan post office clerk. Duvall remains friends today with fellow California-born actors Hoffman and Hackman, who he knew during their years as struggling actors. In 1955, Duvall roomed with Hoffman in a New York City apartment while they were studying together at the Playhouse. Around this time, he roomed with Hackman, while working odd jobs such as clerking at Macy's, sorting mail at the post office, driving a truck; the three roommates have since earned, among themselves, 19 Academy Award nominations, with five wins. Duvall began his professional acting career with the Gateway Playhouse, an Equity summer theatre based in Bellport, Long Island, New York. Arguably his stage debut was in its 1952 season when he played the Pilot in Laughter In The Stars, an adaptation of The Little Prince, at what was the Gateway Theatre. After a year's absence when he was with the U.
S. Army, he returned to Gateway in its 1955 summer season, playing: Eddie Davis in Ronald Alexander's Time Out For Ginger, Hal Carter in William Inge's Picnic, Charles Wilder in John Willard's The Cat And The Canary, Paris in Arthur Miller's The Crucible, John the Witchboy in William Berney and Howard Richardson's Dark of the Moon; the playbill of Dark of the Moon indicated that he had portrayed the Witchboy before and that he will "repeat his famous portrayal" of this character for the 1955 season's revival of this play. For Gateway's 1956 season, he played the role of Max Halliday in Frederick Knott's Dial M for Murder, Virgil Blessing in Inge's Bus Stop, Clive Mortimer in John van Druten's I Am a Camera; the playbills for the 1956 season described him as "an audience favorite" in the last season and as having "appeared at the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York and studied acting with Sandy Meisner this past winter". In its 1957 season, he appeared as Mr. Mayher in Agatha Christie's Witness For The
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Apollo 13 (film)
Apollo 13 is a 1995 American space docudrama film directed by Ron Howard and starring Tom Hanks, Kevin Bacon, Bill Paxton, Gary Sinise, Ed Harris. The screenplay by William Broyles Jr. and Al Reinert dramatizes the aborted 1970 Apollo 13 lunar mission and is an adaptation of the book Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13 by astronaut Jim Lovell and Jeffrey Kluger. The film depicts astronauts Lovell, Jack Swigert, Fred Haise aboard Apollo 13 for America's third Moon landing mission. En route, an on-board explosion deprives their spacecraft of most of its oxygen supply and electric power, forcing NASA's flight controllers to abort the Moon landing, turning the mission into a struggle to get the three men home safely. Howard went to great lengths to create a technically accurate movie, employing NASA's technical assistance in astronaut and flight controller training for his cast, obtaining permission to film scenes aboard a reduced gravity aircraft for realistic depiction of the "weightlessness" experienced by the astronauts in space.
Released to cinemas in the United States on June 30, 1995, Apollo 13 was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture. In total, the film grossed over $355 million worldwide during its theatrical releases; the film was positively received by critics. In July 1969, astronaut Jim Lovell hosts a house party where guests watch Neil Armstrong's televised first human steps on the Moon. Afterwards Lovell, who had orbited the Moon on Apollo 8, tells his wife Marilyn that he intends to return to the Moon to walk on its surface. Three months as Lovell conducts a VIP tour of NASA's Vertical Assembly Building, his boss Deke Slayton informs him that because of problems with Alan Shepard's crew, his crew will fly Apollo 13 instead of 14. Lovell, Ken Mattingly, Fred Haise train for their new mission. A few days before launch, Mattingly is exposed to the measles, the flight surgeon demands his replacement with Mattingly's backup, Jack Swigert. Lovell resists breaking up his team, but relents when Slayton threatens to bump his crew to a mission.
As the launch date approaches, Marilyn has a nightmare about her husband getting killed in space, but goes to the Kennedy Space Center the night before launch to see him off. On April 11, 1970, Flight Director Gene Kranz gives the go-ahead from Houston's Mission Control Center for the Apollo 13 launch; as the Saturn V rocket climbs through the atmosphere, a second stage engine cuts off prematurely, but the craft reaches its Earth parking orbit. After the third stage fires to send Apollo 13 to the Moon, Swigert performs the maneuver to connect the Command/Service Module Odyssey to the Lunar Module Aquarius and pull it away from the spent rocket. Three days into the mission, the crew makes a television transmission, which the networks decline to broadcast live. After Swigert turns on the liquid oxygen tank stirring fans as requested, one of the tanks explodes, emptying its contents into space and sending the craft tumbling; the other tank is soon found to be leaking. They attempt to stop the leak to no avail.
With the fuel cells closed, the Moon landing must be aborted, Lovell and Haise must hurriedly power up Aquarius to use as a "lifeboat" for the return home, as Swigert shuts down Odyssey before its battery power runs out. In Houston, Kranz rallies his team to come up with a plan to bring the astronauts home safely, declaring "failure is not an option". Controller John Aaron recruits Mattingly to help him invent a procedure to restart Odyssey for the landing on Earth; as Swigert and Haise watch the Moon pass beneath them, Lovell laments his lost chance of walking on its surface turns their attention to the business of getting home. With Aquarius running on minimal electrical power, the crew suffers freezing conditions, Haise contracts a urinary infection and a fever. Swigert suspects; when carbon dioxide approaches dangerous levels, ground control must invent a way to make the Command Module's square filters work in the Lunar Module's round receptacles. With the guidance systems on Aquarius shut down, the crew must make a difficult but vital course correction by manually igniting the Lunar Module's engine.
Mattingly and Aaron struggle to find a way to turn on the Command Module systems without drawing too much power, transmit the procedure to Swigert, who restarts Odyssey by transferring extra power from Aquarius. When the crew jettisons the Service Module, they are surprised to see the extent of the damage; as they release Aquarius and re-enter the Earth's atmosphere, no one is sure that Odyssey's heat shield is intact. The tense period of radio silence due to ionization blackout is longer than normal, but the astronauts report all is well and splash down in the Pacific Ocean; as helicopters bring the three men aboard the recovery ship USS Iwo Jima for a hero's welcome, Lovell's voice-over describes the subsequent investigation into the explosion, the careers of Haise, Swigert and Kranz. He wonders. Tom Hanks as Apollo 13 Commander Jim Lovell: Jim Lovell stated that before his book Lost Moon was written, the movie rights were being shopped to potential buyers and that his first reaction was that Kevin Costner would be a good choice to play him.
However, by the time Howard acquired the director's position, Costner's name never came up in serious discussion, Hanks had been interested in doing a film based on Apollo 13. When Hanks' representative informed him that a script was being passed around, he had the scrip