Ulster Special Constabulary
The Ulster Special Constabulary was a quasi-military reserve special constable police force in Northern Ireland. It was set up in October 1920, shortly before the partition of Ireland, it was an armed corps, organised on military lines and called out in times of emergency, such as war or insurgency. It performed this role in 1920–22 during the Irish War of Independence and in the 1950s, during the IRA Border Campaign. During its existence, 95 USC members were killed in the line of duty. Most of these were killed in conflict with the IRA in 1921 and 1922. Another 8 died in air raids or IRA attacks. Of the remainder, most died in accidents but two former officers were killed during the Troubles in the 1980s; the force was exclusively Ulster Protestant and as a result was viewed with great mistrust by Catholics. It carried out several revenge killings and reprisals against Catholic civilians in the 1920–22 conflict. Unionists supported the USC as contributing to the defence of Northern Ireland from subversion and outside aggression.
The Special Constabulary was disbanded in May 1970, after the Hunt Report, which advised re-shaping Northern Ireland's security forces to attract more Catholic recruits and disarming the police. Its functions and membership were taken over by the Ulster Defence Regiment and the Royal Ulster Constabulary; the Ulster Special Constabulary was formed against the background of conflict over Irish independence and the partition of Ireland. The 1919–1921 Irish War of Independence, saw the Irish Republican Army launch a guerrilla campaign in pursuit of Irish independence. Unionists in Ireland's northeast were vehemently against this campaign and against Irish independence. However, once it became apparent that the British government was committed to implementing a form of home rule in Ireland, far more generous than what was on offer prior to the First World War, unionists in Ulster directed their energies into the partition of Ireland by the creation of Northern Ireland as an autonomous region within the remaining United Kingdom.
The new region was not to consist of the whole of Ulster, but rather the six counties of it that the unionists believed they could comfortably control. Partition was enacted by the British Parliament in the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Two main factors were behind the formation of the Ulster Special Constabulary. One was the desire of the unionists, led by Sir James Craig, that the apparatus of government and security should be placed in their hands long before Northern Ireland was formally established. A second reason was that violence in the north was increasing after the summer of 1920; the IRA began extending attacks to Royal Irish Constabulary barracks and tax offices in the north and there had been serious rioting between Catholics and Protestants in Derry in May and June and in Belfast in July, which had left up to 40 people dead. With police and troops being drawn towards combating insurgency in the south and west, unionists wanted a force that would both take on the IRA and help the under-strength RIC with normal police duties.
Furthermore, many unionists did not trust the RIC, which being an all-Ireland force was Catholic. A third aim was to control unionist paramilitary groups, who threatened, in the words of Craig, "a recourse to arms, which would precipitate civil war". Craig proposed to the British cabinet a new "volunteer constabulary" which "must be raised from the loyal population" and organised, "on military lines" and "armed for duty within the six county area only", he recommended that "the organisation of the Ulster Volunteers should be used for this purpose". Wilfrid Spender, the former UVF quartermaster in 1913–14, by now a decorated war hero, was appointed by Craig to form and run the USC. UVF units were "incorporated en masse" into the new USC; the idea of a volunteer police force in the north appealed to British Prime Minister David Lloyd George for several practical reasons. Special Constabulary Acts had been enacted in 1832 and 1914, meaning that the administration in Dublin Castle only had to use existing laws to create it.
The formation of the Ulster Special Constabulary was therefore announced on 22 October 1920. On 1 November 1920, the scheme was announced by the British government; the composition of the USC was overwhelmingly unionist, for a number of reasons. Several informal unionist "constabulary" groups had been created, for example, in Belfast and Antrim; the Ulster Unionist Labour Association had established an "unofficial special constabulary," with members drawn chiefly from the shipyards, tasked with ‘policing’ Protestant areas. In April 1920, Captain Sir Basil Brooke, had set up "Fermanagh Vigilance", a vigilante group to provide defence against incursions by the IRA. In Ballymacarrett, a Protestant rector named John Redmond had helped form a unit of ex-servicemen to keep the peace after the July riots. There was a willingness to recognise existing Protestant militias. Wilfrid Spender, head of the Ulster Volunteer Force, encouraged his members to join. There was an illicit supply of arms available. Charles Wickham, Chief of Police for the north of Ireland, favoured incorporation of the Ulster Volunteers into "regular military units" instead of having to "face them down".
A number of these groups were absorbed into the new Ulster Special Constabulary. Sinn Féin pointed out that the composition of
Knights of Saint Columbanus
The Order of the Knights of Saint Columbanus is an Irish national Catholic fraternal organisation. Founded by Canon James K. O'Neill in Belfast, Ireland in 1915, it was named in honour of the Irish saint, Saint Columbanus. Established as a mutual benefit society to working class Catholics, it has developed into a fraternal benefit society dedicated to providing charitable services to all areas of the Irish community. There are 68 councils across all 32 counties on the island of Ireland. Membership of the order is open to their families aged 18 and over. There is a youth division of the order open to younger men aged from 16 up called the Associate Knights of St Columbanus; the Order is a founding member of the International Alliance of Catholic Knights. The Pope John Paul II Awards have been chosen by the Knights of St Columbanus as its National Project and have been financially supporting the Awards throughout Ireland; the Award, established in 2006 in the Diocese of Derry and encourages active involvement of 16-18 year olds in the life of their parish and community.
Fr. James Kearney O'Neill, of Ballycastle, Co. Antrim, founded the Order of the Knights of St Columbanus in 1915 "to cherish fraternal charity and to develop practical Catholicity among its members, to promote and foster the cause of the Catholic faith and Catholic education". O'Neill was influenced by social teachings of the Church, in particular the encyclical Rerum Novarum; this key encyclical, issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891, addressed the unjust condition of the working classes at that time and promoted membership of labour unions, while rejecting aspects of both socialism and capitalism. O'Neill witnessed such injustices first-hand in his role as parish priest of Sacred Heart Parish in industrial, turn of the century Belfast. By 1920, following the Partition of Ireland, events such as the shipyard expulsions in East Belfast, where Catholic workers were forcibly removed from the yards, began a two-year spate of attacks, predominantly affecting Catholic civilians in the city. Estimates suggest that between 1920 and 1922, over 450 people lost their lives with 1,100 people injured and 650 homes and businesses destroyed.
Effigies depicting Catholics being hanged from buildings were seen during this time. These events are known as the'Belfast Pogroms'. Additionally, all local government representatives were from Protestant, unionist backgrounds at this time, therefore the needs of the Catholic nationalist population could not be addressed. In the face of these situations, an organisation which sought to serve the Catholic population in Belfast was direly needed. Working with Bishop John Tohill, O'Neill arranged regular meetings at which the social teachings of Pope Leo XIII and Pope Pius X were discussed; this marked the beginning of the order as it is known today, by educating its members in social principles which can be applied to practical, real world applications. The order was placed under the patronage of St Columbanus for his missionary zeal in bringing the Good News to all in addition to infamously standing up for what’s right in the face of adversity, an issue faced by many of the early Knights; the motto ‘Instaurare omnia in Christo’ meaning ‘To restore all things in Christ’ comes from Pope Pius X.
As a keen follower of the pontiff, O’Neill adopted the same motto to which Pius X dedicated his pontificate in his first encyclical E Supremi. In it, the dire need for Catholic action on the topics of education, respect for property, maintaining order and justice in the social classes was expressed; the Order was first announced in The Irish Catholic on 10 April 1915. An order with similar views and motives to the Knights of St Columbanus, known as the Columban Knights, was merged with the KSC. Over a year four new primary councils had been established in Belfast with more following in Armagh, Derry, Lurgan and Portadown, it is thought that these councils spread throughout the country through travelling businessmen associated with the Order. Canon O'Neill is buried at St Patrick's Church, Ballyvoy, Co.. Antrim; the Order celebrates an annual Mass at the church in his honour. It is attended by Knights from all counties on the island of Ireland. Following Irish independence in 1922, the Knights became more involved in Irish politics.
At one stage, they had a significant presence in the Revenue. Indeed, it is thought that former Irish President Seán T. O'Kelly was a member of the Knights of St. Columbanus, much to the displeasure of Éamon de Valera. Members held some key positions on hospital boards in the country in the mid-20th century, alongside the Protestant Freemasons. By the 1970s, the Knights had become involved in the politics of tertiary level education, associated with University College Dublin, while the Freemasons were affiliated with Trinity College, Dublin; the Knights had been critical of the Dalkey School Project when it was first set up in 1979 as a multi-denominational school. The Knight’s involvement in these sectors has drawn criticism since the 1950s in Irish parliament, Dáil Éireann; as a result, the number of individual members of the Knights who sit on hospital and government boards has been far less significant since the 1990s. The Order as a whole however, maintain views on matters of politics and education.
One example of this is the Order's opposition to calls for the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland to be repealed which would permit abortions in the country under a broader range of circumstances. The Order maintains support for Catholic education in Ireland; the Order follows a tripartite structure, with Supreme and Primary levels. There are around 70 Primary Councils a
Border Campaign (Irish Republican Army)
The Border Campaign was a guerrilla warfare campaign carried out by the Irish Republican Army against targets in Northern Ireland, with the aim of overthrowing British rule there and creating a united Ireland. Popularly referred to as the Border Campaign, it was referred to as the "Resistance Campaign" by some Irish republican activists; the campaign was a military failure, but for some of its members, the campaign was justified as it had kept the IRA engaged for another generation. While this was the third republican campaign against British rule in Ireland in the 20th century, it was the first where the focus of the whole IRA shifted decisively north; the Border Campaign was the first major military undertaking carried out by the IRA since the 1940s, when the harsh security measures of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland governments had weakened it. In 1939 the IRA tried a bombing campaign in England to try to force British withdrawal from Northern Ireland. From 1942–1944 it mounted an ineffective campaign in Northern Ireland.
Internment on both sides of the border, as well as internal feuding and disputes over future policy, all but destroyed the organisation. These campaigns were called off on 10 March 1945. By 1947, the IRA had only 200 activists, according to its own general staff. In principle, the IRA wished to overthrow both "partitionist" states in Ireland, both Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State, both of which it deemed to be illegitimate entities imposed by Britain at the time of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1922. However, in 1948 a General Army Convention issued General Order No. 8, prohibiting "any armed action whatsoever" against the forces of the proclaimed Republic of Ireland, amounting to a de facto recognition of the state. Under the new policy, IRA volunteers who were caught with arms in the Republic of Ireland were ordered to dump or destroy them and not to take defensive action. From on, armed action was focused on Northern Ireland, still part of the United Kingdom and, dominated by Protestant unionists.
The idea of a campaign launched from the Republic against Northern Ireland, first mooted by Tom Barry in the 1930s, gained currency within IRA circles as the 1950s went on. In 1954, after an arms raid at Gough Barracks in Armagh, a speaker at the Wolfe Tone commemoration at Bodenstown repeated that IRA policy was directed against British forces in Northern Ireland. IRA Chief of Staff Tony Magan set out to create "a new Army, untarnished by the dissent and scandals of the previous decade," according to J. Bowyer Bell. One of its advisers was Eric Dorman-Smith; the IRA was "apolitical," existing only to overthrow the "British-imposed political institutions" in Ireland. However Magan believed that a degree of political mobilization was necessary and the relationship with Sinn Féin which had soured during the 30s was improved. At the 1949 IRA Convention, the IRA ordered its members to join Sinn Féin, which would become the "civilian wing" of the IRA. By the middle of this decade, the IRA had re-armed.
This was achieved by means of arms raids launched between 1951 and 1954, on British military bases in Northern Ireland and England. Arms were taken from Derry, Essex and Armagh. At the latter raid on Gough barracks in Armagh in June 1954, the IRA seized 250 Lee–Enfield rifles, 37 submachine guns, nine Bren guns and 40 training rifles. On 25 July 1953, there was an IRA arms raid on the armoury of the Officer Training Corps at Felsted, a private school in Essex. In that raid, the IRA netted over 108 rifles, ten Bren and eight Sten guns, two mortars and dummy mortar bombs; the police seized the van carrying the stolen weapons some hours later. By 1955, splits were occurring in the IRA, as several small groups, impatient for action, launched their own attacks in Northern Ireland. One such activist, Brendan O'Boyle blew himself up with his own bomb in the summer of that year. Another, Liam Kelly founded a breakaway group Saor Uladh and in November 1955, attacked a Royal Ulster Constabulary barracks at Roslea in County Fermanagh.
One RUC man was badly injured and a Republican fighter was killed in the incident. In August of the following year and another IRA dissident, Joe Christle, burned down some customs posts on the border. In November 1956, the IRA began its own border campaign, they were motivated by a desire to prevent any more splits in their organisation. They were encouraged by the results of the UK general election of 1955, when Sinn Féin candidates were elected MPs for the Mid-Ulster and Fermanagh and South Tyrone constituencies in Northern Ireland, with a total of 152,310 votes; this appeared to show that there was a substantial Irish republican support base within Northern Ireland. However, as the mainstream Nationalist Party had decided not to take part in the election, its supporters had voted for Sinn Féin instead; the plan for the Border Campaign – codenamed "Operation Harvest" – was devised by Seán Cronin. It envisaged the use of guerrilla units called flying columns four units of about 50 men each, they were to operate from within the Republic of Ireland and to attack military and infrastructural targets within Northern Ireland.
In addition, another twenty organisers were sent to various locations within Northern Ireland to train new units, gather intelligence and report back to the leadership in Dublin. An IRA document seized in Dublin in a raid on Cronin's
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Joseph Raymond McCarthy was an American politician who served as a Republican U. S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in the United States in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion, he is known for alleging that numerous Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers had infiltrated the United States federal government, film industry, elsewhere. The smear tactics that he used led him to be censured by the U. S. Senate; the term "McCarthyism", coined in 1950 in reference to McCarthy's practices, was soon applied to similar anti-communist activities. Today, the term is used more broadly to mean demagogic and unsubstantiated accusations, as well as public attacks on the character or patriotism of political opponents. Born in Grand Chute, Wisconsin, McCarthy commissioned in to the Marine Corps in 1942, where he served as an intelligence briefing officer for a dive bomber squadron.
Following the end of World War II, he attained the rank of major. He volunteered to fly twelve combat missions as a gunner-observer, acquiring the nickname "Tail-Gunner Joe"; some of his claims of heroism were shown to be exaggerated or falsified, leading many of his critics to use "Tail-Gunner Joe" as a term of mockery. McCarthy ran for the U. S. Senate in 1946, defeating Robert M. La Follette Jr. After three undistinguished years in the Senate, McCarthy rose to national fame in February 1950 when he asserted in a speech that he had a list of "members of the Communist Party and members of a spy ring" who were employed in the State Department. In succeeding years after his 1950 speech, McCarthy made additional accusations of Communist infiltration into the State Department, the administration of President Harry S. Truman, the Voice of America, the U. S. Army, he used various charges of communism, communist sympathies, disloyalty, or sex crimes to attack a number of politicians and other individuals inside and outside of government.
This included a concurrent "Lavender Scare" against suspected homosexuals. Former U. S. Senator Alan K. Simpson has written: "The so-called'Red Scare' has been the main focus of most historians of that period of time. A lesser-known element... and one that harmed far more people was the witch-hunt McCarthy and others conducted against homosexuals". With the publicized Army–McCarthy hearings of 1954, following the suicide of Wyoming Senator Lester C. Hunt that same year, McCarthy's support and popularity faded. On December 2, 1954, the Senate voted to censure Senator McCarthy by a vote of 67–22, making him one of the few senators to be disciplined in this fashion, he continued to speak against communism and socialism until his death at the age of 48 at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, on May 2, 1957. His death certificate listed the cause of death as "Hepatitis, cause unknown". Doctors had not reported him to be in critical condition; some biographers say this was exacerbated by alcoholism.
McCarthy was born in 1908 on a farm in the town of Grand Chute in Outagamie County, the fifth of seven children. His mother, was from County Tipperary, Ireland, his father, Timothy McCarthy, was born in the United States, the son of an Irish father and a German mother. McCarthy dropped out of junior high school at age 14 to help his parents manage their farm, he entered Little Wolf High School, in Manawa, when he was 20 and graduated in one year. He attended Marquette University from 1930 to 1935. McCarthy worked his way through college, studying first electrical engineering for two years law, receiving an LL. B. degree in 1935 from Marquette University Law School in Milwaukee. McCarthy was admitted to the bar in 1935. While working at a law firm in Shawano, Wisconsin, he launched an unsuccessful campaign for district attorney as a Democrat in 1936. During his years as an attorney, McCarthy made money on the side by gambling. In 1939, McCarthy had better success when he ran for the nonpartisan elected post of 10th District circuit judge.
McCarthy became the youngest circuit judge in the state's history by defeating incumbent Edgar V. Werner, a judge for 24 years. In the campaign, McCarthy exaggerated Werner's age of 66, claiming that he was 73, so too old and infirm to handle the duties of his office. Writing of Werner in Reds: McCarthyism In Twentieth-Century America, Ted Morgan wrote: "Pompous and condescending, he was disliked by lawyers, he had been reversed by the Wisconsin Supreme Court, he was so inefficient that he had piled up a huge backlog of cases."McCarthy's judicial career attracted some controversy because of the speed with which he dispatched many of his cases as he worked to clear the backlogged docket he had inherited from Werner. Wisconsin had strict divorce laws, but when McCarthy heard divorce cases, he expedited them whenever possible, he made the needs of children involved in contested divorces a priority; when it came to other cases argued before him, McCarthy compensated for his lack of experience as a jurist by demanding and relying upon precise briefs from the contesting attorneys.
The Wisconsin Supreme Court reversed a low percentage of the cases he heard, but he was censured in 1941 for having lost evidence in a price fixing case. In 1942, shortly after the U. S. entered World War II, McCarthy joined the United States Marine Corps, despite the fact that his judicial office exempted him from military service. His college education qua
Edinburgh University Press
Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland. Edinburgh University Press was founded in the 1940s and became a wholly owned subsidiary of the University of Edinburgh in 1992. Books and journals published by the Press carry the imprimatur of The University of Edinburgh. All proposed publishing projects are appraised and approved by the Press Committee, which consists of academics from the university. Since August 2004, the Press has had Charitable Status. In November 2013, Edinburgh University Press acquired Dundee University Press for an undisclosed sum, with a stated aim to increase textbook and digital sales, with a particular focus on law. Brodies advised Edinburgh University Press on the terms of the acquisition. Edinburgh University Press publishes a range of research publications, which include scholarly monographs and reference works, as well as materials which are available on-line; the Press publishes textbooks for students and lecturers.
The press publishes 42 journals each year. Edinburgh University Press publishes in humanities and social sciences; the press participates in the ebook platforms University Press Scholarship Online, Books at JSTOR and University Publishing Online, works with a number of ebook aggregators. EUP supports both gold and green open access publishing, is one of 13 publishers to participate in the Knowledge Unlatched pilot, a global library consortium approach to funding open access books; the Trustees meet five times a year, are responsible for the conduct of the Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh University Press achieved combined book and journal revenues of over £2.37m for the year ending 31 July 2013, a 7% increase on the previous year. Profit before interest was £197,000, marginally down on 2012 due to continued investment in editorial and marketing areas. Official website - Corporate information and journals publishing programme Official website – books publishing programme
The Wolfe Tones
The Wolfe Tones are an Irish rebel music band that incorporates elements of Irish traditional music in their songs. They take their name from the Irish rebel and patriot Theobald Wolfe Tone, one of the leaders of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, with the double entendre of a wolf tone – a spurious sound that can affect instruments of the violin family; the origins of the group date back to August 1963, where three neighbouring children from the Dublin suburb of Inchicore, Brian Warfield, Noel Nagle, Liam Courtney, had been musical friends from childhood. In August 1964 Brian's brother Derek Warfield joined the band, in November 1964 Tommy Byrne replaced Courtney, creating the band's most recognizable line-up, which would last for nearly thirty seven years between November 1964 and January 2001. In 1989, a contract was signed by band leader, Derek Warfield, signing rights to an American distributor, Shanachie records; the contents of this contract were misrepresented to the other members of the band, resulting in a clause that prevented them from recording any new material.
Unable to reverse this agreement, they continued to tour, albeit without any new material. In 1995, Derek Warfield released a solo studio album entitled Legacy as he was still eligible to record under his own name. With Derek on vocals and mandolin, the music on this album was performed by a new band, although he was still in fact touring with The Wolfe Tones. Derek's solo releases continued annually until 2006. In 2001, after a show played in Limerick, Derek Warfield departed the band to concentrate on his own career. Calling themselves "Brian Warfield, Tommy Byrne and Noel Nagle of The Wolfe Tones" the three would go on to release "You'll Never Beat the Irish" and the more recent album "Child of Destiny"; the Wolfe Tones continue to tour, but as a 3-piece band comprising Brian Warfield, Noel Nagle and Tommy Byrne. The Wolfe Tones celebrated their 45th Anniversary with a special event at the prestigious Waterfront Hall, Belfast, on Sunday 26 October 2008, filmed for their biographic documentary.
In 2014 they celebrated their 50th anniversary by performing at The Citywest Hotel and Conference Centre in a series of Easter weekend concerts In 2018, they headlined the Féile an Phobail in West Belfast to a sell-out audience of over 12,000 people and were inducted into the Barrowlands hall of fame for their contribution to music. The song "Irish Eyes" was written as a paean of love by Brian Warfield for his mother Kathleen who died of cancer the year previous to its release. A song about emigration to London entitled "My Heart is in Ireland" became a number 2 hit for the band; the song "Celtic Symphony" was written by Brian Warfield in 1987 for the centennial of Celtic Football Club. Other famous songs written by the group include "Joe McDonnell", a song about the life and death of the Provisional IRA member, the fifth person to die on the 1981 Hunger Strike, or "The Protestant Men", a song about some of the notable Protestant Irish nationalists. Other famous songs include their cover of "The Streets of New York" which Liam Reilly from Bagatelle wrote, inspired by stories of the Tones' friendship with NYPD.
Brian Warfield penned "The Helicopter Song" which stands as the fastest selling single of all time in Ireland, shooting straight to number one in 1974 as a result of the escape from Mountjoy Jail. Footballer James McClean attracted criticism when he tweeted that he listened to their song "The Broad Black Brimmer" before a match, a song in which a son learns of how his father was killed in fighting for the IRA, he was told by club manager Martin O'Neill to refrain from using Twitter. In 2002, after an orchestrated e-mail campaign by fans to "try and mess it up" their rendition of "A Nation Once Again" by Thomas Osborne Davis was voted the number one song of all time in a BBC World Service poll; the BBC has been more welcoming of the band than many Irish broadcasters have been, hosting an artist's page that includes excerpts of their songs. Their 1982 hit "Admiral William Brown" pays homage to the renowned Irish-born Argentine naval hero. Studio albumsThe Foggy Dew Up the Rebels The Rights Of Man Rifles of the I.
R. A. Let the People Sing'Till Ireland a Nation Irish to the Core Across the Broad Atlantic Belt of the Celts Spirit of the Nation As Gaeilge A Sense of Freedom Profile Sing Out for Ireland 25th Anniversary You'll Never Beat the Irish The Troubles Child of Destiny DMC Promotions Wolfe Tones Fest