Cinema of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom has had a significant film industry for over a century. Many British actors have achieved fame and critical success, including Maggie Smith, Michael Caine, Sean Connery. Some of the films with the largest ever box office returns have been made in the United Kingdom, including the second, the identity of the British industry, and its relationship with the Cinema of the United States, has been the subject of debate. The history of production in Britain has often been affected by attempts to compete with the American industry. The career of the producer Alexander Korda was marked by this objective, the Rank Organisation attempted to do so in the 1940s, in 2009 British films grossed around $2 billion worldwide and achieved a market share of around 7% globally and 17% in the United Kingdom. UK box-office takings totalled £1.1 billion in 2012, with 172.5 million admissions, the British Film Institute has produced a poll ranking what they consider to be the 100 greatest British films of all time, the BFI Top 100 British films.
The annual BAFTA awards hosted by the British Academy of Film, the first people to build and run a working 35 mm camera in Britain were Robert W. Paul and Birt Acres. They made the first British film Incident at Clovelly Cottage in February 1895, soon several British film companies had opened to meet the demand for new films, such as Mitchell and Kenyon in Blackburn. Although the earliest British films were of everyday events, the early 20th century saw the appearance of shorts, mainly comedies. The early films were often melodramatic in tone, and there was a preference for story lines already known to the audience, in particular, adaptations of Shakespeare plays. The Lumière brothers first brought their show to London in 1896, in 1898 American producer Charles Urban expanded the London-based Warwick Trading Company to produce British films, mostly documentary and news. Also in 1898 Hepworth Studios was founded in Lambeth, South London by Cecil Hepworth, the Bamforths began producing films in Yorkshire, in 1902 Ealing Studios was founded by Will Barker, becoming the oldest continuously-operating film studio in the world.
In 1902 the earliest color film in the world was made, like other films made at the time, in 2012 it was found by the National Media Museum in Bradford after lying forgotten in an old tin for 110 years. The previous title for earliest color film, using the Kinemacolour process, was thought to date from 1909 and was actually an inferior method, the re-discovered films were made by pioneer Edward Raymond Turner from London who patented his process on 22 March 1899. In 1903 Frank Mottershaw of Sheffield produced the film A Daring Daylight Robbery, in 1911 the Ideal Film Company was founded in Soho, distributing almost 400 films by 1934, and producing 80. In 1913 stage director Maurice Elvey began directing British films, becoming Britains most prolific film director, in 1914 Elstree Studios was founded, and acquired in 1928 by German-born Ludwig Blattner, who invented a magnetic steel tape recording system that was adopted by the BBC in 1930. In 1920 Gaumont opened Islington Studios, where Alfred Hitchcock got his start, in 1920 Cricklewood Studios was founded by Sir Oswald Stoll, becoming Britains largest film studio, known for Fu Manchu and Sherlock Holmes film series.
In 1920 the short-lived company Minerva Films was founded in London by the actor Leslie Howard and his friend, some of their early films include four written by A. A. Milne including The Bump, starring C
National Lottery (United Kingdom)
The National Lottery is the state-franchised national lottery in the United Kingdom. It is operated by Camelot Group, to whom the licence was granted in 1994,2001, the lottery is regulated by the National Lottery Commission, and was established by the government of John Major in 1994. All prizes are paid as a sum and are tax-free. 5% to cover operating costs and 0. 5% as profit. Lottery tickets and scratch cards may be only by people of at least 16 years of age. A statute of 1698 provided that in England lotteries were by default illegal unless specifically authorised by statute, early English state lotteries included the Million Lottery and the Malt Lottery. These Lotteries were part of a series of experiments by the English government including recoinage. A1934 Act, further liberalised in 1956 and 1976, legalised small lotteries, the UKs state-franchised lottery was set up under government licence by the government of John Major in 1993. The National Lottery is franchised to an operator, the Camelot Group was awarded the franchise on 25 May 1994.
The first draw took place on 19 November 1994 with a programme presented by Noel Edmonds. The first numbers drawn were 30,3,5,44,14 and 22, the bonus was 10, tickets became available on the Isle of Man on 2 December 1999 at the request of Tynwald. The National Lottery undertook a rebranding programme in late 2002 designed to combat falling sales. The main game was renamed Lotto, and the National Lottery Extra became Lotto Extra, the stylized crossed-fingers logo was modified. However, the games as a collective are still known as the National Lottery and it is one of the most popular forms of gambling in the United Kingdom. In November 2009 Camelot replaced its older Lotto draw machines, the new machines are named Arthur, Guinevere and Merlin, reusing the names of older machines. At the same time, new machines for the Thunderball game were introduced, the new Lotto machines are the Magnum II model, manufactured by Smartplay International Inc. and the new Thunderball machines are the Smartplay Halogen II model.
The ticket purchaser for a syndicate, typically its manager, must meet the eligibility criteria for ticket purchase, in the draw, six numbered balls are drawn without replacement from a set of 59 balls numbered from 1 to 59. A further Bonus Ball is drawn, which only players who match five numbers. Prizes are awarded to players who match at least three of the six numbers, with prizes increasing for matching more of the drawn numbers
British Film Institute
The British Film Institute is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom. The BFI maintains the worlds largest film archive, the BFI National Archive, previously called National Film Library, National Film Archive and National Film, the archive contains more than 50,000 fiction films, over 100,000 non-fiction titles and around 625,000 television programmes. The majority of the collection is British material but it features internationally significant holdings from around the world, the Archive collects films which feature key British actors and the work of British directors. The BFI runs the BFI Southbank and London IMAX cinema, both located on the bank of the River Thames in London. The IMAX has the largest cinema screen in the UK, and shows popular recent releases and short films showcasing its technology, BFI Southbank shows films from all over the world particularly critically acclaimed historical & specialised films that may not otherwise get a cinema showing.
The BFI distributes archival and cultural cinema to other venues – each year to more than 800 venues all across the UK, the BFI offers a range of education initiatives, in particular to support the teaching of film and media studies in schools. In late 2012, the BFI received money from the Department For Education to create the BFI Film Academy Network, the BFI runs the annual London Film Festival along with BFI Flare, London LGBT Film Festival and the youth-orientated Future Film Festival. The BFI publishes the monthly Sight & Sound magazine as well as films on Blu-ray, DVD, SIFT has a collection of about 7 million still frames from film and television. The institute was founded in 1933, the institute was restructured following the Radcliffe Report of 1948 which recommended that it should concentrate on developing the appreciation of filmic art, rather than creating film itself. Thus control of film production passed to the National Committee for Visual Aids in Education. From 1952-2000, the BFI provided funding for new and experimental filmmakers via the BFI Production Board, the institute received a Royal Charter in 1983.
This was updated in 2000, and in the year the newly established UK Film Council took responsibility for providing the BFIs annual grant-in-aid. As an independent registered charity, the BFI is regulated by the Charity Commission, in 1988, the BFI opened the London Museum of the Moving Image on the South Bank. The Museum was temporarily closed in 1999 when the BFI stated that it would be re-sited and this did not happen, and MOMIs closure became permanent in 2002 when it was decided to redevelop the South Bank site. This redevelopment was itself further delayed, the BFI is currently managed on a day-to-day basis by its chief executive, Amanda Nevill. Supreme decision-making authority rests with a chair and a board of up to 14 governors, the current chair is Josh Berger, who took up the post in February 2016. He succeeded Greg Dyke, who took office on 1 March 2008, Dyke succeeded the late Anthony Minghella, who was chair from 2003 until 31 December 2007. The chair of the board is appointed by the BFIs own Board of Governors but requires the consent of the Secretary of State for Culture, other Governors are co-opted by existing board members when required
A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server. A website may be accessible via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a local area network. Websites have many functions and can be used in various fashions, a website can be a website, a commercial website for a company. Websites are typically dedicated to a topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents, typically composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language. They may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors, Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user.
The users application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, Some websites require user registration or subscription to access content. As of 2016 end users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers, the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to use for anyone, before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server. These protocols offer a directory structure which the user navigates and chooses files to download. Documents were most often presented as text files without formatting. Websites have many functions and can be used in various fashions, a website can be a website, a commercial website.
Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including computers, laptops, PDAs. A website is hosted on a system known as a web server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves
Television in the United Kingdom
Television in the United Kingdom started in 1936 as a public service which was free of advertising. There are six main channel owners who are responsible for most viewing, there are 27,000 hours of domestic content produced a year at a cost of £2.6 billion. Since 24 October 2012, all broadcasts in the United Kingdom are in a digital format. Digital content is delivered via terrestrial and cable as well as over IP, set-top boxes are generally used to receive these services, however integrated digital televisions can be used to receive Freeview or Freesat. Most TVs sold in the UK come with a DVB-T tuner for Freeview – a rare thing in Europe, BT TV and TalkTalk Plus TV, both based on YouView, utilise hybrid boxes which receive Freeview as well as additional subscription services. Households viewing TV from the internet are not tracked by Ofcom, the UKs five most watched channels, BBC One, BBC Two, ITV, Channel 4 and Channel 5, are available from all providers. Digital terrestrial television launched in 1998 as a service named ONdigital.
Since October 2002, the broadcaster is Freeview, with BT TV providing additional subscription services. In all cases cable TV is a subscription service normally bundled with a phone line, smallworld Cable is available in south-west Scotland and north-west England. Pricing ranges from £10.50 to £80 per month, wightFibre is available in the Isle of Wight. Virgin Media is available to 55% of UK households, pricing ranges from £11 a month to £30.50 a month, with additional fees for premium services such as Sky Sports. Virgin market V+, a video recorder and high-definition receiver. Virgin Media is the cable provider to supply high-definition television and video on demand. There are three distinctly marketed direct-broadcast satellite services, Sky is a subscription service owned by Sky plc. It is the satellite provider to offer premium channels with the largest total number of channels compared to all other television providers. As of January 2017, subscriptions starts at £22 per month for the basic package, there is an upfront cost of £15 on sign up.
Sky TV markets SkyQ Silver & SkyQ boxes as well as SkyQmini boxes, Sky TV provides video on demand branded as SkyTV On Demand. As of October 2016, Sky UK stopped offering there aging Sky+HD hardware, Freesat from Sky, is a free satellite service owned by Sky plc
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators, interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet. English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989 and he wrote the first web browser computer program in 1990 while employed at CERN in Switzerland. The Web browser was released outside of CERN in 1991, first to research institutions starting in January 1991. The World Wide Web has been central to the development of the Information Age and is the primary tool billions of people use to interact on the Internet, Web pages are primarily text documents formatted and annotated with Hypertext Markup Language. In addition to formatted text, web pages may contain images, audio, embedded hyperlinks permit users to navigate between web pages. Multiple web pages with a theme, a common domain name. Website content can largely be provided by the publisher, or interactive where users contribute content or the content depends upon the user or their actions, websites may be mostly informative, primarily for entertainment, or largely for commercial, governmental, or non-governmental organisational purposes.
In the 2006 Great British Design Quest organised by the BBC and the Design Museum, Tim Berners-Lees vision of a global hyperlinked information system became a possibility by the second half of the 1980s. By 1985, the global Internet began to proliferate in Europe, in 1988 the first direct IP connection between Europe and North America was made and Berners-Lee began to openly discuss the possibility of a web-like system at CERN. Such a system, he explained, could be referred to using one of the meanings of the word hypertext. At this point HTML and HTTP had already been in development for two months and the first Web server was about a month from completing its first successful test. While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the concept, WebDAV, Web 2.0. The proposal was modelled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the worlds first web server and to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990.
By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the necessary for a working Web, the first web browser. The first web site, which described the project itself, was published on 20 December 1990, jones stored it on a magneto-optical drive and on his NeXT computer. On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee published a summary of the World Wide Web project on the newsgroup alt. hypertext. This date is confused with the public availability of the first web servers. The first server outside Europe was installed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in Palo Alto, accounts differ substantially as to the date of this event