Baseball color line
The Color Line known as the Color Barrier, in American baseball excluded players of Black African descent from Major League Baseball and its affiliated Minor Leagues until 1947. Racial segregation in professional baseball was sometimes called a gentlemen's agreement, meaning a tacit understanding, as there was no written policy at the highest level of organized baseball, the major leagues, but a high minor league's vote in 1887 against allowing new contracts with black players within its league sent a powerful signal that led to the disappearance of blacks from the sport's other minor leagues that century, including the low minors. After the line was in full effect in the early 20th century, many black baseball clubs were established during the 1920s to 1940s when there were several Negro Leagues. During this period some light-skinned Hispanic players, like Lefty Gomez, Native Americans, native Hawaiians, like Prince Oana, were able to play in the Major Leagues; the color line was broken for good when Jackie Robinson signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers organization for the 1946 season.
In 1947, both Robinson in the National League and Larry Doby with the American League's Cleveland Indians appeared in games for their teams. By the late 1950s, the percentage of black players on Major League teams matched or exceeded that of the general population. Formal beginning of segregation followed the baseball season of 1867. On October 16, the Pennsylvania State Convention of Baseball in Harrisburg denied admission to the "colored" Pythian Baseball Club. Major League Baseball's National League, founded in 1876, had no black players in the 19th century, except for a discovered one, William Edward White, who played in a single game in 1879 and who passed as white; the National League and the other main major league of the day, the American Association, had no written rules against having African American players. In 1884, the American Association had two black players, Moses Fleetwood Walker and, for a few months of the season, his brother Weldy Walker, both of whom played for the Toledo Blue Stockings.
The year before, in 1883, prominent National League player Cap Anson had threatened to have his Chicago team sit out an exhibition game at then-minor league Toledo if Toledo's Fleet Walker played. Anson backed down, but not before uttering the word nigger on the field and vowing that his team would not play in such a game again. In 1884, the Chicago club made a successful threat months in advance of another exhibition game at Toledo, to have Fleet Walker sit out. In 1887, Anson made a successful threat by telegram before an exhibition game against the Newark Little Giants of the International League that it must not play its two black players, Fleet Walker and pitcher George Stovey; the influence of players such as Anson and the general racism in society led to segregation efforts in professional baseball. On July 14, 1887, the high-minor International League voted to ban the signing of new contracts with black players. By a 6-to-4 vote, the league’s white teams voted in favor and those with at least one black player voted in the negative.
The Binghamton, N. Y. team, which had just released its two black players, voted with the majority. Right after the vote, the sports weekly Sporting Life stated, “Several representatives declared that many of the best players in the league are anxious to leave on account of the colored element, the board directed Secretary White to approve of no more contracts with colored men.”On the afternoon of the International League vote, Anson’s Chicago team played the game in Newark alluded to above, with Stovey and the injured Walker sitting out. Anson biographer Howard W. Rosenberg, concluded that, “A fairer argument is that rather than being an architect, that he was a reinforcer of it, including in the National League – and that he had no demonstrable influence on changing the course of events apart from his team’s exhibition-game schedule.” The year 1887 was the high point of achievement of blacks in the high minor leagues, each National League team that year except for Chicago played exhibition games against teams with black players, including against Newark and other International League teams.
Some of Anson’s notoriety stems from a 1907 book on early blacks in baseball by black minor league player and black semi-professional team manager Sol White, elected to the Hall of Fame in 2006. White claimed that, “Were it not for this same man Anson, there would have been a colored player in the National League in 1887.”After the 1887 season, the International League retained just two blacks for the 1888 season, both of whom were under contracts signed before the 1887 vote, Frank Grant of the Buffalo Bisons and Moses Fleetwood Walker of the Syracuse franchise, with Walker staying in the league for most of 1889. In September 1887, eight members of the St. Louis Browns of the then-major American Association staged a mutiny during a road trip, refusing to play a game against the New York Cuban Giants, the first all-black professional baseball club, citing both racial and practical reasons: that the players were banged up and wanted to rest so as to not lose their hold on first place. At the time, the St. Louis team was in Philadelphia, a story that ran in the Philadelphia Times stated that “for the first time in the history of base ball the color line has been drawn."Blacks were gone from the high
Masanori "Mashi" Murakami is a retired Japanese baseball player. He is notable for being the first Japanese player to play for a Major League Baseball team. Sent over to the United States by the Nankai Hawks, Murakami saw success as a reliever for the San Francisco Giants, debuting at the age of 20 in 1964. In 1965, he struck out over one batter per inning pitched, posted an ERA under 4 and earned eight saves. Following this season, Murakami headed back to his original Japanese club due to contractual obligations, where his success continued for another 17 years. Murakami entered the Japanese Pacific League professional team, the Nankai Hawks, in September 1962, while still attending high school. In 1964, his team sent him, along with two other young players, to the San Francisco Giants single-A team Fresno as a baseball "exchange student", he was only scheduled to stay in the United States until June, but the Hawks neglected to call him back to Japan, he stayed with the Giants for the rest of the season.
In August of the same year, he was promoted to the majors, on September 1, 1964, he became the first Japanese player to play in the major leagues and the first Asian-born player since Chinese-born Harry Kingman's cup of coffee 50 years earlier. He entered the ninth inning against the New York Mets and pitched to four batters, striking out two and allowing just one hit and zero runs, he pitched the final three innings of an 11-inning 5-4 win by the Giants on September 29 over the Houston Colt.45s to get his first career win. In nine games with the Giants, he pitched a total of 15 innings while allowing eight hits and three runs while having 15 strikeouts and one walk for a 1.80 ERA. Murakami's performance caused the Giants to refuse the Hawks' order to return him to Japan; the argument escalated during the 1964 off-season, Japanese baseball commissioner Yushi Uchimura was called in to make the final decision on which team Murakami would play with. The commissioner made a compromise, he wore number 10 with the San Francisco Giants.
He appeared in 45 games, pitching a total of 74 1⁄3 innings while going 4-1 with a 3.75 ERA, 85 strikeouts and 22 walks. Murakami failed to live up to the team's high expectations, he proved himself by winning 18 games in 1968, contributed to the team's league championship in 1973, but was traded to the Hanshin Tigers in the 1974 off-season. He did not pitch well, the Tigers released him after one year, but the Nippon Ham Fighters picked him up, he made a comeback in 1978, winning 12 games, contributing to the team's league championship in 1981. Murakami retired in 1982, but returned to the San Francisco Giants spring camp in 1983, he became a batting practice pitcher for Giants' home games. He worked as a commentator from 1984 to 1986, became a minor league pitching coach for the Nippon Ham Fighters from 1987 to 1988, he served as a pitching coach for the Fukuoka Daiei Hawks and Seibu Lions. He briefly worked as a scout for the San Francisco Giants, is now a commentator for NHK major league baseball games, writes for the Daily Sports newspaper.
In 2004, Murakami was presented with the Foreign Minister's Certificate of Commendation in commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the Japan-US relationship by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Murakami was honored by the San Francisco Giants at AT&T Park on Friday, May 16, 2008, when a limited edition Murakami bobblehead was given away at the evening game against the Chicago White Sox as part of the team's "Japanese Heritage Night" promotion, he was again honored on the 50th anniversary of his debut on Friday, May 15, 2014 during the team's "Japanese Heritage Night" promotion and game attendees were given a figuring-style bust of Murakami, threw out the first pitch of the game. Murakami was not an overpowering pitcher, his fastball was only in the low to mid 80 mph range during his prime. His best pitch was a sharp screwball, which he learned in the majors, he threw a good changeup and curve, he was a valuable reliever. His total record in two years in the majors was 9 saves, with a 3.43 ERA in 54 games.
Murakami could speak or understand English when he first came to the United States, always had a dictionary on hand to communicate with teammates. When promoted to the majors, he was told to go to New York City, was given his plane ticket on the spot. In New York, he signed a major league contract though he could not read a single word written on the contract; the authors of 1973's semi-satirical reference, The Great American Baseball Card Flipping and Bubble Gum Book, stated that Murakami was "with the possible exception of Yogi Berra, the only major league ballplayer who did not speak English." Career statistics and player information from MLB, or Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference "Where have you gone, Masanori Murakami?" at the Wayback Machine, Alexander Kleinberg, MLB.com, 24 December 2001. Japanese league stats and info of Masanori Murakami
In baseball, a circle changeup is a pitch thrown with a grip that includes a circle formation, hence the name circle changeup. The circle is formed by making a circle with the index finger, holding the thumb at the bottom of the ball parallel to the middle finger and holding the ball far out in the hand; the ball is thrown turning the palm out. A circle change can be used to provide movement like a two seam fastball but without the stress placed on the arm by a traditional screwball. By placing the index and ring fingers to the inside of the ball and pronating the forearm at release, a pitcher can make the ball move downward and inside. Pitchers with smaller hands will only place the index finger to the inside of the ball. A left-handed pitcher's circle change will break away from a right-handed batter. Effective circle changeups can reduce the platoon split. To follow proper form, a pitcher releases the ball while keeping his wrist straight follows through fully. Additional change in velocity can be achieved by dragging the foot that would follow through with a fastball delivery.
However, the most effective way to reduce the velocity of a changeup is by reducing stride length. If the typical stride length for the pitcher's fastball is around 80-90% of pitcher's height the pitcher would need to reduce stride by 10-20%. By doing so, the pitcher eliminates the possibility of tipping off the pitch. Using a slower arm motion is undesirable, as it may tip off the batter, will invariably result in less movement on the pitch. If this pitch is placed too high in the strike zone, it can be hit hard, it is an effective pitch to throw early in the count to produce a groundball. By rotating the wrist the pitcher can change the movement from resembling a fastball to resembling a curveball. Like other changeups, an effective circle changeup must be thrown with an identical arm action to a fastball to avoid tipping off the batter. Johan Santana, Pedro Martínez, Cole Hamels, Huston Street, Zack Greinke, Kyle Hendricks and Marco Estrada are pitchers who rely on their circle changeup. Former New York Mets closer John Franco was able to generate so much movement on his circle changeup that it mimicked a screwball.
Atlanta Braves pitcher Tom Glavine was known for using the outside corner of the plate with his circle changeup. Minnesota Twins ace Frank Viola used the circle changeup to great effect, as well as former Atlanta Braves pitcher Charlie Leibrandt. Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher Hyun-jin Ryu used a circle changeup efficiently throughout his first MLB season, throwing a circle changeup, gripped using the index finger on the seam of the ball and the thumb on the side of the ball to "choke" the ball. According to his autobiography, Nolan Ryan developed his own circle changeup to add another off-speed pitch without having to throw a slider
Dallas Lee Braden is a former American professional baseball pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball for the Oakland Athletics from 2007 through 2011. Listed at 6 feet 1 inch and 185 pounds, he both batted left-handed. On May 9, 2010, Braden pitched the 19th in baseball history; the next season, shoulder problems were the first of a series of injuries that forced him to retire in 2014 after not throwing a pitch for two and a half seasons. Braden was born in Arizona, he played Little League baseball in California in the Hoover Tyler Little League. Braden graduated from Stagg High School in Stockton, where he ran cross country, his mother, Jodie Atwood, died of cancer during his senior year. After his mother's death, he lived with his maternal grandmother. Braden was first drafted by the Atlanta Braves in the 46th round of the 2001 MLB Draft, but he did not sign. Braden played two seasons of college baseball at American River College near Sacramento County, where he posted a combined record of 12–4 including a complete game against Fresno City College while allowing one hit and striking out 14 batters.
He played one season for the Texas Tech Red Raiders. The Oakland Athletics drafted Braden out of Texas Tech in the 24th round of the 2004 MLB Draft. In 2004, Braden began the season with at Class A Short Season Vancouver Canadians, he made eight relief appearances, picking up a pair of victories and was promoted to the Class A Kane County Cougars and pitched as a starter. He made five starts for Kane County, posted a 2–1 record. In 2005, Braden split the season between the Class A-Advanced Stockton Ports and the Double-A Midland RockHounds, he posted a 6–0 record for the Ports, a 9–5 mark for the RockHounds. His composite total of 15 wins led all A's minor league pitchers and earned him Pitcher of the Year honors for the Athletics organization, he underwent shoulder surgery in the 2005–06 offseason. At the beginning of his minor league career, Braden was known for throwing the screwball. Braden began the 2006 season on a rehabilitation assignment with the rookie league Arizona League Athletics, he made six starts, going 2–0 and moved up to Stockton, where was 2–0 with a 6.23 ERA.
He was promoted to Double-A Midland where he made one start, giving up six runs in 3 1⁄3 innings pitched while receiving a no decision. His composite 2006 numbers were: 4–0 record, 4.10 ERA, 55 strikeouts and eight walks in 37 1⁄3 innings of work. Braden began 2007 in Double-A Midland and was called up to the Triple-A Sacramento River Cats after one start; when Rich Harden got hurt on April 23, he was called up to the majors to replace him. On April 24, 2007, Braden made his first major league start and picked up the win against the Baltimore Orioles, he went 1–8 that season for Oakland, pitching 72 1⁄3 innings across 20 games with 55 strikeouts and 26 walks. In 2008, Braden split time between Triple-A Oakland, he posted an ERA of 4.14 in 19 MLB games, pitching 71 2⁄3 innings with 25 walks. Braden was Oakland's Opening Day starter in 2009, giving up three runs in six innings to the Los Angeles Angels on April 6 and taking the loss, he spent the entire season with Oakland, appearing in 22 games while compiling an 8–9 record with 3.89 ERA, pitching 136 2⁄3 innings with 81 strikeouts at 42 walks.
On April 6, 2010, Braden's first outing of the season, he struck out a career high 10 batters in seven innings, allowing one run on four hits and walked one. He received a no-decision. On April 22, Braden was pitching against the New York Yankees when he became angry with Yankees third baseman Alex Rodriguez when Rodriguez ran across the pitcher's mound on his way back to first base after a foul ball. At the end of the inning as the players were switching sides, Braden yelled at Rodriguez. Rodriguez offered no apology and engaged Braden in the press, pointing to his short career and losing record. Perfect game On May 9, 2010, Braden pitched the 19th perfect game in MLB history against the Tampa Bay Rays in Oakland, he did it in 109 pitches. Braden had lost his mother to melanoma, so pitching the 19th perfect game in major league history was of greater significance to Braden because he achieved the feat on Mother's Day; the Athletics celebrated the feat during the next homestand. On May 17, the A's placed a commemorative graphic on the outfield wall, next to Rickey Henderson's retired number.
May 21 was called "Dallas Braden Day" by the City of Oakland. On May 22, Braden was awarded with the key to the city of Stockton at a Stockton Ports minor league game. Braden went on to finish the 2010 season with an 11–14 record in 30 starts for the A's, he threw five complete games along with two shutouts, pitching a total of 192 2⁄3 innings with 113 strikeouts at 43 walks. Braden went on to pitch in three starts in 2011, with a 1–1 record and 3.00 ERA, before feeling discomfort in his shoulder. It was revealed he would need immediate surgery. Braden missed the remainder of the 2011 season. On December 13, 2011, Braden avoided arbitration by signing a one-year deal, he made $3.35 million with $400,000 in incentives. Braden missed the entire 2012 season and on August 21, Braden required an additional surgery, this time to repair the rotator cuff of his shoulder; the surgery would sideline him for the first half of the 2013 season. Following the season, Braden was let go and he became a free agent.
Braden announced his retirement on January 14, 2014, citin
In baseball, the pitcher is the player who throws the baseball from the pitcher's mound toward the catcher to begin each play, with the goal of retiring a batter, who attempts to either make contact with the pitched ball or draw a walk. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the pitcher is assigned the number 1; the pitcher is considered the most important player on the defensive side of the game, as such is situated at the right end of the defensive spectrum. There are many different types of pitchers, such as the starting pitcher, relief pitcher, middle reliever, lefty specialist, setup man, the closer. Traditionally, the pitcher bats. Starting in 1973 with the American League and spreading to further leagues throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the hitting duties of the pitcher have been given over to the position of designated hitter, a cause of some controversy; the National League in Major League Baseball and the Japanese Central League are among the remaining leagues that have not adopted the designated hitter position.
In most cases, the objective of the pitcher is to deliver the pitch to the catcher without allowing the batter to hit the ball with the bat. A successful pitch is delivered in such a way that the batter either allows the pitch to pass through the strike zone, swings the bat at the ball and misses it, or hits the ball poorly. If the batter elects not to swing at the pitch, it is called a strike if any part of the ball passes through the strike zone and a ball when no part of the ball passes through the strike zone. A check swing is when the batter begins to swing, but stops the swing short. If the batter checks the swing and the pitch is out of the strike zone, it is called a ball. There are the windup and the set position or stretch. Either position may be used at any time; each position has certain procedures. A balk can be called on a pitcher from either position. A power pitcher is one. Power pitchers record a high percentage of strikeouts. A control pitcher thus records few walks. Nearly all action during a game is centered on the pitcher for the defensive team.
A pitcher's particular style, time taken between pitches, skill influence the dynamics of the game and can determine the victor. Starting with the pivot foot on the pitcher's rubber at the center of the pitcher's mound, 60 feet 6 inches from home plate, the pitcher throws the baseball to the catcher, positioned behind home plate and catches the ball. Meanwhile, a batter stands in the batter's box at one side of the plate, attempts to bat the ball safely into fair play; the type and sequence of pitches chosen depend upon the particular situation in a game. Because pitchers and catchers must coordinate each pitch, a system of hand signals is used by the catcher to communicate choices to the pitcher, who either vetoes or accepts by shaking his head or nodding; the relationship between pitcher and catcher is so important that some teams select the starting catcher for a particular game based on the starting pitcher. Together, the pitcher and catcher are known as the battery. Although the object and mechanics of pitching remain the same, pitchers may be classified according to their roles and effectiveness.
The starting pitcher begins the game, he may be followed by various relief pitchers, such as the long reliever, the left-handed specialist, the middle reliever, the setup man, and/or the closer. In Major League Baseball, every team uses Baseball Rubbing Mud to rub game balls in before their pitchers use them in games. A skilled pitcher throws a variety of different pitches to prevent the batter from hitting the ball well; the most basic pitch is a fastball. Some pitchers are able to throw a fastball at a speed over 100 miles per ex. Aroldis Chapman. Other common types of pitches are the curveball, changeup, sinker, forkball, split-fingered fastball and knuckleball; these are intended to have unusual movement or to deceive the batter as to the rotation or velocity of the ball, making it more difficult to hit. Few pitchers throw all of these pitches, but most use a subset or blend of the basic types; some pitchers release pitches from different arm angles, making it harder for the batter to pick up the flight of the ball.
A pitcher, throwing well on a particular day is said to have brought his "good stuff." There are a number of distinct throwing styles used by pitchers. The most common style is a three-quarters delivery in which the pitcher's arm snaps downward with the release of the ball; some pitchers use a sidearm delivery. Some pitchers use a submarine style in which the pitcher's body tilts downward on delivery, creating an exaggerated sidearm motion in which the pitcher's knuckles come close to the mound. Effective pitching is vitally important in baseball. In baseball statistics, for each game, one pitcher will be credited with winning the game, one pitcher will be charged with losing it; this is not the starting pitchers for each team, however, as a reliever can get a win and the starter would get a no-decision. Pitching is physically demanding if the pitcher is throwing with maximum effort. A full game involves 120–170 pitches thrown by each team, most pitchers begin to tire before they re
History of the New York Giants (baseball)
The San Francisco Giants of Major League Baseball originated in New York City as the New York Gothams in 1883 and were known as the New York Giants from 1885 until the team relocated to San Francisco after the 1957 season. During most of their 75 seasons in New York City, the Giants played home games at various incarnations of the Polo Grounds in Upper Manhattan. Numerous inductees of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York played for the New York Giants, including John McGraw, Mel Ott, Bill Terry, Willie Mays, Monte Irvin, Travis Jackson. During the club's tenure in New York, it won five of the franchise's eight World Series wins and 17 of its 23 National League pennants. Famous moments in the Giants' New York history include the 1922 World Series, in which the Giants swept the Yankees in four games, the 1951 home run known as the "Shot Heard'Round the World", the defensive feat by Willie Mays during the first game of the 1954 World Series known as "the Catch".
The Giants had intense rivalries with their fellow New York teams the New York Yankees and the Brooklyn Dodgers, facing the Yankees in six World Series and playing the league rival Dodgers multiple times per season. Games between any two of these three teams were known collectively as the Subway Series; the rivalry with the Dodgers continues to be played as the Dodgers joined the Giants in moving to along the Pacific Ocean on the West Coast in California after the 1957 season when they relocated to Los Angeles. The New York Giants of the National Football League are named after the team; the Giants began as the second baseball club founded by millionaire tobacconist John B. Day and veteran amateur baseball player Jim Mutrie; the Gothams, as the Giants were known, entered the National League seven years after its 1876 formation, in 1883, while their other club, the Metropolitans played in the rival American Association. Nearly half of the original Gothams players were members of the disbanded Troy Trojans in upstate New York, whose place in the National League the Gothams inherited.
While the Metropolitans were the more successful club, after they won the 1884 AA championship and Mutrie began moving star players to the NL Gothams, whose fortunes improved while the Metropolitans' afterwards slumped. It is said that after one satisfying victory over the Philadelphia Phillies, Mutrie stormed into the dressing room and exclaimed, "My big fellows! My giants!" From on, the club was known as the Giants. The team won its first National League pennant in 1888, as well as a victory over the St. Louis Browns in an early incarnation of the pre-modern-era World Series, they repeated as champions the next year with a pennant and world championship victory over the Brooklyn Bridegrooms. The Giants' original home stadium, the Polo Grounds dates from this early era, it was located north of Central Park adjacent to Fifth and Sixth Avenues and 110th and 112th Streets, in Harlem in upper Manhattan. After their eviction from that first incarnation of the Polo Grounds after the 1888 season, they moved further uptown to various fields which they named the "Polo Grounds" located between 155th and 159th Streets in Harlem and Washington Heights, playing in the Washington Heights located famous Polo Grounds until the end of the 1957 season, when they moved to San Francisco.
The Giants were a powerhouse in the late 1880s, winning their first two National League Pennants and World Championships in 1888 & 1889. But nearly all of the Giants' stars jumped to the upstart newly-organized rival loop, the Players' League, whose New York franchise was named the Giants, in 1890; the new team built a stadium next door to the NL Polo Grounds. With a decimated roster, the NL Giants finished a distant sixth. Attendance took a nosedive, the financial strain affected Day's tobacco business as well; the Players' League dissolved after the single season, Day sold a minority interest in his NL Giants to the defunct PL Giants' principal backer, Edward Talcott. As a condition of the sale, Day had to fire Mutrie as manager. Although the Giants rebounded to third place in 1891, Day was forced to sell a controlling interest to Talcott at the end of the'91 season. Four years Talcott sold the Giants to Andrew Freedman, a real estate developer with ties to the Tammany Hall political machine/of the city/state Democratic Party running New York City.
Freedman was one of the most detested owners in baseball history, getting into heated disputes with other owners and his own players, most famously with star pitcher Amos Rusie, author of the first Giants no-hitter. When Freedman offered Rusie only $2,500 for 1896, the disgruntled hurler sat out the entire season. Attendance fell off throughout the league without Rusie, prompting the other owners to chip in $50,000 to get him to return for 1897. Freedman hired former owner Day as manager for part of the 1899 season. In 1902, after a series of disastrous moves that left the Giants 53½ games behind the front-runner, Freedman signed John McGraw as player-manager, convincing him to jump in mid-season from the Baltimore Orioles of the fledgling American League and bring with him several of his teammates. McGraw went on to manage the Giants for three decades until 1932, one of the longest and most successful tenures in professional sports. Hiring "Mr. McGraw," as his players referred to him, was one of Freedman's last significant moves as owner of the Giants, since after that 1902 season he was forced to sell his interest in the club to John T. Brush.
McGraw went on to manage the Giants to nine National League pennants and three World Series championships, with a tenth pennant and fo
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr