A screenshot known as ss, sc, screen capture, or screen grab, is a digital image that shows the contents of a computer display. A common screenshot is created by software running on the device. A screenshot or screen capture may be created by taking a photo of the screen; the first screenshots were created with the first interactive computers around 1960. Through the 1980s, computer operating systems did not universally have built-in functionality for capturing screenshots. Sometimes text-only screens could be dumped to a text file, but the result would only capture the content of the screen, not the appearance, nor were graphics screens preservable this way; some systems had a BSAVE command that could be used to capture the area of memory where screen data was stored, but this required access to a BASIC prompt. Systems with composite video output could be connected to a VCR, entire screencasts preserved this way. Most screenshots are raster images, but some vector-based GUI environments like Cairo are capable of generating vector screenshots.

Screenshot kits were available for standard cameras that included a long antireflective hood to attach between the screen and camera lens, as well as a closeup lens for the camera. Polaroid film was popular for capturing screenshots, because of the instant results and close-focusing capability of Polaroid cameras. In 1988, Polaroid introduced Spectra film with a 9.2 × 7.3 image size more suited to the 4:3 aspect ration of CRT screens. Screenshot support was added to Android in version 4.0. In older versions, some devices supported screenshot functionality with one of the following combinations: Press and hold the Home+Power Press and hold Back+Power Press and hold back and double tap the. Screenshots can be taken by pressing Volume Down+Power, are saved in the "Screenshot" folder in the gallery after a short sound and visual effect. On certain devices that use modified Android; when a keyboard is connected via USB-OTG, pressing the print screen button will take the screenshot. There is no direct way to take screenshots programmatically in non-system apps.

However, on most devices, apps may use the system screenshot functionality without special permissions. On Amazon Kindle devices, one can take a screenshot by: Kindle Paperwhite - touch & hold on the top-left & bottom-right corners of the screen; the screen will flash & image. Kindle or Kindle Touch – Simply press and hold the Home and tap anywhere on the screen. Kindle Keyboard – Press alt+⇧ Shift+G Kindle Fire 2 and Kindle Fire HD – Press and hold the volume down+power at the same time. Open the Photos app to access the pics. Kindle Fire – One needs to connect their Kindle Fire to a computer with the Kindle SDK installed and take a screenshot through the development environment. On Chromebook and related devices with the Chrome OS keyboard layout, pressing the equivalent of Ctrl+F5 on a standard keyboard will capture the entire screen, the equivalent of Ctrl+⇧ Shift+F5 will turn the mouse into a rectangle select tool for capturing a custom portion of the screen. Screenshots of the HP webOS can be taken.

For webOS phones press Orange/Gray Key+Sym+P. For the HP Touchpad, press Home Key+Power+. In either case, screenshots will be saved to the "Screen captures" folder in the "Photos" app. On KDE or GNOME, PrtScr key behavior is quite similar to Windows. In addition, the following screenshooting utilities are bundled with Linux distributions: GIMP: A raster graphics editor that can take screenshots too gnome-screenshot: The default screen grabbing utility in GNOME ImageMagick: Has an import command-line tool that captures screenshots in a variety of formats. Type import -window root ~/screenshot.png to capture the entire screen to your home directory. Spectacle: The default screen grabbing utility in KDE Shutter: Screenshot utility written in Perl scrot: Allows selecting arbitrary areas of the X screen and windows. Xwd: The screen capture utility of the X Window System A screenshot can be taken on iOS by pressing the Home button and the Lock button, however on the newer iPhones X, XR, XS and 11, it is achieved by pressing the Volume up and Lock button.

The screen will flash and the picture will be stored in PNG format in the "Camera Roll" if the device has a camera, or in "Saved Photos" if the device does not. From the iOS 11 update a little preview will pop up in the bottom left corner, which can be swiped left to save or clicked to open up an editor where the screenshot can be cropped or doodled on before being saved or shared; the screenshot feature is available with iOS later. The same ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+3 shortcut for Mac OS is used in iOS to take a screenshot, with ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+4 bringing the screenshot directly in iOS' editing window in iOS 11 and later. Third-party Bluetooth keyboards have a key or function key command devoted to taking a screenshot. On macOS, a user can take a screenshot of an entire screen by pressing ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+3, or of a chosen area of the screen by ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+4; this screenshot is saved with one PNG file per attached monitor. If the user holds down Ctrl while doing either the screenshot will be copied to the clipboard instead.

Beginning with Mac OS X Panther, it is possible to make a screenshot of an active application window. By following ⌘ Cmd+⇧ Shift+4, with pressing the Spacebar, the cross-hair cursor turns into a small camera icon; the current window under the cursor is highlighted, a click on the mouse or trackpad will capture a screenshot of the entire highlighted element

Saul Berlin

Saul Berlin was a German Jewish scholar who published a number of works in opposition to rabbinic Judaism. He received his general education principally from his father, Hirschel Levin, who had served as rabbi of the Great Synagogue of London and as chief rabbi of Berlin. Saul, the eldest son, was given an education in both the secular subjects, his brother, Solomon Hirschell became Chief Rabbi of Great Britain. Saul Berlin was ordained as a rabbi at age 20. By 1768, aged 28, he had a rabbinic post in Frankfort-on-the-Oder in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, he married the daughter of Rabbi Joseph Jonas Fränkel of Breslau. In Berlin and Breslau, he came into personal contact with the representatives of the Jewish Enlightenment, became one of its most enthusiastic adherents. Berlin began his literary career with an anonymous circular letter, "Ketav Yosher", which Hartwig Wessely warmly defended in his own contention with the rabbis while pleading for German education among the Jews. Berlin used humor to describe what he viewed as the absurd methods of the Jewish schools, alleges how the rabbinic casuistry—which constituted the greater part of the curriculum—injures the sound common sense of the pupils and deadens their noblest aspirations.

He wrote the pseudonymous work, "Mitzpeh Yekutiel", a polemic against the "Torat Yekutiel" of Raphael Kohen. The latter, one of the most zealous advocates of rabbinic piety, was a rival candidate with Levin for the Berlin rabbinate, which induced Levin's son to represent ha-Kohen as a forbidding example of rabbinism. Under the name "Ovadiah b. Baruch of Poland," Berlin attempted in this work to ridicule Talmudic science, to stigmatize one of its foremost exponents not only as ignorant, but as dishonest; the publishers declared in the preface that they had received the work from a traveling Polish Talmudist, had considered it their duty to print it and submit it to the judgment of specialists. To secure the anonymity more Berlin and his father were named among those who were to pass upon it. Berlin's statements his personal attacks against those he disagreed with, undermined his cause; when it reached Altona and Hamburg, where Raphael was chief rabbi, the work and its author was placed under the ban.

The dispute that arose concerning the validity of the ban turned on the question of whether a personal element, like the attack upon the rabbi of Altona, justified such a punishment. Some Polish rabbis supported the ban, while some declared the ban invalid as did Ezekiel Landau, chief rabbi of Prague and a near relation of Berlin; the former censured Berlin's actions after circumstances forced him to acknowledge authorship. Before the excitement over this affair had subsided, Berlin created a new sensation by another work. In 1793 he published in Berlin, under the title "Besamim Rosh", 392 responsa purporting to be by Asher ben Jehiel, with many glosses and comments that he called "Kassa de-Harsna". Berlin says, for instance, that an insight into the principles of the Torah and its commands can not be gained directly from it or from tradition, but only by means of the philosophico-logical training derived from non-Jewish sources. However, Asher ben Jehiel had condemned the study of philosophy and of the natural sciences as being un-Jewish and pernicious.

"Besamim Rosh" ascribes the following opinions to the neo-Talmudists of the thirteenth century: "Articles of faith must be adapted to the times. R. Asher is alleged to be the author of the two responsa concerning the modification of the ceremonial laws of such as were burdensome to the Berlin youth. Thus, for instance, it should be permitted to shave, to drink non-kosher wine, "yayin nesek", to ride on Shabbat. Berlin aroused a storm of indignation by thus fraudulently using the name of one of the most famous rabbis of the Middle Ages to combat rabbinism. Mordecai Benet first attempted to prevent the printing of the book in Austria, argued deception in a circular letter addressed to Berlin's father, by critically analyzing the responsa and arguing that they were spurious. Levin tried in vain to defend his son. Berlin resigned his rabbinate and, to end the dispute, went to London where he died a few months later. In a letter found in his pocket, he warned everybody against looking into his papers, requesting that they be sent to his father.

He expressed the wish to be buried not in a cemetery, but in some lonely spot, in the same garments in which he died. The exact historicity of "Besamim Rosh" is still disputed, with it being unclear which parts are forgeries. Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, ed. Wilna, ii. 20, 21. Der Juden, xi. 89, 151-153. 396-400.

Derry Intermediate Football Championship

The Derry Intermediate Football Championship is an annual competition between the intermediate Gaelic football clubs in Derry GAA. The winners of the Derry Championship qualify to represent their county in the Ulster Intermediate Club Football Championship, the winners of which progress to the All-Ireland Intermediate Club Football Championship; the trophy is named after John Bateson, James Sheridan and Martin Lee, all members of the South Derry Brigade of the Provisional Irish Republican Army who died in an explosion in Magherafelt on 18 December 1971. All three men played for the St Trea's GFC Ballymaguigan; the competition traditionally took the structure of an open-draw knock-out. In 2007 and 2008, the championship was altered to include a round robin, group structure with the 16 teams divided into four groups; each club in a group played each other once with the top two in each group advancing to the quarter-finals. From the quarter-finals onwards the competition took the format of a knock-out.

The format was changed once again for the 2009 Championship. The Derry Competitions Control Committee accepted a proposal to scrap the group stage and introduce a "backdoor" system; the 16 clubs play in the first round. In the second round the eight first round winners are drawn against each other, with the four winners going into bowl A for the quarter-finals; the eight first round losers are drawn against each other and the four winners advance to the quarter-finals. Teams in bowl A are drawn out against teams from bowl B to make up the quarter-final draw. Thereafter the competition is an open-draw knock-out; the 2004 final was not played, Foreglen were awarded the title. Draw and dates for 2008 Intermediate Championship