Conservation and restoration of historic gardens
Historic garden conservation is a specialised type of historic preservation and conservation or restoration concerned with historical and landmark gardens and designed landscapes. Practitioners predominantly come from backgrounds in horticulture, garden design, landscape design, to prepare a management plan for a historic garden, such experts require knowledge and skills in environmental design, landscape history, architectural history, and management. Historic garden restoration is the task of restoring historic gardens to the character they had at a previous point in history. Since the use of old gardens is in flux, this involves a consideration of current. Several universities and colleges in England run undergraduate and postgraduate courses related to historic garden conservation, statutory protection exists for registered parks and designed landscapes. In Australia, the Australian Garden History Society is an organization to the UKs Garden History Society. The Garden History Society is the oldest such society in the world and it became The Gardens Trust in 2015, having merged with the Association of Gardens Trusts.
Its aims are to study history and conserve historic gardens. Since 1995 it is a statutory consultee on proposals affecting registered parks, gardens and it has about 1,500 members and publishes the Garden History journal twice-yearly, as well as a regular members newsletter. The society has a group for Scotland, with its own regular newsletter. The Welsh Historic Gardens Trust is a society specifically for gardens, parks. Most of the counties of England have their own trust, which were represented by the Association of Gardens Trusts, which since 2015 forms part of The Gardens Trust. In London there is the Garden Museum, covering all aspects of gardening history and with a large and growing collection of objects such as old tools. In the United States, The Garden Conservancy actively assists in the preservation of notable gardens, there is the California Garden and Landscape History Society for events and education in California specifically. The Garden Club of Virginia has restored many of the most notable gardens in Virginia since its founding around 1913.
A Historic Garden Week is run, in part to money for restorations. History of gardening Landscape design history Historic Gardens Foundation Garden History Society Garden Museum The Garden Conservancy
A garden tool is any one of many tools made for gardens and gardening and overlaps with the range of tools made for agriculture and horticulture. Garden tools can be tools and power tools. The hand tools used by gardeners originated with the earliest agricultural implements used by humans. Examples include, Axe Sickle Pitchfork Spade Scythe Shovel Trowel Hoe Fork Rake In some places the machete may be used as a tool as well. The earliest tools were made of wood, metal, however, the development of metal working, first in copper and in iron and steel, enabled the manufacture of more durable tools. Industrial metalworking enabled the manufacture of efficient cutting tools, including pruning shears, grass shears and larger, modern tool design includes ergonomics considerations. Tools are being designed that induce ever less stress on the body when used. The most efficient tools keep the body in a position while being used. This helps to lessen the stress on joints and muscles, an advantage of this approach is that it requires gardeners to exert less energy whilst using the tools.
Some modern patents such as US7,832,125 show an example without hand stop provisions, the first power tool to become popular with gardeners was the lawn mower. US emission standards specifically limit emissions from small engines. Agricultural machinery Antique tool Cutting tool Diamond tool Groundskeeping equipment Hand tool Landscape products Mechanised agriculture Power tool Tool BBC How to be a gardener
Natural landscaping, called native gardening, is the use of native plants, including trees, shrubs and grasses which are indigenous to the geographic area of the garden. However, these applications may be necessary for some care of trees. Native plants suit todays interest in gardening and landscaping, with many species vigorous and hardy and able to survive winter cold. Once established, they can flourish without irrigation or fertilization, and are resistant to most pests, native plants provide suitable habitat for native species of butterflies, birds and other wildlife. They provide more variety in gardens by offering myriad alternatives to the often planted introduced species, the indigenous plants have co-evolved with animals and microbes, to form a complex network of relationships. They are the foundation of their habitats and ecosystems, or natural communities. However, while local provenance plants have adapted to conditions, there will often be instances, especially in cities. Examples include, Building rubble used as landfill may raise soil pH, buildings cast a substantial shade, this may give rise to conditions substantially shadier than needed by local plants.
Soil which is high in organic material and nutrients is often introduced into gardens, Plants from some areas may not thrive under these conditions. For example, many Australian plants are sensitive to phosphorus. Many native plants are adapted to, and benefit from, periodic wildfires that occurred before and these fires can be simulated in the garden by either high mowing or a controlled burn every few years. Many weeds in an area are usually the result of imported plants and these plants become invasive because there are no natural controls such as disease, weather, or fauna in their new environment. They take over native habitats, reducing shelter and food for local fauna, using local provenance plants increases the biodiversity of and is important for the health of a regions overall ecology. Much of the areas have been destroyed to make room for urban development. Housing developments have replaced native habitats with ornamental plants and lawns, while development wont be stopped, gardeners can keep wild areas and green spaces filled with native species on their lots and in their communities.
Despite this, there are plenty of indigenous or native plants which will grow. Rain gardens that absorb rainwater from gutters and impervious surfaces work much better when planted with native plants tolerant to the flooding and drying cycles. Some wildflower gardens attempt to recreate a prairie landscape, including native grasses along with the flowering plants, such gardens benefit the local wildlife, often attracting birds and small mammals
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials, the most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has traditionally been a more general one. Zoos, which wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called zoological gardens. Western gardens are almost universally based on plants, with garden often signifying a shortened form of botanical garden, some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants sparsely or not at all. Xeriscape gardens use local plants that do not require irrigation or extensive use of other resources while still providing the benefits of a garden environment. Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements, sometimes called follies, including features such as fountains, waterfalls or creeks, dry creek beds, arbors, trellises. Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas.
Food-producing gardens are distinguished from farms by their scale, more labor-intensive methods. Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, textures, Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional gardener, a gardener might work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space. Landscape architecture is a professional activity with landscape architects tending to specialise in design for public. See Grad for more complete etymology, the words yard and Latin hortus, are cognates—all referring to an enclosed space. The term garden in British English refers to an enclosed area of land. This would be referred to as a yard in American English, garden design is the creation of plans for the layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Gardens may be designed by garden owners themselves, or by professionals, professional garden designers tend to be trained in principles of design and horticulture, and have a knowledge and experience of using plants.
Some professional garden designers are landscape architects, a formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree. Garden design can be divided into two groups and naturalistic gardens. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget, most gardens consist of a mix of natural and constructed elements, although even very natural gardens are always an inherently artificial creation
A green wall is a wall partially or completely covered with greenery that includes a growing medium, such as soil or a substrate. Most green walls feature a water delivery system. Green walls are known as living walls or vertical gardens. These give insulation to keep the house/building warm. It is useful to distinguish green walls from green facades, Green walls may be indoors or outside, freestanding or attached to an existing wall, and come in a great variety of sizes. In 2005, he created the landmark vegetal exterior wall of the building of the Musée du quai Branly with architect Jean Nouvel. Green walls subsequently saw a surge in popularity. Of the 61 large-scale outdoor green walls listed in a database provided by greenroof. com, 80% were constructed in or after 2009. Many iconic green walls have been constructed by institutions and in places such as airports and are now becoming common. Green walls are constructed of modular panels that hold a growing medium and can be categorized according to the type of growth media used, loose media, mat media.
Loose medium walls tend to be soil-on-a-shelf or soil-in-a-bag type systems, loose medium systems have their soil packed into a shelf or bag and are installed onto the wall. These systems require their media to be replaced at least once a year on exteriors, loose soil systems are not well suited for areas with any seismic activity. Most importantly, because these systems can easily have their medium blown away by rain or heavy winds. Loose-soil systems without physical media erosion systems are best suited for the home gardener where occasional replanting is desired from season to season or year to year, loose-soil systems with physical media erosion systems are well suited for all green wall applications. Mat type systems tend to be either coir fiber or felt mats, the method of reparation of these systems is to replace large sections of the system at a time by cutting the mat out of the wall and replacing it with new mat. This process compromises the root structures of the plants on the wall.
This inefficiency often requires that these systems have a water re-circulation system put into place at an additional cost, mat media are better suited for small installations no more than eight feet in height where repairs are easily completed. Semi-open cell polyurethane sheet media utilising an egg crate pattern has successfully used in recent years for both outdoor roof gardens and vertical walls. The water holding capacity of these engineered polyurethanes vastly exceeds that of coir, polyurethanes do not biodegrade, and hence stay viable as an active substrate for 20+ years
A butterfly house, conservatory, or Daves House is a facility which is specifically intended for the breeding and display of butterflies with an emphasis on education. Some butterfly houses feature other insects and arthropods, Butterfly houses are owned and operated by museums, non-profit corporations, and private individuals as part of their residence, as well as small businesses that are owner operated. Live butterfly exhibits became popular in England in the end of the 1970s, appealing to the British love of greenhouses, the tropical worlds first live butterfly and insect sanctuary is Penang Butterfly Farm in Penang, established on March 29,1986. The first butterfly house in the United States, Butterfly World, opened in Coconut Creek, Butterfly houses are typically open to the public. Exploration of such facilities may be with a guide or self-paced, guided tours may last about fifteen minutes, as the guide points out all the species of butterflies that are in the greenhouse that day. Stocks vary, as new shipments usually arrive weekly, guides may show butterfly eggs and chrysalids and identify specific plants that are favored by each species.
Usually, the best time to see butterflies emerging from their pupae is between 10 a. m. and 1 p. m, butterflies are most active on warm and sunny days with little wind, because they require the heat of the sun to aid in their digestion. On rainy days, they hide in the flowers and leaves. There are often many different species in such houses, with stock including butterflies from Africa, South America, Costa Rica, the Philippines. The vibrant colors and patterns on the wings of the insects have earned them the nickname flying flowers. Many species of adult butterflies live only one to two weeks, during time they must produce a new generation. Some species, such as the monarch butterfly, however. List of butterfly houses List of insectariums Visiting Butterfly Houses and Gardens
A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden dedicated to the collection and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture. The role of major botanical gardens worldwide has been considered so similar as to fall within textbook definitions. The following definition was produced by staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium of Cornell University in 1976, each botanical garden naturally develops its own special fields of interests depending on its personnel, extent, available funds, and the terms of its charter. It may include greenhouses, test grounds, an herbarium, an arboretum and it maintains a scientific as well as a plant-growing staff, and publication is one of its major modes of expression.
This broad outline is expanded, The botanic garden may be an independent institution, if a department of an educational institution, it may be related to a teaching program. In any case, it exists for scientific ends and is not to be restricted or diverted by other demands. It is not merely a landscaped or ornamental garden, although it may be artistic, the essential element is the intention of the enterprise, which is the acquisition and dissemination of botanical knowledge. Worldwide, there are now about 1800 botanical gardens and arboreta in about 150 countries of which about 550 are in Europe,200 in North America, and an increasing number in East Asia. These gardens attract about 150 million visitors a year, so it is surprising that many people gained their first exciting introduction to the wonders of the plant world in a botanical garden. Historically, botanical gardens exchanged plants through the publication of seed lists and this was a means of transferring both plants and information between botanical gardens.
This system continues today, although the possibility of genetic piracy, the International Association of Botanic Gardens was formed in 1954 as a worldwide organisation affiliated to the International Union of Biological Sciences. In the United States, there is the American Public Gardens Association, the history of botanical gardens is closely linked to the history of botany itself. Then, in the 19th and 20th centuries, the trend was towards a combination of specialist, the idea of scientific gardens used specifically for the study of plants dates back to antiquity. In about 2800 BCE, the Chinese Emperor Shen Nung sent collectors to distant regions searching for plants with economic or medicinal value. Early medieval gardens in Islamic Spain resembled botanic gardens of the future and this was taken over by garden chronicler Ibn Bassal until the Christian conquest in 1085 CE. Ibn Bassal founded a garden in Seville, most of its plants being collected on an expedition that included Morocco, Sicily.
The medical school of Montpelier was founded by Spanish Arab physicians, and by 1250 CE, it included a physic garden, but the site was not given botanic garden status until 1593
History of gardening
Forest gardening, a plant-based food pro-system, is the worlds oldest form of gardening. Forest gardens originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions, in the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved while undesirable species were eliminated. Eventually alien species were selected and incorporated into the gardens. The enclosure of outdoor space began in 10,000 BC, though no one knows the specific details of the first garden, historians imagine the first enclosure was a type of barrier for excluding animals and marauders. Garden construction and design was a precursor to landscape architecture. The modern words of garden and yard are descendants of the Old English geard, vitruvius, a Roman author and engineer, wrote the oldest extant design manual in 27 BC. De architectura libri decem addressed design theory, landscape architecture, water supply, vitruvius asserted that firmitas and venustas were the primary objectives of design.
Some still consider these elements essential to quality design of landscape, after the emergence of the first civilizations, wealthy persons began to create gardens for purely aesthetic purposes. Another ancient tradition is of Persia, Darius the Great was said to have had a paradise garden, Persian gardens were designed along a central axis of symmetry. Persian influences extended to Helenic Greece after Alexander the Great, C.350 BC there were gardens at the Academy of Athens, and Theophrastus, who wrote on botany, supposedly inherited a garden from Aristotle. Epicurus had a garden where he walked and taught, and he bequeathed it to Hermarchus of Mytilene, alciphron referenced private gardens in his writing. The most influential ancient gardens in the world were those of Ptolemy in Alexandria, Egypt. Wall paintings in Pompeii, Italy attest to elaborate development, the wealthiest Romans built extensive villa gardens with water features, including fountains and rivulets, topiary and shaded arcades.
Archeological evidence survives at sites such as Hadrians Villa and Moorish Spain continued horticultural traditions after the 4th century AD and the decline of Rome. In Europe, gardening revived in Languedoc and the Île-de-France in the 13th century, the rediscovery of descriptions of antique Roman villas and gardens led to the creation of a new form of garden, the Italian Renaissance garden in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The Spanish Crown built the first public parks of this era in the 16th century, in the 19th century a welter of historical revivals and Romantic cottage-inspired gardening emerged. In England, William Robinson and Gertrude Jekyll were influential proponents of the wild garden, andrew Jackson Downing and Frederick Law Olmsted adapted European forms for North America, especially influencing the design of public parks and suburban landscapes. Olmsteds influence extended well into the 20th century, the 20th century saw the influence of modernism in the garden, from the articulate clarity of Thomas Church to the bold colors and forms of the Brazilian Roberto Burle Marx
Guerrilla gardening is the act of gardening on land that the gardeners do not have the legal rights to utilize, such as an abandoned site, an area that is not being cared for, or private property. The land that is guerrilla gardened is usually abandoned or perceived to be neglected by its legal owner and that land is used by guerrilla gardeners to raise plants, frequently focusing on food crops or plants intended for aesthetic purposes. Some guerrilla gardeners carry out their actions at night, in secrecy, to sow. Some garden at more visible hours for the purpose of publicity, the earliest recorded use of the term guerrilla gardening was by Liz Christy and her Green Guerrilla group in 1973 in the Bowery Houston area of New York. They transformed a private lot into a garden. The space is still cared for by volunteers but now enjoys the protection of the parks department. Two celebrated guerrilla gardeners, active prior to the coining of the term, were Gerrard Winstanley, of the Diggers in Surrey, the term bewildering has been used as a synonym for guerrilla gardening by Australian gardener Bob Crombie.
It has taken place since 2007, and was conceived by guerrilla gardeners in Brussels and they declared it Journée Internationale de la Guérilla Tournesol. It has been championed by guerrilla gardeners around the world, notably by GuerrillaGardening. org, in 2010, more than 5000 people signed up for the event from North America and Asia. From the mid-1970s, Adam Purple created and tended a garden in the Lower East Side of Manhattan. In 1986, when it was bulldozed by the City of New York, the short film Adam Purple and the Garden of Eden tells its history. Eventually, people began to convert the land into a park. Parts of the park were destroyed and rebuilt over time, Greenaid is a Los Angeles based organization founded in 2010 by Daniel Phillips and Kim Karlsrud of Common Studio. The organization converts vintage gumball machines to dispense seed balls, a combination of clay, once dispensed, seed balls are tossed or planted in any area that may benefit from wildflowers. Greenaid partners with business owners and citizens to distribute seedbomb vending machines in various communities worldwide, with region-specific seedbomb mixes, Greenaid aims to integrate and beautify rather than disrupt traditionally bland urban areas such as sidewalks and highway medians.
In July 2010, Greenaid received $10,398 in funding from the Kickstarter community and this funding will be used to spread the initiative to new locations and support current operations. Designer Ron Finley pioneered the growing produce on a strip of parkway lawn, developing the Clean and Glean method of Guerrilla Gardening Scott Bunnell has been refining guerrilla gardening methods for over 30 years. In 2008 he started the SoCal Guerrilla Gardening Club adding more drought tolerant gardens, having dozens of guerrilla gardens in Los Angeles County
Garden design is the art and process of designing and creating plans for layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Garden design may be done by the owner themselves, or by professionals of varying levels of experience. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the prescribed budget, a gardens location can have a substantial influence on its design. The soils of the site will affect what types of plant may be grown, as will the gardens climate zone, the locational context of the garden can influence its design, for example an urban setting may require a different design style to a rural one. Similarly, a coastal location may necessitate a different treatment compared to a sheltered inland site. The quality of a soil can have a significant influence on a gardens design. However soils may be replaced or improved in order to them more suitable. Traditionally, garden soil is improved by amendment, the process of adding beneficial materials to the native subsoil and particularly the topsoil.
The added materials, which may consist of compost, sand, mineral dust, or manure, among others, are mixed with the soil to the preferred depth. The amount and type of amendment may depend on many factors, including the amount of existing soil humus, the structure, the soil acidity/alkalinity. One source states that, conditioning the soil thoroughly before planting enables the plants to establish themselves quickly, not all gardens are, or should be, amended in this manner, since many plants prefer an impoverished soil. In this case, poor soil is better than a soil that has been artificially enriched. The design of a garden can be affected by the nature of its boundaries, planting can be used to modify an existing boundary line by softening or widening it. Introducing internal boundaries can help divide or break up a garden into smaller areas, the main types of boundary within a garden are hedges and fences. A hedge may be evergreen or deciduous, formal or informal, short or tall, depending on the style of the garden and purpose of the boundary. A wall has a strong foundation beneath it at all points, a fence differs from a wall in that it is anchored only at intervals, and is usually constructed using wood or metal.
In temperate western gardens, an expanse of lawn is often considered essential to a garden. However garden designers may use other surfaces, for example those made up of gravel, small pebbles, or wood chips in order to create a different appearance
18th century English gardens and French landscape gardening often featured mock Roman temples, symbolising classical virtues. Other 18th century garden follies represented Chinese temples, Egyptian pyramids, ruined abbeys, or Tatar tents, sometimes they represented rustic villages and cottages to symbolise rural virtues. Many follies, particularly during times of famine, such as the Irish potato famine, were built as a form of relief, to provide employment for peasants. The concept of the folly is subjective and it has suggested that the definition of a folly lies in the eyes of the beholder. Typical characteristics include, They have no other than as an ornament. Often they have some of the appearance of a building constructed for a purpose, such as a castle or tower. Equally, if they have a purpose, it may be disguised and they are buildings, or parts of buildings. Thus they are distinguished from other garden ornaments such as sculpture, follies are deliberately built as ornaments. They are often eccentric in design or construction and this is not strictly necessary, however, it is common for these structures to call attention to themselves through unusual details or form.
There is often an element of fakery in their construction, the canonical example of this is the sham ruin, a folly which pretends to be the remains of an old building but which was in fact constructed in that state. They were built or commissioned for pleasure, follies began as decorative accents on the great estates of the late 16th century and early 17th century but they flourished especially in the two centuries which followed. Many estates had ruins of houses and Roman villas, lacking such buildings. However, very few follies are completely without a practical purpose, apart from their decorative aspect, many originally had a use which was lost later, such as hunting towers. Follies are misunderstood structures, according to The Folly Fellowship, a charity that exists to celebrate the history and they were usually in the form of Roman temples, ruined Gothic abbeys, or Egyptian pyramids. In France they sometimes took the form of romantic farmhouses and cottages, sometimes they were copied from landscape paintings by painters such as Claude Lorrain and Hubert Robert.
Often, they had symbolic importance, illustrating the virtues of ancient Rome, in the 18th century, the follies became more exotic, representing other parts of the world, including Chinese pagodas, Japanese bridges, and Tatar tents. The Irish Potato Famine of 1845-49 led to the building of several follies, the society of the day held that reward without labour was misguided. However, to hire the needy for work on useful projects would deprive existing workers of their jobs, construction projects termed famine follies came to be built