A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Mastering, a form of audio post production, is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device, the source from which all copies will be produced. In recent years digital masters have become usual, although analog masters, such as audio tapes, are still being used by the manufacturing industry, notably by a few engineers who have chosen to specialize in analog mastering. Mastering requires critical listening. Results still depend upon the intent of the engineer, the accuracy of the speaker monitors, the listening environment. Mastering engineers may need to apply corrective equalization and dynamic compression in order to optimise sound translation on all playback systems, it is standard practice to make a copy of a master recording, known as a safety copy, in case the master is lost, damaged or stolen. In the earliest days of the recording industry, all phases of the recording and mastering process were achieved by mechanical processes.
Performers sang and/or played into a large acoustic horn and the master recording was created by the direct transfer of acoustic energy from the diaphragm of the recording horn to the mastering lathe located in an adjoining room. The cutting head, driven by the energy transferred from the horn, inscribed a modulated groove into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc; these masters were made from either a soft metal alloy or from wax. After the introduction of the microphone and electronic amplifier in the mid-1920s, the mastering process became electro-mechanical, electrically driven mastering lathes came into use for cutting master discs; until the introduction of tape recording, master recordings were always cut direct-to-disc. Only a small minority of recordings were mastered using recorded material sourced from other discs. In the late 1940s, the recording industry was revolutionized by the introduction of magnetic tape. Magnetic tape was invented for recording sound by Fritz Pfleumer in 1928 in Germany, based on the invention of magnetic wire recording by Valdemar Poulsen in 1898.
Not until the end of World War II could the technology be found outside Europe. The introduction of magnetic tape recording enabled master discs to be cut separately in time and space from the actual recording process. Although tape and other technical advances improved audio quality of commercial recordings in the post-war years, the basic constraints of the electro-mechanical mastering process remained, the inherent physical limitations of the main commercial recording media—the 78 rpm disc and the 7-inch 45 rpm single and 33-1/3 rpm LP record—meant that the audio quality, dynamic range, running time of master discs were still limited compared to media such as the compact disc. From the 1950s until the advent of digital recording in the late 1970s, the mastering process went through several stages. Once the studio recording on multi-track tape was complete, a final mix was prepared and dubbed down to the master tape either a single-track mono or two-track stereo tape. Prior to the cutting of the master disc, the master tape was subjected to further electronic treatment by a specialist mastering engineer.
After the advent of tape it was found that for pop recordings, master recordings could be made so that the resulting record would sound better. This was done by making fine adjustments to the amplitude of sound at different frequency bands prior to the cutting of the master disc. Record mastering became a prized and skilled craft, it was recognized that good mastering could make or break a commercial pop recording; as a result, the independent mastering studio was born. Early independent mastering engineers included Doug Sax, Bob Ludwig, Bob Katz and Bernie Grundman and Denny Purcell. In large recording companies such as EMI, the mastering process was controlled by specialist staff technicians who were conservative in their work practices; these big companies were reluctant to make changes to their recording and production processes. For example, EMI was slow in taking up innovations in multi-track recording and they did not install 8-track recorders in their Abbey Road Studios until the late 1960s, more than a decade after the first commercial 8-track recorders were installed by American independent studios.
In the 1990s, electro-mechanical processes were superseded by digital technology, with digital recordings stored on hard disk drives or digital tape and mastered to CD. The digital audio workstation became common in many mastering facilities, allowing the off-line manipulation of recorded audio via a graphical user interface. Although many digital processing tools are common during mastering, it is very common to use analog media and processing equipment for the mastering stage. Just as in other areas of audio, the benefits and drawbacks of digital technology compared to analog technology are still a matter for debate. However, in the field of audio mastering, the debate is over the use of digital versus analog signal processing rather than the use of digital technology for storage of audio. Digital systems allow mixing to be performed at lower maximum levels. With peaks between -3 and -9 dBFS on a mix, the mastering engineer has enough headroom to process and produce a final master, it is important to allow enough headroom for the mastering engineer's work.
Reduction of headroom by the mix or
Metalworks Studios is a music recording studio in Mississauga, Canada. It was established in 1978 by Gil Moore of the Canadian rock group Triumph. Over a span of 40 years, Metalworks is the 17 time recipient of Canadian Music Week's'Studio of the Year'. Since 1978 Metalworks Studios, has expanded into a six studio facility offering in-house tracking and mastering, as well as video editing and DVD authoring. In 2004, Metalworks Studios launched an adjacent educational facility. Metalworks Studios has won 17'Studio of the Year' awards at Canadian Music Week from 1998-2015. Metalworks has a total of six studios, including four with live rooms for in-house recording and mixing, a mastering suite, a sixth facility dedicated to video editing; the control room in Studio 1 features a vintage 32x8x32 Neve 8036 console, re-engineered by Stuart Taylor and Dave Dickson. The tracking room features a 1,200-square-foot solid maple studio floor, combined with a high ceiling surrounded by wood and stone walls.
The control room in Studio 2 features an 80-input Solid State Logic 4080 G+ console with Ultimation and Total Recall. The adjacent 280-square-foot tracking room features high ceiling. Studio 2 includes a private lounge; the control room in Studio 3 features the Solid State Logic 4040 G/E console. The adjoining ISO-Booth is designed for instrumental overdubs as well as voice work, the studio includes a modern lounge featuring a skylight. Studio 4 is a video editing and DVD/Blu-ray authoring facility specializing in visual production and still menu design, interactive features, post-production, audio/video encoding, authoring. Studio 5 is a mastering suite featuring: Steinberg WaveLab, Pro Tools HD3, Avalon, Studer A820 1/2" Tape Machine, Weiss, TC System 6000, Mark Levinson and more. Online mastering services are provided by this facility; the control room in Studio 6 features an 80 input Solid State Logic 9080 J console with Ultimation, Total Recall & SL959 5.1 Surround Matrix. This large-scale mixing facility is capable of recording and mixing in 5.1 with a Pro Tools 10 HD3 accel system.
A 9 ft film screen and Sony video monitors are available for DVD and Film/TV applications, the room is Dolby authorized. The adjacent 550-square-foot tracking room features a stone fireplace and high ceiling, is surrounded by an oak paneled private lounge and billiard area; the recording studios at Metalworks provide tracking, digital editing, audio post-production, CD mastering capabilities. Video editing and DVD/Blu-ray authoring services are made available by a dedicated video editing facility in Studio 4. Metalworks Production Group, a sister company of Metalworks Studios provides in-house event options within several of the studios allowing for video and staging system services for live events and recordings. Teenage Heads Catherine Zeta-Jones Renée Zellweger Steven Seagal Richard Gere Denise Richards 2014 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2013 SME Excellence Award - Ontario Business Achievement Awards 2013 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2012 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2011 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2009 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2008 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2007 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2006 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2005 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2004 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2003 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2002 Mississauga Board of Trade and the Arts Award in recognition of ‘Outstanding Contribution to the Arts Community of Mississauga’ 2002 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2001 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 2000 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 1999 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year 1998 Canadian Music Week Recording Studio of The Year Metalworks Institute is a registered private career college and the sister company of Metalworks Studios and Metalworks Production Group.
Metalworks Institute offers diploma programs in: Audio Production and Engineering, Entertainment Business Management, Show Production and Event Management and Music Performance and Technology (Drums & Percussion, Bass Guitar, Guitar and Vocals. Metalworks Institute is an official Digidesign pro school. Media related to Metalworks Studios at Wikimedia Commons
Volition is the fourth studio album by Canadian progressive metal band Protest the Hero released on October 29, 2013 through Razor & Tie. Volition marks the band's first record not to be released through Underground Operations or with any financial backing of label support. Instead, the entire album was funded by their fans via an Indiegogo campaign, where they met and exceeded their goal of $125,000 CAD; the first album of the band to not feature its original lineup, it features Chris Adler from Lamb of God on drums after the departure of founding member Moe Carlson, who left the band prior to the recording process. On October 16, due to the album being leaked, the band released the content early to contributors of their IndieGoGo campaign; the album debuted at No. 20 on the Billboard 200 in the U. S, it is the band's last album with bassist Arif Mirabdolbaghi. At Alternative Press, Kevin Stewart-Panko stated that " have long been the tenuous link between metal old and new, Volition continues their polished combination of technical thrash, punkish melodies and mining of disparate influences, from'80's maestros Watchtower and Toxik to energy drink mayhem like DragonForce and NOFX."
Loudwire's Chad Bowar described the album as "a wild ride that’s grounded in excellent musicianship and innovative songwriting". Chris Adler's involvement on the album was praised, with one reviewer saying that, while " progressive/metalcore/mathcore/post-hardcore style is nothing like Lamb of God’s... Adler is an skilled player and had no problem fitting right in."The album won the 2014 Juno Award for Metal/Hard Music Album of the Year. All lyrics written by Rody Walker. Rody Walker — vocals Tim Millar — guitar, piano Luke Hoskin — guitar, acoustic guitar Arif Mirabdolbaghi - bass Chris Adler — drums Cameron McLellan — production, mixing, bass guitar on track 4, acoustic guitar on track 6 Anthony Calabretta — additional production, mixing Julius Butty — additional production Jason Dufour — engineering, digital editing Jack Clow — assistant engineer, drum technician Moe Carlson - additional songwriting on tracks 3, 7, 9 and 10 Riley Bell — assistant engineer Dan Mumford — album artwork Jadea Kelly — vocals on tracks 1, 4, 5, 6 Kayla Howran — vocals on track 2 Mark Iannelli — vocals on track 7 AJ Kolar — vocals on track 7 Todd Kowalski — vocals on track 9 Kevin Lewis — vocals on track 11 Josh Hainge — vocals on track 11 Marc Palin — vocals on track 11 Ron Jarzombek — guitar on track 2 Wyatt Schutt — guitar on track 5 Raha Javanfar — violin, fiddle on tracks 1, 2, 5, 8
Myspace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, groups, photos and videos. Myspace was the largest social networking site in the world from 2005 to 2009, it is headquartered in California. Myspace was acquired by News Corporation in July 2005 for $580 million, in June 2006 surpassed Google as the most visited website in the United States. In April 2008, Myspace was overtaken by Facebook in the number of unique worldwide visitors and was surpassed in the number of unique U. S. visitors in May 2009, though Myspace generated $800 million in revenue during the 2008 fiscal year. Since the number of Myspace users has declined in spite of several redesigns; as of January 2018, Myspace was ranked 4,153 by total Web traffic, 1,657 in the United States. Myspace had a significant influence on pop culture and music and created a computer game platform that launched the successes of Zynga and RockYou, among others. Despite an overall decline, in 2015 Myspace still had 50.6 million unique monthly visitors and had a pool of nearly 1 billion active and inactive registered users.
In June 2009, Myspace employed 1,600 employees. In June 2011, Specific Media Group and Justin Timberlake jointly purchased the company for $35 million. On February 11, 2016, it was announced that Myspace and its parent company had been purchased by Time Inc. Time Inc. was in turn purchased by the Meredith Corporation on January 31, 2018. In August 2003, several eUniverse employees with Friendster accounts saw potential in its social networking features; the group decided to mimic the more popular features of the website. Within 10 days, the first version of Myspace was ready for launch, implemented using ColdFusion. A complete infrastructure of finance, human resources, technical expertise and server capacity was available for the site; the project was overseen by Brad Greenspan, who managed Chris DeWolfe, Josh Berman, Tom Anderson, a team of programmers and resources provided by eUniverse. The first Myspace users were eUniverse employees; the company held contests to see. EUniverse used its 20 million users and e-mail subscribers to breathe life into Myspace, move it to the head of the pack of social networking websites.
A key architect was tech expert Toan Nguyen who helped stabilize the Myspace platform when Brad Greenspan asked him to join the team. Co-founder and CTO Aber Whitcomb played an integral role in software architecture, utilizing the superior development speed of ColdFusion over other dynamic database driven server-side languages of the time. Despite over ten times the number of developers, developed in JavaServer Pages, could not keep up with the speed of development of Myspace and cfm; the MySpace.com domain was owned by YourZ.com, Inc. intended until 2002 for use as an online data storage and sharing site. By late 2003, it was transitioned from a file storage service to a social networking site. A friend, who worked in the data storage business, reminded Chris DeWolfe that he had earlier bought the domain MySpace.com. DeWolfe suggested. Brad Greenspan nixed the idea, believing that keeping Myspace free was necessary to make it a successful community. Myspace gained popularity among teenagers and young adults.
In February 2005, DeWolfe held talks with Mark Zuckerberg over acquiring Facebook but DeWolfe rejected Zuckerberg's $75 million offer. Some employees of Myspace, including DeWolfe and Berman, were able to purchase equity in the property before MySpace and its parent company eUniverse was bought. In July 2005, in one of the company's first major Internet purchases, Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation purchased Myspace for US$580 million. News Corporation had beat out Viacom by offering a higher price for the website, the purchase was seen as a good investment at the time. Of the $580 million purchase price $327 million has been attributed to the value of Myspace according to the financial adviser fairness opinion. Within a year, Myspace had tripled in value from its purchase price. News Corporation saw the purchase as a way to capitalize on Internet advertising and drive traffic to other News Corporation properties. After losing the bidding war for Myspace, Viacom chairman Sumner Redstone stunned the entertainment industry in September 2006 when he fired Tom Freston from the position of CEO. Redstone believed that the failure to acquire MySpace contributed to the 20% drop in Viacom's stock price in 2006 up to the date of Freston's ouster.
Freston's successor as CEO, Philippe Dauman, was quoted as saying "never let another competitor beat us to the trophy". Redstone told interviewer Charlie Rose that losing MySpace had been "humiliating", adding, "MySpace was sitting there for the taking for $500 million" In January 2006, Fox announced plans to launch a UK version of Myspace in a bid to "tap into the UK music scene", which they did, they launched similar versions in other countries. The 100 millionth account was created on August 2006, in the Netherlands. On November 1, 2007, Myspace and Bebo joined the Google-led OpenSocial alliance, which included Friendster, Hi5, LinkedIn, Plaxo and Six Apart. OpenSocial was to promote a common set of standards for software developers to write programs for social networks. Facebook remained independent. Google had been unsuccessful in build
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i