Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa, was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror", a statesman, an empire builder. Afonso advanced the three-fold Portuguese grand scheme of combating Islam, spreading Christianity, securing the trade of spices by establishing a Portuguese Asian empire. Among his achievements, Afonso managed to conquer the island of Goa and was the first European of the Renaissance to raid the Persian Gulf, he led the first voyage by a European fleet into the Red Sea, his military and administrative works are regarded as among the most vital to building and securing the Portuguese Empire in the Orient, the Middle East, the spice routes of eastern Oceania. Afonso is considered a military genius, "probably the greatest naval commander of the age" given his successful strategy—he attempted to close all the Indian Ocean naval passages to the Atlantic, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, to the Pacific, transforming it into a Portuguese mare clausum established over the opposition of the Ottoman Empire and its Muslim and Hindu allies.
In the expansion of the Portuguese Empire, Afonso initiated a rivalry that would become known as the Ottoman–Portuguese war, which would endure for many years. Many of the Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts in which he was directly involved took place in the Indian Ocean, in the Persian Gulf regions for control of the trade routes, on the coasts of India, it was his military brilliance in these initial campaigns against the much larger Ottoman Empire and its allies that enabled Portugal to become the first global empire in history. He had a record of defeating much larger armies and fleets. For example, his capture of Ormuz in 1507 against the Persians was accomplished with a fleet of seven ships. Other famous battles and offensives which he led include the conquest of Goa in 1510 and the capture of Malacca in 1511, he became admiral of the Indian Ocean, was appointed head of the "fleet of the Arabian and Persian sea" in 1506. During the last five years of his life, he turned to administration, where his actions as the second governor of Portuguese India were crucial to the longevity of the Portuguese Empire.
He pioneered European sea trade with China during the Ming Dynasty with envoy Rafael Perestrello, Thailand with Duarte Fernandes as envoy, with Timor, passing through Malaysia and Indonesia in a voyage headed by António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão. He aided diplomatic relations with Ethiopia using priest envoys João Gomes and João Sanches, established diplomatic ties with Persia, during the Safavid dynasty, he became known as "the Great", "the Terrible", "the Caesar of the East", "the Lion of the Seas", "the Portuguese Mars". Afonso de Albuquerque was born in 1453 near Lisbon, he was the second son of Gonçalo de Albuquerque, Lord of Vila Verde dos Francos, Dona Leonor de Menezes. His father held an important position at court and was connected by remote illegitimate descent with the Portuguese monarchy, he was educated in mathematics and Latin at the court of Afonso V of Portugal, where he befriended Prince John, the future King John II of Portugal. Afonso's early training is described by Diogo Barbosa Machado: “D. Alfonso de Albuquerque, surnamed the Great, by reason of the heroic deeds wherewith he filled Europe with admiration, Asia with fear and trembling, was born in the year 1453, in the Estate called, for the loveliness of its situation, the Paradise of the Town of Alhandra, six leagues distant from Lisbon.
He was the second son of Gonçalo de Albuquerque, Lord of Villaverde, of D. Leonor de Menezes, daughter of D. Álvaro Gonçalves de Athayde, Count of Atouguia, of his wife D. Guiomar de Castro, corrected this injustice of nature by climbing to the summit of every virtue, both political and moral, he was educated in the Palace of the King D. Afonso V, in whose palaestra he strove emulously to become the rival of that African Mars”. Afonso served 10 years in North Africa, where he gained military experience in fierce campaigns against Muslim powers and Ottoman Turks. In 1471, under the command of Afonso V of Portugal, he was present at the conquest of Tangier and Arzila in Morocco, serving there as an officer for some years. In 1476 he accompanied Prince John in wars against Castile, including the Battle of Toro, he participated in the campaign on the Italian peninsula in 1480 to rescue Ferdinand II of Aragon from the Ottoman invasion of Otranto that ended in victory. On his return in 1481, when Prince John was crowned as King John II, Afonso was made Master of the Horse for his distinguished exploits, chief equerry to the King, a post which he held throughout John's reign.
In 1489 he returned to military campaigns in North Africa, as commander of defense in the Graciosa fortress, an island in the river Luco near the city of Larache, in 1490 was part of the guard of King John II, returning to Arzila in 1495, where his younger brother Martim died fighting by his side. Afonso made his mark under the stern John II, won military campaigns in Africa and the Mediterranean sea, yet Asia is where he would make his greatest impact; when King Manuel I of Portugal was enthroned, he showed some reticence towards Afonso, a close friend of his dreaded predecessor and seventeen years his senior. Eight years on 6 April 1503, after a long military career and at a mature age, Afonso was sent on his first expedition to India together with his cousin Francisco de Albuquerque; each commanded three ships, sailing with Duarte Pacheco Nicolau Coelho. They engaged in several battles against the forces of the Zamorin of Calicut and succeeded in establishing the King of Cohin (Cohim, Ko
Dedication is the act of consecrating an altar, church, or other sacred building. It refers to the inscription of books or other artifacts when these are addressed or presented to a particular person; this practice, which once was used to gain the patronage and support of the person so addressed, is now only a mark of affection or regard. In law, the word is used of the setting apart by a private owner of a road to public use; the Feast of Dedication, today Hanukkah, once called "Feast of the Maccabees," was a Jewish festival observed for eight days from the 25th of Kislev. It was instituted in the year 165 B. C. by Judas Maccabeus, his brothers, the elders of the congregation of Israel in commemoration of the reconsecration of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, of the altar of burnt offerings, after they had been desecrated during the persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes. The significant happenings of the festival were the illumination of houses and synagogues, a custom taken over from the Feast of Tabernacles, the recitation of Psalm 30:1-12.
J. Wellhausen suggests that the feast was connected with the winter solstice, only afterwards with the events narrated in Maccabees; the Feast of Dedication is mentioned in John 10:22 where it mentions Jesus being at the Jerusalem Temple during "the Feast of Dedication" and further notes "and it was winter." The Greek term used in John is "the renewals". Josephus refers to the festival in Greek as "lights." Churches under the authority of a bishop are dedicated by the bishop in a ceremony that used to be called that of consecration, but is now called that of dedication. For the Catholic Church, the rite of dedication is described in the Caeremoniale Episcoporum, chapters IX-X, in the Roman Missal's Ritual Masses for the Dedication of a Church and an Altar. In the Church of England, a consecrated church may only be closed for worship after a legal process; the custom of solemnly dedicating or consecrating buildings as churches or chapels set apart for Christian worship must be as old as Christianity itself.
When we come to the earlier part of the 4th century allusions to and descriptions of the consecration of churches become plentiful. This service is of Jewish origin; the hallowing of the tabernacle and of its furniture and ornaments. All these point to the probability of the Christians deriving their custom from a Jewish origin. Eusebius of Caesarea speaks of the dedication of churches rebuilt after the Diocletian persecution, including the church at Tyre in 314 AD; the consecrations of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem in 335, built by Constantine I, of other churches after his time, are described both by Eusebius and by other ecclesiastical historians. From them we gather that every consecration was accompanied by a celebration of the Holy Eucharist and a sermon, special prayers of a dedicatory character, but there is no trace of the elaborate ritual of the medieval pontificals dating from the 8th century onwards; the separate consecration of altars is provided for by Canon 14 of the Council of Agde in 506, by Canon 26 of the Council of Epaone in 517, the latter containing the first known reference to the usage of anointing the altar with chrism.
The use of both holy water and of unction is attributed to St. Columbanus, who died in 615. There was an annual commemoration of the original dedication of the church, a feast with its octave extending over eight days, during which Gregory the Great encouraged the erection of booths and general feasting on the part of the populace, to compensate them for, in some way to take the place of, abolished pagan festivities. At an early date the right to consecrate churches was reserved to bishops, as by a canon of the First Council of Bracara in 563, by the 23rd of the Irish collections of canons, once attributed to St Patrick, but hardly to be put earlier than the 8th century; the manuscripts and printed service-books of the medieval church contain a lengthy and elaborate service for the consecration of churches in the pontifical. The earliest known pontifical is that of Egbert, Archbishop of York, however, only survives in a 10th-century manuscript copy. Pontificals are numerous and somewhat varied.
A good idea of the general character of the service can be obtained from a skeleton of it as performed in England after the Reformation according to the use of Sarum. The service is taken from an early 15th-century pontifical in the Cambridge University Library as printed by W. Makell in Monumenta ritualia ecclesiae Anglicanae. There is a preliminary office for laying a foundation-stone. On the day of consecration the bishop is to vest in a tent outside the church proceed to the door of the church on the outside, a single deacon being inside the church. There he blesses holy water, twelve lighted candles being placed outside, twelve inside the church, he sprinkles the walls all round outside and knocks at the door. He sprinkles the walls all round outside a second time a third time, knocking at the door each time, he may enter, all laity being excluded. The bishop fixes a cross in the centre of the church, after which the litany is said, including a special clause for the consecration of the church and altar.
Next the bishop inscribes the alp
Sebastian of Portugal
Sebastian was King of Portugal from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz. He was the son of João Manuel, Prince of Portugal, his wife, Joanna of Austria, he was the grandson of King John III of Portugal and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He disappeared in the battle of Alcácer Quibir. Sebastian I is referred to as The Desired or The Asleep, as the Portuguese people longed for his return to end the decline of Portugal that began after his death, he is considered to be the Portuguese example of the King under the mountain legend as Portuguese tradition states his return, in a foggy dawn, on Portugal's greatest hour of need. Sebastian was born shortly after eight in the morning of 20 January 1554, he was given the saint's name in commemoration; the name Sebastian was unusual for members of any European royal family at the time. Shortly after his birth, a doctor, Fernando Abarca Maldonado, who had come to Portugal in the entourage of his mother and had helped deliver him, cast his horoscope.
Among other things, Maldonado predicted that Sebastian would be attracted to women and have many children. None of these predictions came to pass. Sebastian was born heir-apparent to the throne of Portugal, since his birth occurred two weeks after the death of his father, he succeeded to the throne at the age of three, on the death of King John III, his paternal grandfather. Soon after his birth, his mother Joanna of Spain left her infant son to serve as regent of Spain for her father, Emperor Charles V. After his abdication in 1556, she served in the same capacity for her brother Philip II of Spain. Joanna remained in Spain until her death in 1573. Since Sebastian was still a child, a regency was necessary, it was handled first by his paternal grandmother, Catherine of Austria, by his great-uncle, Cardinal Henry of Évora. This period saw continued Portuguese colonial expansion in Angola and Malacca, as well as the annexation of Macau in 1557. Sebastian was a lively boy. Reports say. Tall and blond, he was brought up by his grandmother Catherine, a domineering woman who exercised firm control over her grandson.
Obedient as a child, he became obstinate and impulsive in life. The young king grew up under the guidance and heavy influence of the Jesuits. Aleixo de Meneses, a military man of solid reputation and former tutor and guardian of Prince John, was appointed tutor to Sebastian by the boy's grandmother. Other teachers included the priest Luís Gonçalves da Câmara and his assistant, the priest Amador Rebelo, his upbringing made Sebastian devout. He carried a copy of Thomas Aquinas on a belt at his waist and was accompanied by two monks of the Theatine Order who were intent on preserving the king's innocence; as a child, Sebastian would react to visitors by running off into hiding with the monks until the visitors had gone. Sebastian did not marry. However, he was involved in several proposed marriage alliances. In particular, the Queen dowager of France, Catherine de' Medici, nurtured a plan for a long time to marry her youngest daughter, Margaret of Valois, to Sebastian, a plan, supported by Sebastian's maternal uncle, King Philip II of Spain, on occasion.
Sebastian himself, put an end to that plan, declaring that he was unimpressed by the mild suppression of the Huguenot Protestants in France, that he would not bind himself to the House of Valois until he had seen how the situation would develop. He agreed — being persuaded by emissaries of the Pope — to marry Margaret in order to prevent her from marrying the Huguenot Henry of Navarre. Margaret married Henry in 1572. By Sebastian's proposal was rejected. Sebastian was offered his cousin Elisabeth of Habsburg, the daughter of Emperor Maximilian II. Sebastian himself made a proposal in 1577 to his first cousin Isabella Clara Eugenia, daughter of Philip II of Spain. During Sebastian's short personal reign, he strengthened ties with the Holy Roman Empire and France through diplomatic efforts, he restructured much of the administrative and military life in his kingdom. In 1568, Sebastian created scholarships to assist students who wished to study medicine or pharmacy at the University of Coimbra; that same year he rewarded Indians in Brazil.
The chief of the Temiminós Indians, Araribóia, was given lands near the Bay of Guanabara. In 1569, Sebastian ordered Duarte Nunes de Leão to compile all the laws and legal documents of the kingdom in a collection of Leis Extravagantes known as the Código Sebastiânico. During the great plague of Lisbon in 1569, Sebastian sent for doctors from Seville to help the Portuguese doctors fight the plague, he created two hospitals in Lisbon to take care of those afflicted with the disease. In his concern for the widows and orphans of those killed by the plague, he created several Recolhimentos known as the Recolhimento de Santa Marta and the Recolhimento dos Meninos and provided wet nurses to take care of the babies. Sebastian created laws for the military, the Lei das Armas, that would become a military organization model. In 1570, Goa was attacked by the Indian army, but the Portuguese were successful in repulsing the assault. In 1570, Sebastian ordered th
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Andrius Rudamina, S. J. was the first Lithuanian Jesuit missionary in China. Andrius Rudamina was born into an old and distinguished Lithuanian noble family in the village of Rudamina, 10 kilometres away from the country's capital, Vilnius, his father named Andrius Rudamina, was the mayor of Vilnius and his mother was Dorota Galvelanka. According to other sources, his father was Jonas Rudamina and he was the elder of Senasis Daugėliškis, a village situated in eastern Lithuania, his mother died when Rudamina was still young and he was the only son in the family. Therefore from an early age, his father groomed Rudamina to follow his footsteps and become a statesman. Rudamina completed his elementary education at home and continued his studies at the Vilnius Jesuit College in 1613. While at college, he excelled at the study of logic and because of his diligence was invited to join the Sodality of Our Lady, he decided to join the Jesuits, but his father, who wanted Rudamina to become a statesman, was opposed to this idea.
In an effort to change his son's mind, in 1616, he sent him to study philosophy at the University of Mainz. After his studies in Mainz, in 1617, Rudamina joined the University of Leuven, where according to the wishes of his father, he studied civil law. In parallel to his law studies, he demonstrated keen interest in mathematics, physics and geography. Rudamina abruptly ended his studies at Leuven and returned to Lithuania once he found out that his father was gravely ill. While back in Lithuania, he began working at the court of one of his relatives Eustachijus Valavičius, the bishop of Vilnius. Shortly after his return, his father died and Rudamina inherited the family's estates. Despite the considerable opposition of his relatives, on 31 May 1618, he joined the Jesuit order. Subsequently, he handed over the family estate to the Jesuit novitiate in Vilnius. After a two-year novitiate at the Church of St. Ignatius, on 1 June 1620, he took his first religious vows, he was sent to study theology at the Jesuit University in Vilnius.
At that time, he befriended Andrew Bobola, who came to be known as the Apostle of Lithuania and became a saint, as well as Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski, a renowned Jesuit poet. Rudamina and Sarbiewski remained close friends for many years to come, just before Rudamina's journey to India, Sarbiewski wrote a poem in honour of Rudamina, titled Ad Andream Rudaminum. In 1622, together with a small number of other young and talented Jesuits from Vilnius, were sent to Rome to continue with their theological studies at the Roman College. On 3 June 1623, Rudamina was ordained as a priest. In 1624, he graduated from the Roman College. After receiving the consent of the Superior General of the Society of Jesus, Mutio Vitelleschi, to go on a mission to China on 5 September 1624, he left Rome for Lisbon. After the missionary preparations in Lisbon, at the beginning of March 1625, along with eleven Portuguese Jesuits, he sailed to Goa, which he reached on 22 August 1625. At the beginning of his stay in India, Rudamina suffered from malaria and his superiors sent him to Macao where the climate was better for his fragile health.
Rudamina spent less than a year in Goa, but he was the first Lithuanian to visit India. Upon his arrival to China, Rudamina studied Chinese language and customs. From Macao he went to Hangzhou in the Zhejiang Province. From Hangzhou he sent letters in Chinese to Michael Ortiz, the Provincial of Vilnius. Although Rudamina recovered from the malaria, he became infected with a pulmonary disease during the trip, yet despite his health problems, he was committed to learning Chinese. He preached in the language; the superiors concerned about his deteriorating health sent him at the end of 1628 to the Fujian Province, where several hundred Christians lived, in order to help Father Giulio Aleni. Working together, he and Aleni published an important book in Chinese titled Kouduo Richao 口鐸日抄; this was a book of scholarly dialogues between Jesuit missionaries and Confucian converts in Fujian. Li Jiubiao, the chief editor of the book praised the two Jesuits for their scholarly work; this book was first published in 1630 in 1872 and again in 1922.
During his stay in China, Rudamina wrote two manuscripts in Chinese, Shih-pa fu hsin t’u 十八幅 心圖 and Shih fu ch’in tai t’u 十幅 勤怠圖. Due to his weak health, Rudamina could not participate in long journeys. Therefore, he did local pastoral work by explaining the teachings of the Catholic faith and comforting the sick, receiving guests, as well as preaching and hearing confessions, he was devoted to the sacrament of reconciliation as a confessor. His pastoral work giving the spiritual exercises was adapted to the Confucian notion of self-cultivation, his catechetical method making use of pictures of the Cor Jesu was an effective tool in evangelization. This traditional method was known to be powerful in Europe, he knew that these pictures could take advantage of the meaning of "heart" in Chinese, xin 心, which referred not only to an anatomical organ, but had the Confucian philosophical meaning of "mind-and-heart". As his health got worse, Rudamina died in Fuzhou on 5 September 1631, his body was buried in the missionary cemetery in a separate tomb in the shape of a chapel.
This tomb soon became a place of pilgrimage. His missionary work in China and his last days were described by Benedict de Matos, the Jesuit Provincial Superior of the Fuzhou P
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun