Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
The Scuola Normale Superiore is a university institution of higher education based in Pisa and Florence attended by about 600 undergraduate and post graduate students. It was founded in 1810 with a decree by Napoleon as a branch of the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, with the aim of training the teachers of the Empire to educate its citizens according to educational and methodological "norms". Eminent personalities from the world of science and politics have studied at the Normale, among them Giosuè Carducci, Carlo Rubbia, Enrico Fermi and Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, as well as Alessio Figalli, in more recent times. In 2013 the Florentine site was added to the historical site in Pisa, following the inclusion of the Institute of Human Sciences in Florence. Since 2018 the Scuola Normale Superiore has been federated with the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies in Pisa and with the Institute for Advanced Studies of Pavia, the only other two university institutions with special status that, in the Italian panorama, offer, in accordance with standards of excellence, both undergraduate and postgraduate educational activities.
It ranks first in Italy in the PCP parameter of the "Academic Ranking of World Universities", second among Italian universities in the “Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2019", first in Italy in the Teaching parameter. The Scuola Normale Superiore was founded in 1810 by Napoleonic decree, as twin institution of the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, itself dating back to the French Revolution jurisdiction; the term école normale was coined by Joseph Lakanal who, in submitting a report to the National Convention of 1794 on behalf of the Committee of Public Instruction, explained it as follows: "Normales: du latin norma, règle. Ces écoles doivent être en effet le type et la règle de toutes les autres." "This schools must indeed be the kind and rule of all others" The Napoleonic decree of 18 October 1810, concerning "public education establishments" in Tuscany – a province of the French empire from 1807 - established an "Academic student residence" in Pisa for university students.
Twenty-five places were made available for students of the Faculties of Arts and Sciences, to create a branch of the Parisian École Normale Supérieure in countries where the use of the Italian language was authorized. The Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa was thus established at the behest of Napoleon; the term "Normale" refers to its primary teaching mission, to train high school teachers to educate citizens according to coherent teaching and methodological "norms". On 22 February 1811 the first call was issued, but the Pisa-based Normale began its activity only in 1813, when the first students of Arts and Sciences attended the Scuola; the first site of the Scuola was the convent of San Silvestro in Pisa: it was a student residence halfway between a military order and a convent, in which the life of the students was characterized by strict disciplinary regulations similar to those of the French Scuola of reference regarding admissions, punishments and student clothing. Following the model of the École Normale Supérieure, the Scuola was entrusted to a "Director", assisted by the "Sub-director" and by the "Economo", in charge of administration, supervision of studies and the safeguarding of order.
The Normale was reserved at that time to the best high school students, aged between 17 and 24, who during their two years of studies obtained degrees at the faculties of Arts and Sciences of the Imperial University. The students had particular commitments and were obliged to take additional courses: they were supervised by four "ripetitori", chosen by the Director among the students of the Normale, who “repeated” the university lessons daily and coordinated the "conferences", which were a sort of seminar. With this qualifying training, after graduation the students committed themselves to teaching in secondary schools for at least ten years; the Napoleonic Scuola Normale had a short life: the only academic year was 1813/14, during which the physicist Ranieri Gerbi was Director. On 6 April 1814 Napoleon signed the act of abdication: the return of Grand Duke Ferdinand III to the throne of Tuscany coincided with the closure of the Scuola despite the various attempts to save it in the name of its function.
The period of closure of the Scuola after the Napoleonic phase was quite short. The Grand Duke's decree of 22 December 1817 re-established the ancient Ordine dei Cavalieri di Santo Stefano in Pisa: in 1843 the Council of the Order proposed to establish a "boarding school for young nobles" in the Palazzo della Carovana together with a Scuola Normale, it has to be said that in the previous period novice Knights were students of the University of Pisa and therefore the Palazzo was in effect, a "noble college". In order to study the feasibility of the new project, Grand Duke Leopold II of Lorraine nominated a commission, which re-established the original function of the Scuola Normale Superiore, that of preparing secondary school teachers. On 28 November 1846 a grand-ducal Motuproprio established the Scuola Normale Toscana called Imperial Regia Scuola Normale. On November 15, 1847, the new headquarters in Palazzo della Carovana were inaugurated; the new Scuola was "theoretical and practical", intended to "train teachers of secondary schools".
The boarding school was attended by students of Philosophy and Philology, while s
Pavia is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 kilometres south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po. It has a population of c. 73,000. The city was the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards from 572 to 774. Pavia is the capital of the fertile province of Pavia, known for agricultural products including wine, rice and dairy products. Although there are a number of industries located in the suburbs, these tend not to disturb the peaceful atmosphere of the town, it is home to the ancient University of Pavia, which together with the IUSS, Ghislieri College, Borromeo College, Nuovo College, Santa Caterina College and the EDiSU, belongs to the Pavia Study System. Pavia is the episcopal seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Pavia; the city possesses many artistic and cultural treasures, including several important churches and museums, such as the well-known Certosa di Pavia. The Central Hospital of Pavia is one of the most important hospitals in Italy.
Dating back to pre-Roman times, the town of Pavia known as Ticinum, was a municipality and an important military site under the Roman Empire. It was said by Pliny the Elder to have been founded by the Laevi and Marici, two Ligurian tribes, while Ptolemy attributes it to the Insubres; the Roman city most began as a small military camp, built by the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio in 218 BC to guard a wooden bridge he had built over the river Ticinum, on his way to search for Hannibal, rumoured to have managed to lead an army over the Alps and into Italy. The forces of Rome and Carthage ran into each other soon thereafter, the Romans suffered the first of many crushing defeats at the hands of Hannibal, with the consul himself losing his life; the bridge was destroyed, but the fortified camp, which at the time was the most forward Roman military outpost in the Po Valley, somehow survived the long Second Punic War, evolved into a garrison town. Its importance grew with the extension of the Via Aemilia from Ariminum to the Po River, which it crossed at Placentia and there forked, one branch going to Mediolanum and the other to Ticinum, thence to Laumellum where it divided once more, one branch going to Vercellae - and thence to Eporedia and Augusta Praetoria - and the other to Valentia - and thence to Augusta Taurinorum.
It was at Pavia in 476 AD that the reign of Romulus Augustulus, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire ended and Roman rule ceased in Italy. Romulus Augustulus, while considered the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, was a usurper of the imperial throne. Though being the emperor, Romulus Augustulus was the mouthpiece for his father Orestes, the person who exercised power and governed Italy during Romulus Augustulus's short reign. Ten months after Romulus Augustulus's reign began, Orestes's soldiers under the command of one of his officers named Odoacer and killed Orestes in the city of Pavia in 476; the rioting that took place as part of Odoacer's uprising against Orestes sparked fires that burnt much of Pavia to the point that Odoacer, as the new king of Italy, had to suspend the taxes for the city for five years so that it could finance its recovery. Without his father, Romulus Augustulus was powerless. Instead of killing Romulus Augustulus, Odoacer pensioned him off at 6,000 solidi a year before declaring the end of the Western Roman Empire and himself king of the new Kingdom of Italy.
Odoacer's reign as king of Italy did not last long, because in 488 the Ostrogothic peoples led by their king Theoderic invaded Italy and waged war against Odoacer. After fighting for 5 years, Theoderic defeated Odoacer and on March 15, 493, assassinated Odoacer at a banquet meant to negotiate a peace between the two rulers. With the establishment of the Ostrogoth kingdom based in northern Italy, Theoderic began his vast program of public building. Pavia was among several cities that Theodoric chose to expand, he began the construction of the vast palace complex that would become the residence of Lombard monarchs several decades later. Theoderic commissioned the building of the Roman-styled amphitheatre and bath complex in Pavia. Near the end of Theoderic's reign the Christian philosopher Boethius was imprisoned in one of Pavia's churches from 522 to 525 before his execution for treason, it was during Boethius's captivity in Pavia that he wrote his seminal work the Consolation of Philosophy. Pavia played an important role in the war between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Ostrogoths that began in 535.
After the Eastern Roman general Belisarius's victory over the Ostrogothic leader Wittigis in 540 and the loss of most of the Ostrogoth lands in Italy, Pavia was among the last centres of Ostrogothic resistance that continued the war and opposed Eastern Roman rule. After the capitulation of the Ostrogothic leadership in 540 more than a thousand men remained garrisoned in Pavia and Verona dedicated to opposing Eastern Roman rule; the resilience of Ostrogoth strongholds like Pavia against invading forces allowed pockets of Ostrogothic rule to limp along until being defeated in 561. Pavia and the peninsula of Italy didn't remain long under the rule of the Eastern Roman Empire, for in 568, a new people invaded Italy; this new invading people in 568
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies
The Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies is a special-statute public university located in Pisa, operating in the field of applied sciences. The rector is Pierdomenico Perata, elected on 8 May 2013 after the resignation of Maria Chiara Carrozza, when she became Member of Parliament and Minister of Education and Research. Since January 2014, the school has been presided over by Yves Mény; the former president was Giuliano Amato, a former prime minister of Italy and judge of the Constitutional Court. The Sant'Anna is part of the Pisa University System, together with the Scuola Normale Superiore and the University of Pisa, it is one of the three sanctioned special-statute universities in Italy, i.e. it has'university status', being part of the process of Superior Graduate Schools in Italy or Scuola Superiore Universitaria. The present-day Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies is the descendant of several institutions modeled on the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa known in Italian as Scuola Normale, a higher learning institution in Pisa.
It was founded by Napoleonic decree, as a branch of the École Normale Supérieure of Paris. The school, whose origins, in the context of the Pisa university reality, are rooted in the Collegio Medico-Giuridico attached to the Scuola Normale Superiore and the Collegio ‘Antonio Pacinotti, was formally established by the Law of 14 February 1987, No. 41, which marked the unification of the Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento Law, No. 117, the Conservatorio di Sant’Anna, the Royal Decree of 13 February 1908 No. LXXVIII. Sant'Anna Church and ConventThe present-day site is acquired from a ancient religious educational establishment; the Sant'Anna Church and Convent was established in 1406, while the church was finished in 1426, by the Order of the Benedictine Nuns. Conservatorio di Sant'AnnaIn 1785, the Conservatorio di Sant'Anna was initiated by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor as a consequence of abolition of the religious orders due to Leopold's reforms.
Conservatorio di Sant'Anna, an educational institution. Sant'Anna replaced Antonio Pacinotti in 1987, when the School gained its current headquarters. In 1987 the Benedictine Nuns dedicated the Sant'Anna Church and Convent to the Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e Perfezionamento, provided the School carried the name of Sant'Anna; the origins of Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies within Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa: the Scuola Normale Superiore was founded in 1810 by Napoleonic decree, as twin institution of the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, itself dating back to the French Revolution jurisdiction. The term “École Normale” was coined by Joseph Lakanal who, in submitting a report to the National Convention of 1794 on behalf of the Committee of Public Instruction, explained it thus: “Normales: du latin norma, règle. Ces écoles doivent être en effet le type et la règle de toutes les autres.” The Decree of Foundation - Napoleon I rethought the project of an École Normale in 1808, by establishing a Normale Hall of Residence in Paris to house young students and train them in the art of teaching the humanities and sciences.
The project was replicated in Tuscany by a decree dated 18 October 1810, with the foundation in Pisa, seat of one of the Imperial University academies, of a branch of the Paris-based École Normale Supérieure, "Scuola Normale Superiore". The Grand-Duchy Period: 1847-1859 - on 28 November 1846, a grand-ducal motu proprio founded a Tuscan Scuola Normale in Pisa, with both theoretical and practical aims, under the patronage of the Order of Saint Stephen, but depending on the University of Pisa; the Scuola Normale during the Kingdom of Italy: 1859-1862 - on 17 October 1862 the Minister of Education of the Kingdom of Italy Carlo Matteucci implemented new regulations in a decree that transformed the institution to the Normal School of the Kingdom of Italy, to have an organic division between the faculties of Arts and Sciences. The Scuola Normale under Gentile: 1928-1943 - philosopher Giovanni Gentile, was placed at the head of the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa as commissioner in 1928 and as director in 1932.
He reformed the Scuola, gave it formal autonomy and sought an expansion to other disciplines, with the creation of the Collegio Mussolini per le Scienze Corporative, the Collegio Nazionale Medico. The new colleges were merged to form the Collegio Medico-Giuridico, which continued to operate under the jurisdiction of the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. Post-war Period - Scuola Normale Superiore in 1951, established the Antonio Pacinotti boarding school i.e. Collegio ‘Antonio Pacinotti, reserved to students of the faculties of Agriculture and Engineering, with plans to be further opened to other faculties; the origins of present-day structure of Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies: the present structure of Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies was established in 1967 as Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e Perfezionamento, by a merger of the Collegio Antonio Pacinotti, the Collegio Medico-Giuridico of the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The new institution, committed to the model established by the Scuola Normale Supe
University of Pavia
The University of Pavia is a university located in Pavia, Italy. It has thirteen faculties. An edict issued by the Frankish king of Italy Lothar I mentions the existence of a higher education institution at Pavia as early as AD 825; this institution devoted to ecclesiastical and civil law as well as to divinity studies, was selected as the prime educational centre for northern Italy. Established as a studium generale by the Holy Roman emperor Charles IV in 1361, the institution was enlarged and renovated by the duke of Milan, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, becoming the sole university in the Duchy of Milan until the end of the 19th century. During the ongoing Italian War of 1521-6, the authorities in Pavia were forced to close the university in 1524. In 1858, the University was the scene of intense student protests against Austrian rule in northern Italy; the authorities responded by ordering the university's temporary closure. The incidents at Pavia were typical of the wave of nationalist demonstrations all over Italy that preceded the Unification.
During the following centuries, through periods of both adversity and prosperity, the fame of the University of Pavia grew over the last years due to the large number of applicants. Throughout its history, the university has benefited from the presence of many learned men and distinguished scientists who wrote celebrated works and made important discoveries: mathematician Girolamo Cardano, physicist Alessandro Volta, poet Ugo Foscolo. Three Nobel Prize winners taught in Pavia: physician Camillo Golgi, chemist Giulio Natta and Carlo Rubbia. Critical to the university's reputation was its distinguished record of public education, epitomised by the establishment of 5 private and public colleges; the oldest colleges, the Collegio Borromeo and Collegio Ghislieri, were built in the 16th century, in more recent times others were founded through both public and private initiatives: the Nuovo College, the Santa Caterina College and other eleven colleges EDiSU. In 1997 the IUSS, was established, a Higher Learning Institution analogous to the Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Superiore Sant'Anna in Pisa.
The IUSS is the federal body that links the 5 colleges of Pavia which constitute the Pavia University System. Today, the University continues to offer a wide variety of disciplinary and inter-disciplinary teaching. Research is carried out in departments, clinics and laboratories, in close association with public and private institutions and factories; the university has eighteen departments: Department of Clinical Surgery and Pediatrics Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Therapy Department of Molecular Medicine Department of Public Health and Forensic Medicine Department of Neuroscience Department of Pharmacy Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Lazzaro Spallanzani" Department of Chemistry Department of Mathematics Department of Physics Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture Department of Industrial and Information Engineering Department of Economics and Management Department of Law Department of Political and Social Sciences Department of Humanities Department of Musicology Italian - Most of the courses in the University of Pavia are taught in Italian.
English - One single-cycle master's degree and seven master's degrees are offered in English. These degrees are:Six-year degree in Medicine and Surgery Master's degree in Molecular Biology and Genetics Master's degree in Electronic engineering Master's degree in Computer engineering Master's degree in Industrial Automation Engineering Master's degree in International Business and Entrepreneurship Master's degree in Economics and International Integration Master's degree in World Politics and International Relations Michele Ghislieri, Pope Pio V Mario Ageno, biophysics pioneer Cesare Beccaria and philosopher Eugenio Beltrami and physician Sigismondo Boldoni, philosopher, physician Gerolamo Cardano, physician and gambler Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, population geneticist Alfonso Giacomo Gaspare Corti and scientist Baldus de Ubaldis, jurist Contardo Ferrini, jurist Ugo Foscolo, writer and poet Guglielmo Gasparrini and mycologist Camillo Golgi, Nobel prize in Medicine and Physiology Giulio Natta, Nobel prize in Chemistry Otto Ohlendorf, SS general and Holocaust perpetrator, executed for war crimes Gian Domenico Romagnosi, jurist and economist Carlo Rubbia, Nobel prize in Physics Antonio Scarpa and scientist Dionysios Solomos, poet Lazzaro Spallanzani, biologist Lorenzo Valla and philologist Alessandro Volta, developer of the first electric cell Andreas Vesalius, anatomist Angela Agostini Warren Irkendale Roger Bannister Ronald Syme Guido Calabresi Kenneth William, Lord Wedderburn of Charlton.