Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
A hammer mill, hammer forge or hammer works was a workshop in the pre-industrial era, used to manufacture semi-finished, wrought iron products or, finished agricultural or mining tools, or military weapons. The feature that gave its name to these workshops was the water-driven trip hammer, or set of hammers, used in the process; the shaft, or'helve', of the hammer was pivoted in the middle and the hammer head was lifted by the action of cams set on a rotating camshaft that periodically depressed the end of the shaft. As it rose and fell, the head of the hammer described an arc; the face of the hammer was made of iron for durability. These mills, which were original driven by water wheels, but also by steam power, became common as tools became heavier over time and therefore more difficult to manufacture by hand; the hammer mills smelted iron ore using charcoal in so-called bloomeries. In these smelting ovens, which were equipped with bellows driven by water power, the ore was melted into a glowing clump of soft, raw iron, fluid slag and charcoal remnants.
The iron was not fluid as it would be in a modern blast furnace, but remained a doughy, porous lump due to the presence of liquid slag. These lumps of sponge iron, known as "blooms" were compacted by hand using a sledgehammer. After that they were forged several times with the trip hammer or with sledgehammers until all the slag and charcoal had been removed. For that, the iron was heated in smith's hearth; the iron could be directly used as soft iron. A further improvement process, such as fining as used in blast furnace operations, was not needed; the resulting coarse bar iron was further worked externally e.g. in special, small hammer works into thin iron rods, so-called rod iron, needed by nailsmiths to produce nails. Further processing into so-called refined iron or into "elastic" steel for e.g. for sword blades, was carried out by specialised refined iron hammer forges or by blacksmiths on site. Geographically, hammer mills were dependent on the availability of water power. At the same time, there had to be forests nearby to produce the large quantities of charcoal needed.
In addition, there had to be deposits of iron ore in the vicinity in order to ensure that there was only a short distance to transport the iron-containing ores to the smelteries. Agricultural land was needed in order to feed the many craftsmen involved. Hammer mills were widespread from the late Middle Ages in the following regions: Bergisches Land Upper Palatinate in the area of the towns of Amberg and Sulzbach Thuringian Forest: Lauterhammer and Niederhammer in Suhl by 1363, Tobiashammer in Ohrdruf Fichtel Mountains Ore Mountains: 1352 Hammer in Pleil, c. 1380 Hammer Erla, Frohnauer Hammer Harz Mountains Siegerland on the Sieg river Sauerland around Hagen Lahn-Dill Region and on the upper Eder riverIn these regions there were iron ore deposits, which could be extracted with the means available at the time. There was a higher density in the Wupperviereck; the Upper Palatinate was one of the European centres of iron smelting and its many hammer mills led to its nickname as the "Ruhrgebiet of the Middle Ages".
Placenames with the suffix -hammer are common in this region. The home of the lord in charge of a hammer mill was rather grandly known as a "hammer castle" or "hammer palace"; this inconspicuous schloss, which acted as the family seat of the "hammer lord", was located in the immediate vicinity of the mill. Important hammer castles may be seen along the Bavarian Iron Route, for example in Theuern and Schmidmühlen In Austria the hammer mills were found in the Iron Roots along the Austrian Iron Route around the tripoint of the states of Lower Austria and Upper Austria and in the Upper Styrian valleys of the Mur and Mürz and their side valleys; the seats of the hammer lords were known as Hammerherrenhäuser. Hammer mills were not widespread in England, but there are examples such as the one at Abinger Hammer in Surrey from which the village derived its name. Typical produces of the hammer mills were: bar iron, blackplate and wire; these products were produced as semi-finished articles, but were sometimes further forged into finished products such as sickles, shovels, weapons or miners' tools.
Most of the mills listed here are open to the public. Ore Mountains Eisenhammer Dorfchemnitz Erla Ironworks Freibergsdorf Hammer Mill Frohnauer Hammer PfeilhammerBavarian Iron Route The Bavarian Iron Route is an important holiday route in southern Germany, rich in history, it runs for 120 kilometres, linking numerous historical industrial sites, which represent several centuries, with cultural and natural monuments. The Bavarian Iron Route runs along old transport routes from the Nuremberg Region near Pegnitz southwards to Regensburg and links the former iron centres of East Bavaria, namely the mining regions of Pegnitz, Edelsfeld, Sulzbach-Rosenberg and Amberg. From there it becomes a waterway, about 60 km long, on the rivers Vils and Naab until they empty into the Danube near Regensburg. Franconia Hammer mill in Eckersmühlen Hammer forges on the Gronach near Gröningen, HohenloheLower Lusatia Iron smeltery