1954 Indianapolis 500
The 38th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Monday, May 31, 1954. The event was part of the 1954 AAA National Championship Trail, was race 2 of 9 in the 1954 World Championship of Drivers. Bill Vukovich won his second consecutive 500. Vukovich died the following year attempting to win his third consecutive Indy 500; the race went 110 laps before the first yellow light. Time trials was scheduled for four days. Saturday May 15 – Pole Day time trials Sunday May 16 – Second day time trials Saturday May 22 – Third day time trials Sunday May 23 – Fourth day time trials Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lead lap First alternate: Eddie Johnson — Johnson drove relief during the race Pole position: Jack McGrath – 4:15.26 Fastest Lead Lap: Jack McGrath – 1:04.04 Relief drivers: Troy Ruttman & Duane Carter shared car no 34. Shared points for 4th position. Paul Russo & Jerry Hoyt shared car no 5. Art Cross, Jimmie Davies, Johnnie Parsons, Andy Linden & Sam Hanks shared car no 45.
Chuck Stevenson, Walt Faulkner shared car no 98. Duane Carter, Jimmy Jackson, Tony Bettenhausen & Marshall Teague shared car no 16. Ed Elisian & Bob Scott shared car no 27. Frank Armi & George Fonder shared car no 71. Sam Hanks, Jimmie Davies & Jim Rathmann shared car no 1. Rodger Ward & Eddie Johnson shared car no 12. Gene Hartley & Marshall Teague shared car no 31. Andy Linden & Bob Scott shared car no 74. Johnny Thomson, Andy Linden & Jimmy Daywalt shared car no 43. Jim Rathmann & Pat Flaherty shared car no 38. Spider Webb & Danny Kladis shared car no 65. Len Duncan & George Fonder shared car no 33; the race was carried live flag-to-flag on the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network. It was the second time; the broadcast was anchored by Sid Collins, his third as chief announcer, seventh year overall with the crew. Charlie Brockman served as booth analyst and statistician, reported from victory lane. Of note, the network expanded its coverage to include four qualifying wrap-up shows during time trials weekends.
The network expanded to include four qualifying wrap-up shows, the number of affiliate stations increased to 210. All five major radio stations in Indianapolis carried the broadcast; the 1954 broadcast is notable in that it featured for the first time the famous phrase "Stay tuned for the Greatest Spectacle in Racing." Due to the increased number of affiliates at the time, the network needed a scripted "out-cue" to alert producers when to manually insert local commercials. A young WIBC marketing staff member named Alice Greene is credited with inventing the phrase, chief announcer Sid Collins coined it on-air, it has been used since, with all of the chief announcers proudly reciting it during their respective tenures. World Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site 1954 Indianapolis 500 at RacingReference.info
Maserati 4CL and 4CLT
The Maserati 4CL and its derived sister model the Maserati 4CLT are single-seat racing cars that were designed and built by Maserati. The 4CL was introduced at the beginning of the 1939 season, as a rival to the Alfa Romeo 158 and various ERA models in the voiturette class of international Grand Prix motor racing. Although racing ceased during World War II, the 4CL was one of the front running models at the resumption of racing in the late 1940s. Experiments with two-stage supercharging and tubular chassis construction led to the introduction of the revised 4CLT model in 1948; the 4CLT was upgraded and updated over the following two years, resulting in the ultimate 4CLT/50 model, introduced for the inaugural year of the Formula One World Championship in 1950. In the immediate post-war period, the first two years of the Formula One category, the 4CLT was the car of choice for many privateer entrants, leading to numerous examples being involved in most races during this period. In the late 1930s, continued rapid development in the competitive international voiturette class, the introduction of the Alfa Romeo 158 and ERA B- and C-type models, forced the Maserati brothers into designing a new, square-bore, inline-4-cylinder engine.
This new engine developed 30–50 bhp more than the previous inline-6, the increase achieved through an increase to four valves per cylinder, coupled to the use of a more powerful supercharger and a small increase in the compression ratio. Following customary Maserati practice, the engine was mounted into a chassis design identical to that of the 4CL's predecessor: the Maserati 6CM. Conventional in its architecture, twin box-section spars ran the length of the car joined, ladder-fashion, by smaller cross members, although the 4CL design did incorporate more aluminium componentry than its forebear. Although near-identical in its wheelbase, the 4CL's track was a full 5 cm wider than the 6CM, sat lower thanks to repositioned spring hangers. Enveloping this rather conservative chassis was a low, curvaceous alloy-panel body, built in-house by Maserati. Maserati built a streamlined version of the 4CL from the outset. Continued engine development, in response to Alfa Romeo's post-war introduction of two-stage supercharging, began to expose weaknesses in the chassis design.
In an attempt to improve torsional rigidity Maserati began to experiment with tubular section chassis members. These experimental models ran alongside conventional 4CLs throughout the 1947 season, led to the introduction of the 4CLT in 1948. In the hands of Luigi Villoresi the streamliner took pole position on the 4CL's race debut at the 1939 Tripoli Grand Prix, ahead of Mercedes' brand new W165s. However, both it and two of the three conventional 4CLs entered retired early in the race with engine troubles, leaving the Silver Arrows to take the victory. Embarrassingly for the works team, following this disappointing debut the 4CL's first taste of victory came in the hands of privateer Johnnie Wakefield at the Naples Grand Prix, two races later. Through the remainder of 1939 voiturette races Wakefield took two further victories, the works' 4CLs picked up another two, before the outbreak of war curtailed international competition. Villoresi took the 4CL to victory in the 1940 Targa Florio, but with entry restricted to Axis countries, only Maserati fielding a factory team, the opposition was hardly world class.
On the resumption of competition in 1946 the Maserati 4CL proved the class of the field. Luigi Villoresi returned to winning ways, taking victory in the first race following the cessation of hostilities: the 1946 Nice Grand Prix. Tazio Nuvolari and Giorgio Pelassa both took wins in 4CLs, but it was Raymond Sommer and his 4CL who dominated the season. 1947 would prove to be the 4CL's most successful season and, despite Alfa Romeo fielding the revamped 158 and new 308, Maserati drivers picked up 10 individual race victories. After the replacement of the factory team's 4CLs by the new 4CLT, many examples of the older cars found their way into privateer hands, it was owing to the 4CL's popularity with privateer entrants that many were still being run in top-flight competition at the outset of the Formula One World Championship in 1950. Chassis and engine changes made to the experimental 4CLs coalesced into the 4CLT, the appended T denoting its tubular chassis; the improvements in torsional rigidity that the tubular construction brought were required to counteract the increases in torque and power resulting from the twin-supercharger upgrade of the elderly inline-4 engine.
Power was up to 260 bhp, from the 4CL's 220. Other changes included the use of roller bearings for the crankshaft, forged rear suspension components, the chassis was designed to run with hydraulic dampers from the outset; the first variant of the 4CLT earned its "Sanremo" nickname from the first race for which it was entered: the 1948 Sanremo Grand Prix. The name stuck. A portent of things to come and Reg Parnell won five of the 1948 season's remaining races. In the first year of the Formula One World Championship, a Sanremo scored what was to be the Maserati's best Championship finish, when Louis Chiron took third place at his home Grand Prix: the 1950 Monaco Grand Prix; the last 4CL variant to compete in the World Championship was a 4CLT/48 modified by the Arzani-Volpini team, that failed to qualify for the 1955 Italian Grand Prix. For 1949, minor modifications to the brake drums, switching from vanes to slits for cooling, along with small changes to the cockpit control layout and a repositioned oil header-tank resulted in a car sometimes referred to as the 4CLT/49.
It was never know
The Targa Florio was an open road endurance automobile race held in the mountains of Sicily near the island's capital of Palermo. Founded in 1906, it was the oldest sports car racing event, part of the World Sportscar Championship between 1955 and 1973. While the first races consisted of a whole tour of the island, the track length in the race's last decades was limited to the 72 kilometres of the Circuito Piccolo delle Madonie, lapped 11 times. After 1973, it was a national sports car event until it was discontinued in 1977 due to safety concerns, it has since been run as a rallying event, is part of the Italian Rally Championship. The race was created in 1906 by the wealthy pioneer race driver and automobile enthusiast, Vincenzo Florio, who had started the Coppa Florio race in Brescia, Lombardy in 1900; the Targa claimed to be a worldly event not to be missed. Renowned artists, such as Alexandre Charpentier and Leonardo Bistolfi, were commissioned to design medals. A magazine was initiated, which aimed to enhance, with graphic and photographic reproductions of the race, the myth of the car and the typical character of modern life, speed.
One of the toughest competitions in Europe, the first Targa Florio covered 3 laps equalling 277 miles through multiple hairpin curves on treacherous mountain roads, at heights where severe changes in climate occurred. Alessandro Cagno won the inaugural 1906 race in nine hours. By the mid-1920s, the Targa Florio had become one of Europe's most important races, as neither the 24 Hours of Le Mans nor the Mille Miglia had been established yet. Grand Prix races were still isolated events, not a series like today's F1; the wins of Mercedes in the 1920s made a big impression in Germany that of German Christian Werner in 1924, as he was the first non-Italian winner since 1920. Rudolf Caracciola repeated. In 1926, Eliska Junkova, one of the great female drivers in Grand Prix motor racing history, became the first woman to compete in the race. In 1953, the FIA World Sportscar Championship was introduced; the Targa became part of it in 1955, when Mercedes had to win 1-2 with the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR in order to beat Ferrari for the title.
They had missed the first two of the 6 events, Buenos Aires and the 12 Hours of Sebring, where Ferrari, Jaguar and Porsche scored. Mercedes appeared at and won in the Mille Miglia pulled out of Le Mans as a sign of respect for the victims of the 1955 Le Mans disaster, but won the Tourist Trophy at Dundrod. Stirling Moss/Peter Collins and Juan Manuel Fangio/Karl Kling finished minutes ahead of the best Ferrari and secured the title. Several versions of the track were used, it started with a single lap of a 148 km circuit from 1906-1911 and 1931. From 1912 to 1914 a tour around the perimeter of Sicily was used, with a single lap of 975 kilometres, lengthened to 1,080 kilometres from 1948 to 1950; the 148 km "Grande" circuit was shortened twice, the first time to 108 km, the version used from 1919-1930, to the 72 km circuit used from 1932 to 1936 and 1951 to 1977. From 1951-1958, the long coastal island tour variant was used for a separate event called the Giro di Sicilia; the start and finish took place at Cerda.
The counter-clockwise lap lead from Caltavuturo and Collesano from an altitude over 600 metres down to sea level, where the cars raced from Campofelice di Roccella on the Buonfornello straight along the coast, a straight over 6 km longer than the Mulsanne Straight at the Circuit de la Sarthe in Le Mans. The longest version of the circuit went south through Caltavuturo through an extended route through elevation changes, swept through the nearby towns of Castellana and Sottana, twisting around mountains up to the town of Castelbuono and rejoined the most recent version of the track at Collesano; the second version of the track went south through Caltavuturo and took a shortcut starting right before Castellana to Collesano via the town of Polizzi Generosa. There was a closed circuit called Favorita Park used from 1937-1940; the challenge of the Targa was unprecedented in its difficulty and the driving experience of any of the course variants was unlike any other circuit in the world other than that of the Nurburgring in Germany.
The original Grande 148 km circuit had in the realm of 2,000 corners per lap, the 108 km Medio had about 1,300-1,400 corners per lap and the final iteration of the course, the 72 km Piccolo circuit had about 800-900 corners per lap. To put that in perspective, most purpose built circuits have between 12 and 18 corners, the longest purpose built circuit in the world, the 13-mile Nurburgring, has about 180 corners. So learning any of the Targa Florio courses was difficult and required, like most long circuits, at least 60 laps to learn the course- and unlike the purpose-built Nurburgring, the course had to be learned properly in public traffic, one lap would take about an hour to do in a road car- if there was little to no traffic. Like a rally event, the race cars were started one by one every 15 seconds for a time trial, as a start from a full grid was not possible on the tight and twisty roads. Although the public road circuit used for the Targa was challenging- it was a different kind of circuit and race from any other race on the sportscar calendar.
All of the circuit variations of the Targa had so many corners that lap speeds at the Targa n
1954 British Grand Prix
The 1954 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Silverstone on 17 July 1954. It was race 5 of 9 in the 1954 World Championship of Drivers; the 90-lap race was won by Ferrari driver José Froilán González after he started from second position. His teammate Mike Hawthorn finished second and Maserati driver Onofre Marimón came in third. A huge crowd turned out at Silverstone to see. In the end, just two silver cars arrived. In contrast, Maserati had nine cars, whilst Ferrari had three for the experienced trio of Hawthorn and Trintignant. Fangio set Silverstone's fastest lap, breaking the 100 mph barrier with a lap of 100.35 mph. It was Gonzalez who held the lead until the flag. Behind him, Fangio passed Hawthorn for second but after colliding several times with oil drums in a difficult handling car, he dropped to fourth. Moss took over the position but retired with rear axle problems, leaving Hawthorn to follow home for a Ferrari 1–2 and young Onofre Marimón to take his second podium place.
^1 — Rodney Nuckey, named substitute driver for Eric Brandon in the #30 Cooper-Bristol, was given a starting position despite not completing a single lap in qualifying or in the race. Notes^1 – Ascari, Fangio, González, Marimón & Moss all set the equal fastest lap time of 1:50; each received 1⁄7 of a point. Shared drives: Car #6: Bira Flockhart Car #32: Villoresi Ascari F1 debuts: Don Beauman, Clemar Bucci, Ron Flockhart, Horace Gould, Leslie Marr, John Riseley-Prichard, Leslie Thorne, Bill Whitehouse, Vanwall Final F1 race for: Alan Brown, Reg Parnell, Peter Whitehead Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship
Grand Prix motor racing
Grand Prix motor racing, a form of motorsport competition, has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as early as 1894. It evolved from simple road races from one town to the next, to endurance tests for car and driver. Innovation and the drive of competition soon saw speeds exceeding 100 miles per hour, but because early races took place on open roads, accidents occurred resulting in deaths both of drivers and of spectators. Grand Prix motor racing evolved into formula racing, one can regard Formula One as its direct descendant; each event of the Formula One World Championships is still called a Grand Prix. Motor racing was started in France, as a direct result of the enthusiasm with which the French public embraced the motor car. Manufacturers were enthusiastic due to the possibility of using motor racing as a shop window for their cars; the first motoring contest took place on July 22, 1894 and was organised by a Paris newspaper, Le Petit Journal. The Paris–Rouen rally was 126 km, from Porte Maillot in Paris, through the Bois de Boulogne, to Rouen.
Count Jules-Albert de Dion was first into Rouen after 6 hours 48 minutes at an average speed of 19 km/h. He finished 3 minutes 30 seconds ahead of Albert Lemaître, followed by Auguste Doriot, René Panhard, Émile Levassor; the official winners were Peugeot and Panhard as cars were judged on their speed and safety characteristics, De Dion's steam car needed a stoker which the judges deemed to be outside of their objectives. In 1900, James Gordon Bennett, Jr. the owner of the New York Herald and the International Herald Tribune, established the Gordon Bennett Cup. He hoped the creation of an international event would drive automobile manufacturers to improve their cars; each country was allowed to enter up to three cars, which had to be built in the country that they represented and entered by that country's automotive governing body. International racing colours were established in this event; the 1903 event occurred in the aftermath of the fatalities at the Paris-Madrid road race, so the race, at Athy in Ireland, though on public roads, was run over a closed circuit: the first closed-circuit motor race.
In the United States, William Kissam Vanderbilt II launched the Vanderbilt Cup at Long Island, New York in 1904. Some anglophone sources wrongly list a race called the Pau Grand Prix in 1901; this may stem from a mistranslation of the contemporary French sources such as the magazine La France Auto of March 1901. The name of the 1901 event was the Circuit du Sud-Ouest and it was run in three classes around the streets of Pau; the Grand Prix du Palais d'Hiver was the name of the prizes awarded for the lesser classes. The Grand Prix de Pau was the name of the prize awarded for the'Heavy' class, thus Maurice Farman was awarded the'Grand Prix de Pau' for his overall victory in the Circuit du Sud-Ouest driving a Panhard 24 hp. In L'Histoire de l'Automobile/Paris 1907 Pierre Souvestre described the 1901 event as: "... dans le Circuit du Sud-Ouest, à l'occasion du meeting de Pau... " The only race at the time to carry the name Grand Prix was organised by the Automobile Club de France, of which the first took place in 1906.
The circuit used, based in Le Mans, was triangular in shape, each lap covering 105 kilometres. Six laps were to run each day, each lap took an hour using the primitive cars of the day; the driving force behind the decision to race on a circuit - as opposed to racing on ordinary roads from town to town - was the Paris to Madrid road race of 1903. During this race a number of people, both drivers and pedestrians - including Marcel Renault - were killed and the race was stopped by the French authorities at Bordeaux. Further road based events were banned. From the 32 entries representing 12 different automobile manufacturers, at the 1906 event, the Hungarian-born Ferenc Szisz won the 1,260 km race in a Renault; this race was regarded as the first Grande Épreuve, which meant "great trial" and the term was used from on to denote up to the eight most important events of the year. Races in this period were nationalistic affairs, with a few countries setting up races of their own, but no formal championship tying them together.
The rules varied from country to country and race to race, centered on maximum weights in an effort to limit power by limiting engine size indirectly. The cars all had mechanics on board as well as the driver, no one was allowed to work on the cars during the race except for these two. A key factor to Renault winning this first Grand Prix was held to be the detachable wheel rims, which allowed tire changes to occur without having to lever the tire and tube off and back on the rim. Given the state of the roads, such repairs were frequent. A further historic confusion arose in the early 1920s when the Automobile Club de France attempted to pull off a retrospective political trick by numbering and renaming the major races held in France before the 1906 French Grand Prix as being Grands Prix de l'Automobile Club de France, despite their running pre-dating the formation of the Club. Hence, the 1895 Paris–Bordeaux–Paris Trail was renamed I Grand Prix de l'Automobile Club de France.
1951 Indianapolis 500
The 35th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Wednesday, May 30, 1951. The event was part of the 1951 AAA National Championship Trail, was race 2 of 8 in the 1951 World Championship of Drivers. For the second year in a row, no European Formula One-based teams entered the race. Duke Nalon, who had suffered serious burns in a crash in 1949, who missed the 1950 race, made a comeback at Indy by winning the pole position in a Novi. Heavy attrition saw only eight cars running at the finish. Winner Lee Wallard's car lost its brakes, suffered a damaged exhaust pipe, broke a shock absorber mounting. In addition to the unbearably uncomfortable ride, Wallard had worn a fire retardant outfit, created by dipping his uniform in a mixture of borax crystals and water. Due to not wearing an undershirt, Wallard suffered serious chafing, required treatment at the infield hospital after the victory lane celebration, it was estimated. Wallard's winning car had the smallest displacement in the field.
About a week after winning the race, Wallard suffered severe burns in a crash at Reading, which ended his professional racing career. Three-time winner Mauri Rose, in his 15th Indy start and flipped on lap 126, it was his final 500. Time trials was scheduled for six days. Rain, pushed qualifying into a seventh day. Saturday May 12 – Pole Day time trials Sunday May 13 – Second day time trials Saturday May 19 – Third day time trials Sunday May 20 – Fourth day time trials Saturday May 26 – Fifth day time trials Sunday May 27 – Sixth day time trials Monday May 28 – Seventh day time trials Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lead lap First alternate: Bob Sweikert Pole position: Duke Nalon – 4:23.74 Fastest Lead Lap: Lee Wallard – 1:07.26 Ayulo and McGrath shared the same car. Points for 3rd position were shared between the drivers. World Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship; the race was carried live on the radio through a network arrangement set up by 1070 WIBC-AM of Indianapolis.
Mutual, which had carried the race for several years, had raised its advertising rates for 1951, lost its primary sponsor for the event, Perfect Circle Piston Rings. As a result, Mutual dropped the coverage altogether. Local station WIBC stepped in to cover the race, provided its feed to various Mutual affiliates. A total of 26 stations carried the broadcast. WIBC personality Sid Collins served as booth announcer, the remainder of the crew consisted of WIBC talent. Jim Shelton reported from his familiar turn four location, Collins interviewed the winner in victory lane. Like the Mutual broadcasts, WIBC featured live coverage of the start, the finish, 15-minute live updates throughout the race. Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site Van Camp's Pork & Beans Presents: Great Moments From the Indy 500 – Fleetwood Sounds, 1975 1951 Indianapolis 500 at RacingReference.info
In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract