Italy at the Olympics
Italy has competed at all the modern Olympic GamesItaly has taken part in all the Winter Olympic Games, winning 124 medals, 577 medals at the Summer Olympic Games. Italy has won a total of 246 gold medals which makes them the 6th most successful country in Olympic history, after the USA, the Soviet Union, Great Britain and France. Italy has the sixth highest medal total of all time with 701; the Italian National Olympic Committee was created in 1908 and recognised in 1913. The Italian Olympic Team has competed in the Mediterranean Games where they have won a total of 1,786 medals, the most in the games' history; as of 2016 they are the most successful nation at fencing in Olympic history. Italy has hosted the Games on three occasions. Italy has finished in the top 5 of the medal count 11 times in the Summer Olympic Games and 3 times in the Winter Olympic Games. In total Italy has finished in the top 5 of the medal count 14 times. Italy has finished in the top 10 of the medal count 20 times in the Summer Olympic Games and 13 times in the Winter Olympic Games.
In total Italy has finished in the top 10 of the medal count 33 times. According to the official count of the International Olympic Committee, Italy has won 577 medals at Summer Olympics. *Red border color indicates tournament was held on home soil. Notes: in pink color the women athletes; the Italian athlete who won the most medals in the history of the Olympic Games, is the fencer Edoardo Mangiarotti. In this table, the men who have won gold individual medals at the Olympics. Notes: in Khaki the athletes still in activity. For Cycling was considered for world championships, only professional events. In this table, the women who have won gold individual medals at the Olympics and at the World Championships. Updated to 22 February 2018. List of flag bearers for Italy at the Olympics Category:Olympic competitors for Italy Italy at the Paralympics Italy national athletics team Naturalized athletes of Italy a b Not counting Enrico Brusoni gold medal at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Cycling Points Race, this medal is not recognized by IOC, but is recognized by Italian National Olympic Committee.
"Italy". International Olympic Committee. "Results and Medalists — Italy". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. "Italy". Sports-Reference.com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012
Serie A called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by TIM, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and the winner is awarded the Coppa Campioni d'Italia. It has been operating for over eighty years since the 1929–30 season, it had been organized by Lega Calcio until 2010, when the Lega Serie A was created for the 2010–11 season. Serie A is regarded as one of the best football leagues in the world and it is depicted as the most tactical national league. Serie A was the world's second-strongest national league in 2014 according to IFFHSand has produced the highest number of European Cup finalists: Italian clubs have reached the final of the competition on 27 occasions, winning the title 12 times. Serie A is ranked third among European leagues according to UEFA's league coefficient, behind La Liga, Premier League, ahead of Bundesliga and Ligue 1, based on the performance of Italian clubs in the Champions League and the Europa League during the last five years.
Serie A led the UEFA ranking from 1986 to 1988 and from 1990 to 1999. In its current format, the Italian Football Championship was revised from having regional and interregional rounds, to a single-tier league from the 1929–30 season onwards; the championship titles won prior to 1929 are recognised by FIGC with the same weighting as titles that were subsequently awarded. However, the 1945–46 season, when the league was played over two geographical groups due to the ravages of WWII, is not statistically considered if its title is official. All the winning teams are recognised with the title of Campione d'Italia, ratified by the Lega Serie A before the start of the next edition of the championship; the league hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus and Internazionale, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs from 2000 to 2008, being the first two cited founding members of its successive organisation, European Club Association.
More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any league in the world other than Spain's La Liga. – although Spain's La Liga has the highest total number of Ballon d'Or winners. Juventus, Italy's most successful club of the 20th century and the most successful Italian team, is tied for fourth in Europe and eighth in the world with the most official international titles; the club is the only one in the world to have won all possible official confederation competitions. Milan is joint third club for official international titles won in the world, with 18. Internazionale, following their achievements in the 2009–10 season, became the first Italian team to have achieved a treble. Inter are the only team in Italian football history to have never been relegated. Juventus and Inter, along with Roma, Fiorentina and Napoli, are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football. Serie A is one of the most storied football leagues in the world. Of the 100 greatest footballers in history chosen by FourFourTwo magazine in 2017, 42 players have played in Serie A, more than any other league in the world.
Juventus is the team that has produced the most World Cup champions, with Inter and Milan, being third and ninth in that ranking. Serie A, as it is structured today, began during the 1929–30 season. From 1898 to 1922, the competition was organised into regional groups; because of growing teams attending regional championships, the Italian Football Federation split the CCI in 1921. When CCI teams rejoined the FIGC created two interregional divisions renaming Categories into Divisions and splitting FIGC sections into two North-South leagues. In 1926, due to internal crises, the FIGC changed internal settings, adding southern teams to the national division leading to the 1929–30 final settlement. No title was awarded in 1927 after Torino were stripped of the championship by the FIGC. Torino were declared champions in the 1948–49 season following a plane crash near the end of the season in which the entire team was killed; the Serie A Championship title is referred to as the scudetto because since the 1924–25 season, the winning team will bear a small coat of arms with the Italian tricolour on their strip in the following season.
The most successful club is Juventus with 34 championships, followed by both Milan and Internazionale, with 18 championships apiece. From the 2004–05 season onwards, an actual trophy was awarded to club on the pitch after the last turn of the championship; the trophy, called the Coppa Campioni d'Italia, has been used since the 1960–61 season, but between 1961 and 2004 was consigned to the winning clubs at the head office of the Lega Nazionale Professionisti. In April 2009, Serie A announced a split from Serie B. Nineteen of the twenty clubs voted in favour of the move in an argument over television rights. Maurizio Beretta, the former head of Italy's employers' association, became president of the new league. In April 2016, it was announced that Serie A was selected by the International Football Association Board to test video replays, which were private for the 2016–17 season, allowing them to become a live pilot phase, with replay assistance implemented in the 2017–18 season. On the decision, FIGC President Carlo Tavecchio said, "We were among the first supporters of using technology on the pitch and we believe we have everything required to offer our contribution to this important experiment."
For most of Serie A's history, there were 16 or 18
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength of 625–740 nanometres, it is a primary color in the RGB color model and the CMYK color model, is the complementary color of cyan. Reds range from the brilliant yellow-tinged scarlet and vermillion to bluish-red crimson, vary in shade from the pale red pink to the dark red burgundy; the red sky at sunset results from Rayleigh scattering, while the red color of the Grand Canyon and other geological features is caused by hematite or red ochre, both forms of iron oxide. Iron oxide gives the red color to the planet Mars; the red colour of blood comes from protein hemoglobin, while ripe strawberries, red apples and reddish autumn leaves are colored by anthocyanins. Red pigment made from ochre was one of the first colors used in prehistoric art; the Ancient Egyptians and Mayans colored their faces red in ceremonies. It was an important color in China, where it was used to colour early pottery and the gates and walls of palaces.
In the Renaissance, the brilliant red costumes for the nobility and wealthy were dyed with kermes and cochineal. The 19th century brought the introduction of the first synthetic red dyes, which replaced the traditional dyes. Red became the color of revolution. Since red is the color of blood, it has been associated with sacrifice and courage. Modern surveys in Europe and the United States show red is the color most associated with heat, passion, anger and joy. In China and many other Asian countries it is the color of symbolizing happiness and good fortune. See below for shades of pink The human eye sees red when it looks at light with a wavelength between 625 and 740 nanometers, it is a primary color in the RGB color model and the light just past this range is called infrared, or below red, cannot be seen by human eyes, although it can be sensed as heat. In the language of optics, red is the color evoked by light that stimulates neither the S or the M cone cells of the retina, combined with a fading stimulation of the L cone cells.
Primates can distinguish the full range of the colors of the spectrum visible to humans, but many kinds of mammals, such as dogs and cattle, have dichromacy, which means they can see blues and yellows, but cannot distinguish red and green. Bulls, for instance, cannot see the red color of the cape of a bullfighter, but they are agitated by its movement.. One theory for why primates developed sensitivity to red is that it allowed ripe fruit to be distinguished from unripe fruit and inedible vegetation; this may have driven further adaptations by species taking advantage of this new ability, such as the emergence of red faces. Red light is used to help adapt night vision in low-light or night time, as the rod cells in the human eye are not sensitive to red. Red illumination was used as a safelight while working in a darkroom as it does not expose most photographic paper and some films. Today modern darkrooms use an amber safelight. On the color wheel long used by painters, in traditional color theory, red is one of the three primary colors, along with blue and yellow.
Painters in the Renaissance mixed red and blue to make violet: Cennino Cennini, in his 15th-century manual on painting, wrote, "If you want to make a lovely violet colour, take fine lac, ultramarine blue with a binder" he noted that it could be made by mixing blue indigo and red hematite. In modern color theory known as the RGB color model, red and blue are additive primary colors. Red and blue light combined together makes white light, these three colors, combined in different mixtures, can produce nearly any other color; this is the principle, used to make all of the colors on your computer screen and your television. For example, magenta on a computer screen is made by a similar formula to that used by Cennino Cennini in the Renaissance to make violet, but using additive colors and light instead of pigment: it is created by combining red and blue light at equal intensity on a black screen. Violet is made on a computer screen in a similar way, but with a greater amount of blue light and less red light.
So that the maximum number of colors can be reproduced on your computer screen, each color has been given a code number, or sRGB, which tells your computer the intensity of the red and blue components of that color. The intensity of each component is measured on a scale of zero to 255, which means the complete list includes 16,777,216 distinct colors and shades; the sRGB number of pure red, for example, is 255, 00, 00, which means the red component is at its maximum intensity, there is no green or blue. The sRGB number for crimson is 220, 20, 60, which means that the red is less intense and therefore darker, there is some green, which leans it toward orange; as a ray of white sunlight travels through the atmosphere to the eye, some of the colors are scattered out of the beam by air molecules and airborne particles due to Rayleigh scattering, changing the final color of the beam, seen. Colors with a shorter wavelength, such as blue and green, scatter more and are removed from the light that reaches the eye.
At sunrise and sunset, when the
Flag of Italy
The flag of Italy referred to in Italian as il Tricolore. Its current form has been in use since 18 June 1946 and was formally adopted on 1 January 1948; the first entity to use the Italian tricolour was the Cispadane Republic in 1797, which supplanted Milan after Napoleon's victorious army crossed Italy in 1796. The colours chosen by the Cispadane Republic were red and white, which were the colours of the conquered flag of Milan. During this time, many small French-proxy republics of Jacobin inspiration supplanted the ancient absolute Italian states and all, with variants of colour, used flags characterised by three bands of equal size inspired by the French model of 1790; some have attributed particular values to the colours, a common interpretation is that the green represents the country's plains and the hills. A more religious interpretation is that the green represents hope, the white represents faith, the red represents charity; the tricolour was used for the first time on 13–14 November 1794 on a cockade worn by a group of students of the University of Bologna, led by Luigi Zamboni and Giovanni Battista De Rolandis, who attempted to plot a popular riot to topple the Catholic government of Bologna, a city, part of the Papal States at the time.
The law students defined themselves as "patriots" and wore tricolour cockades to signal they were inspired by Jacobin revolutionary ideals, but modified them to distinguish themselves from the French. The chosen colours were white and red since those are the colours of the flag of Bologna, some scholars contend green was added only for the event to give it a more ideological effect. On 18 May 1796 a cockade with those colours commemorating the Bologna riots was presented to Napoleon Bonaparte in Milan, who decided banners with same colours would be carried by the Milan Civic Guard, of the Lombard Legion and the National Guard; the first official tricolore italiano, or Italian tricolour, was adopted on 7 January 1797, when the XIVth Parliament of the Cispadane Republic, on the proposal of deputy Giuseppe Compagnoni of Lugo, decreed "to make universal the... standard or flag of three colours, green and red..." This was because the Legione Lombarda had carried banners of red and green, the same colours were adopted in the banners of the Legione Italiana, formed by soldiers coming from Emilia and Romagna.
The flag was a horizontal square with red uppermost and, at the heart of the white fess, an emblem composed of a garland of laurel decorated with a trophy of arms and four arrows, representing the four provinces that formed the Republic. However, many Italians believe that the tricolore, or three-coloured flag, represents hope and love - apt words to describe such a bel paese, "beautiful country"; the Cispadane Republic and the Transpadane Republic, which had itself been using a vertical Italian tricolour from 1796, merged into the Cisalpine Republic and adopted the vertical square tricolour without badge in 1798. The flag was maintained until 1802, when it was renamed the Napoleonic Italian Republic, a new flag was adopted, this time with a red field carrying a green square within a white lozenge. In 1799, the independent Republic of Lucca came under French influence and adopted as its flag a horizontal tricolour with green uppermost. In 1805 Napoleon installed Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi, as Princess of Lucca and Piombino.
This affair is commemorated in the opening of Leo Tolstoy's Peace. In the same year, after Napoleon had crowned himself first French Emperor, the Italian Republic was transformed into the first Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, or Italico, under his direct rule; the flag of the Kingdom of Italy was that of the Republic in rectangular form, charged with the golden Napoleonic eagle. This remained in use until the abdication of Napoleon in 1814. Between 1848 and 1861, a sequence of events led to the unification of Italy. During this period, the tricolore became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards freedom and independence; the Italian tricolour, defaced with the Savoyan coat of arms, was first adopted as war flag by the Kingdom of Sardinia–Piedmont army on 1848. In his Proclamation to the Lombard-Venetian people, Charles Albert said "... in order to show more with exterior signs the commitment to Italian unification, We want that Our troops... have the Savoy shield placed on the Italian tricolour flag."
As the arms, blazoned gules a cross argent, mixed with the white of the flag, it was fimbriated azure, blue being the dynastic colour, although this does not conform to the heraldic rule of tincture. The rectangular civil and state variants were adopted in 1851. In the same year, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany became constitutional and dropped the Austrian flag, with Austria–Lorraine great coat of arms, in favour of the defaced Italian tricolour with simplified arms
Andrea Marcato is an Italian international rugby union player, a utility back for Calvisano. He has played in the 2008 and 2009 Six Nations Championships. Principally a fly-half he plays fullback, making him a utility back, he won 4 Italian championships with Benetton Treviso and appeared for them in the Celtic League and the Heineken Cup. Andrea Marcato grew up in the small borough of Selvazzano, near Padua, where he started playing rugby at the age of eight encouraged by his father and his uncle who were former rugby union player themselves and coached the team. Marcato debuted in Super 10 in 2002 and went on playing for Petrarca until 2005, when he left because of problems with the club's French coach Sauton, he signed a contract with Benetton Treviso where he won the Italian Championship at the first attempt. After his first national title the National team's head coach Pierre Berbizier called Marcato in the squad and made his debut against Japan in July 2006: Marcato scored 2 penalties in his test debut.
That, apart from another test match against Portugal in October, was the only match Marcato played for the next one and half years. He had a comeback in 2008 when the new head coach Nick Mallett included him in the squad for the Six Nations. In June in Córdoba, Argentina, he converted a late try that allowed Italy to get past the Pumas 13-12, he took part to the 2009 Six Nations where he played, to date, his last International match, against France at the Stadio Flaminio in Rome. He went on playing club rugby for Benetton Treviso until 2010 returned to Petrarca. Marcato helped Calvisano to become the first Italian club to win the top tier a year after winning promotion from the second division. Benetton Treviso 2005-06, 2006–07, 2008–09, 2009-10 Super 10 2009-10 Italian Cup 2006, 2009 Italian Supercup Calvisano 2011-12 Eccellenza 2001-12 Italian Cup Italy: 16 caps, 81 points RBS 6 Nations profile Andrea Marcato at ESPNscrum
Rijeka is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia. It is located in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County on Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea and has a population of 128,624 inhabitants; because of its strategic position and its excellent deep-water port, the city was fiercely contested among Italy and Croatia, changing hands and demographics many times over centuries. According to the 2011 census data, the overwhelming majority of its citizens are Croats, along with small numbers of Bosniaks and Serbs; the city has a strong sense of identity and the autochthonous inhabitants of Rijeka are referred to as Fiumans. Rijeka is the main city of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County; the city's economy depends on shipbuilding and maritime transport. Rijeka hosts the Croatian National Theatre Ivan pl. Zajc, first built in 1765, as well as the University of Rijeka, founded in 1973 but with roots dating back to 1632 School of Theology. Apart from Croatian and Italian, linguistically the city is home to its own unique dialect of the Venetian language, with an estimated 20,000 speakers among the autochthonous Italians and other minorities.
Fiuman served as the main lingua franca between the many ethnicities inhabiting the multiethnic port-town. In certain suburbs of the modern extended municipality the autochthonous population still speaks the Chakavian tongue, a dialect of the Croatian language. In 2016, Rijeka was selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2020, alongside Galway, Republic of Ireland. Rijeka was called Tharsatica, Vitopolis, or Flumen in Latin; the city is called Rijeka in Croatian, Reka in Slovene, Reka or Rika in the local dialects of the Chakavian language. It is called Fiume in Italian. All these names mean "river" in their respective languages. Meanwhile, Hungarian has adopted the Italian name while in German the city has been called Sankt Veit am Flaum—St Vito on the river Flaum—or Pflaum. Rijeka is located in western Croatia, 131 kilometres southwest of the capital, Zagreb, on the northern coast of Rijeka Bay, as part of a larger Kvarner Gulf of the Adriatic Sea, a large bay Mediterranean Sea most indented to the European mainland.
The Bay of Rijeka, bordered by Vela Vrata, Srednja Vrata and Mala Vrata is connected to the Bay of Kvarner and is deep enough for the biggest sailing ships. The City of Rijeka lies at the mouth of river Rječina and in the Vinodol micro-region of the Croatian coast. Two important land transport routes start in Rijeka due to its location; the first route is to the Pannonian Basin given that Rijeka is located alongside the narrowest point of the Dinaric Alps. The other route, across Postojna Gate connects Rijeka with Slovenia and beyond. Though traces of Neolithic settlements can be found in the region, the earliest modern settlements on the site were Celtic Tharsatica on the hill, the tribe of mariners, the Liburni, in the natural harbour below; the city long retained its dual character. Pliny mentioned Tarsatica in his Natural History. In the time of Augustus, the Romans rebuilt Tharsatica as a municipium Flumen, situated on the right bank of small river Rječina, it became a city within the Roman Province of Dalmatia until the 6th century.
After the 4th century Rijeka was rededicated to St. Vitus, the city's patron saint, as Terra Fluminis sancti Sancti Viti or in German Sankt Veit am Pflaum. From the 5th century onwards, the town was ruled successively by the Ostrogoths, the Byzantines, the Lombards, the Avars. Croats settled the city starting in the 7th century giving it Rika svetoga Vida. At the time, Rijeka was a feudal stronghold surrounded by a wall. At the center of the city, its highest point, was a fortress. In 799 Rijeka was attacked by the Frankish troops of Charlemagne, their Siege of Trsat was at first repulsed, during which the Frankish commander Duke Eric of Friuli was killed. However, the Frankish forces occupied and devastated the castle, while the Duchy of Croatia passed under the overlordship of the Carolingian Empire. From about 925, the town was part of the Kingdom of Croatia, from 1102 in personal union with Hungary. Trsat Castle and the town was rebuilt under the rule of the House of Frankopan. In 1288 the Rijeka citizens signed the Law codex of Vinodol, one of the oldest codes of law in Europe.
Rijeka rivalled with Venice when it was purchased by the Habsburg emperor Frederick III, Archduke of Austria in 1466. It would remain under Habsburg overlordship for over 450 years, except for French rule between 1805 and 1813, until its occupation by Croatian and subsequently Italian irregulars at the end of World War I. After coming under Habsburg rule in 1466, the town was attacked and plundered by Venetian forces in 1509. While Ottoman forces attacked the town several times, they never occupied it. From the 16th century onwards, Rijeka was rebuilt in its present Renaissance and Baroque style. Emperor Charles VI declared the Port of Rijeka a free port in 1719 and had the trade route to Vienna expanded in 1725. By order of Empress Maria Theresa in
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum. It is evoked by light which has a dominant wavelength of 495–570 nm. In subtractive color systems, used in painting and color printing, it is created by a combination of yellow and blue, or yellow and cyan. By far the largest contributor to green in nature is chlorophyll, the chemical by which plants photosynthesize and convert sunlight into chemical energy. Many creatures have adapted to their green environments by taking on a green hue themselves as camouflage. Several minerals have a green color, including the emerald, colored green by its chromium content. During post-classical and early modern Europe, green was the color associated with wealth, merchants and the gentry, while red was reserved for the nobility. For this reason, the costume of the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci and the benches in the British House of Commons are green while those in the House of Lords are red, it has a long historical tradition as the color of Ireland and of Gaelic culture.
It is the historic color of Islam, representing the lush vegetation of Paradise. It was the color of the banner of Muhammad, is found in the flags of nearly all Islamic countries. In surveys made in American and Islamic countries, green is the color most associated with nature, health, spring and envy. In the European Union and the United States, green is sometimes associated with toxicity and poor health, but in China and most of Asia, its associations are positive, as the symbol of fertility and happiness; because of its association with nature, it is the color of the environmental movement. Political groups advocating environmental protection and social justice describe themselves as part of the Green movement, some naming themselves Green parties; this has led to similar campaigns in advertising, as companies have sold green, or environmentally friendly, products. Green is the traditional color of safety and permission; the word green comes from the Middle English and Old English word grene, like the German word grün, has the same root as the words grass and grow.
It is from a Common Germanic *gronja-, reflected in Old Norse grænn, Old High German gruoni from a PIE root *ghre- "to grow", root-cognate with grass and to grow. The first recorded use of the word as a color term in Old English dates to ca. AD 700. Latin with viridis has a genuine and used term for "green". Related to virere "to grow" and ver "spring", it gave rise to words in several Romance languages, French vert, Italian verde; the Slavic languages with zelenъ. Ancient Greek had a term for yellowish, pale green – χλωρός, cognate with χλοερός "verdant" and χλόη "chloe, the green of new growth". Thus, the languages mentioned above have old terms for "green" which are derived from words for fresh, sprouting vegetation. However, comparative linguistics makes clear that these terms were coined independently, over the past few millennia, there is no identifiable single Proto-Indo-European or word for "green". For example, the Slavic zelenъ is cognate with Sanskrit hari "yellow, golden"; the Turkic languages have jašɨl "green" or "yellowish green", compared to a Mongolian word for "meadow".
In some languages, including old Chinese, old Japanese, Vietnamese, the same word can mean either blue or green. The Chinese character 青 has a meaning that covers both green. In more contemporary terms, they are 綠 respectively. Japanese has two terms that refer to the color green, 緑 and グリーン. However, in Japan, although the traffic lights have the same colors as other countries have, the green light is described using the same word as for blue, because green is considered a shade of aoi. Vietnamese uses a single word for both blue and green, with variants such as xanh da trời, lục. "Green" in modern European languages corresponds to about 520–570 nm, but many historical and non-European languages make other choices, e.g. using a term for the range of ca. 450–530 nm and another for ca. 530–590 nm. In the comparative study of color terms in the world's languages, green is only found as a separate category in languages with the developed range of six colors, or more in systems with five colors; these languages have introduced supplementary vocabulary to denote "green", but these terms are recognizable as recent adoptions that are not in origin color terms.
Thus, the Thai word เขียว kheīyw, besides mean