James Island (South Carolina)
James Island is one of South Carolina's most urban Sea Islands with nearly half of the island residing in Charleston city limits. The island is separated from peninsular downtown Charleston by the Ashley River, from the mainland by Wappoo Creek and the Wappoo Cut, from Johns Island by the Stono River, it lies inshore of Folly Beach. Fort Sumter is located on an island just off the eastern tip of James Island and is the site of the first battle of the Civil War. Bombardment of Fort Sumter was started from Fort Johnson, located on the eastern portion of James Island. Several significant military engagements took place on island including the battles of Secessionville, Grimball's Landing and Grimball's Causeway. All of these battles were alternately known as the "Battle of James Island". Here at James Island on Nov.14, 1782, Tadeusz Kościuszko, Colonel of the Continental Army, led the last known armed action of the Revolutionary War against the British and nearly was killed. The Continental Congress named Kosciuszko Brigadier General for his service in both the North, including his tremendous assistance to General Gates at The Battle of Saratoga and brilliant efforts assisting General Greene in saving the South Region Army from Cornwallis forces and severely weakening the British under command of Corwallis.
For much of the period before and after the formation of the United States, James Island land was agricultural with Sea Island cotton plantations covering much of the island. Growth accelerated after World War II and James Island became a suburban bedroom community to Charleston; as of the 2000 census, the United States Census Bureau reported that 33,781 people lived on the island. One-half of the island lies within the city limits of Charleston, the remainder of the island is made up of the Town of James Island and unincorporated areas. There has been political discord concerning the incorporation of portions of the island into the City of Charleston; the town of James Island has been founded on three separate occasions. Three incorporations were overturned as a result of legal suits filed by Charleston; the third incorporation attempt was in contention in another legal suit by the city, on November 7, 2008, the town's incorporation was upheld by a Circuit Court judge. The city of Charleston filed an appeal of the decision to the South Carolina Supreme Court.
This ruling was overturned by the Supreme Court. A fourth attempt at incorporation was successful, upheld by the courts and uncontested by the city of Charleston. There is now a formed Town of James Island; as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau, the population of James Island is included within the Charleston-North Charleston Urbanized Area and the larger Charleston-North Charleston Metropolitan Statistical Area; the public schools on James Island are part of the Charleston County School District and include Harborview, Stiles Point, James Island and Murray-LaSaine, Apple Charter Elementary Schools. The high school interscholastic teams are the wear blue and orange uniforms. James Island had two high schools in the past: James Island High; the two schools merged in 1983 on the Fort Johnson campus. The first school year for the combined school was 1983-1984. Stephen Colbert and political satirist, lived on James Island for part of his boyhood, along with his 10 brothers and sisters. Langston Moore of the NFL Detroit Lions, attended James Island High School.
Samuel Smalls, the man upon whom the novel Porgy and subsequent opera Porgy and Bess are based, is buried in the cemetery beside James Island Presbyterian Church. Gorman Thomas, Major League Baseball player, grew up on James Island and played baseball for the original James Island High School. Roddy White, Pro Bowl wide receiver with the Atlanta Falcons, attended James Island High School. James Island information
St. Johns River
The St. Johns River is the longest river in the U. S. state of Florida and its most significant one for commercial and recreational use. At 310 miles long, it borders twelve counties; the drop in elevation from headwaters to mouth is less than 30 feet. Numerous lakes are formed by the river or flow into it, but as a river its widest point is nearly 3 miles across; the narrowest point is in an unnavigable marsh in Indian River County. The St. Johns drainage basin of 8,840 square miles includes some of Florida's major wetlands, it is separated into three major basins and two associated watersheds for Lake George and the Ocklawaha River, all managed by the St. Johns River Water Management District. A variety of people have lived on or near the St. Johns, including Paleo-indians, Archaic people, Mocama and Spanish settlers, Seminoles and freemen, Florida crackers, land developers and retirees, it has been the subject of William Bartram's journals, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings' books, Harriet Beecher Stowe's letters home.
Although Florida was the location of the first permanent European settlement in what would become the United States, it was the last U. S. territory on the east coast to be developed. When attention was turned to the state, much of the land was overdeveloped in a national zeal for progress; the St. Johns, like many Florida rivers, was altered to make way for agricultural and residential centers, it suffered severe pollution and human interference that has diminished the natural order of life in and around the river. In all, 3.5 million people live within the various watersheds. The St. Johns, named one of 14 American Heritage Rivers in 1998, was number 6 on a list of America's Ten Most Endangered Rivers in 2008. Restoration efforts are under way for the basins around the St. Johns as Florida continues to deal with population increases in the river's vicinity. Starting in Indian River County and meeting the Atlantic Ocean at Duval County, the St. Johns is Florida's primary commercial and recreational waterway.
It flows north from its headwaters, originating in the direction of the Lake Wales Ridge, only elevated at 30 feet above sea level. Because of this low elevation drop, the river has a long backwater, it flows with tides that pass through the barrier islands and up the channel. Uniquely, it shares the same regional terrain as the parallel Kissimmee River, although the Kissimmee flows south; the St. Johns River is separated into three basins and two associated watersheds managed by the St. Johns River Water Management District; because the river flows in a northerly direction, the upper basin is located in the headwaters of the river at its southernmost point. Indian River County is where the river begins as a network of marshes, at a point west of Vero Beach aptly named the St. Johns Marsh in central Florida; the St. Johns River is a blackwater stream, meaning that it is fed by swamps and marshes lying beneath it; the upper basin measures 2,000 square miles. The river touches on the borders of Osceola and Orange Counties, flows through the southeast tip of Seminole County, transitioning into its middle basin a dozen miles or so north of Titusville.
The upper basin of the St. Johns was lowered in the 1920s with the establishment of the Melbourne Tillman drainage project; this drained the St. Johns' headwaters eastward to the Indian River through canals dug across the Ten-Mile Ridge near Palm Bay; as of 2015, these past diversions are being reversed through the first phase of the Canal 1 Rediversion project. The river is at most unpredictable in this basin. Channel flows are not apparent and are unmarked; the most efficient way to travel on this part of the river is by airboat. 3,500 lakes lie within the overall St. Johns watershed; the river flows into many of the lakes. Eight larger lakes and five smaller ones lie in the upper basin. Lakes Washington and Poinsett— named for Joel Roberts Poinsett, a diplomat who brought the poinsettia to the United States— are located further along this stretch of the river; the northernmost points of the upper basin contain the Tosohatchee Wildlife Management Area, created in 1977 to assist with filtration of waters flowing into the larger St. Johns.
Wetlands in the upper and middle basin are fed by rainwater, trapped by the structure of the surrounding land. It is an oxygen- and nutrient-poor environment. Water levels fluctuate with the subtropical dry seasons. Rain in central and north Florida occurs seasonally during summer and winter, but farther south rain in winter is rare. All plants in these basins must tolerate both flooding and drought. Sweetbay and swamp tupelo tre
The Santee River is a river in South Carolina in the United States, is 143 miles long. The Santee and its tributaries provide the principal drainage for the coastal areas of southeastern South Carolina and navigation for the central coastal plain of South Carolina, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean 440 miles from its farthest headwater on the Catawba River in North Carolina; the Santee River is the second largest river on the eastern coast of the United States, second only to the Susquehanna River in drainage area and flow. Much of the upper river is impounded by the expansive, horn-shaped Lake Marion reservoir, formed by the 8-mile -long Santee Dam; the dam was built during the Great Depression of the 1930s as a Works Progress Administration project to provide a major source of hydroelectric power for the state of South Carolina. The Santee is formed in central South Carolina 25 miles southeast of Columbia by the confluence of the Wateree and Congaree rivers, it flows southeast for 5 miles before entering the northwest corner of Lake Marion, which stretches in a long wide arc to the southeast for 30 miles to Santee Dam.
A navigable diversion canal first built in the 1970s at the southern tip of the lake connects to Lake Moultrie, a reservoir on the nearby Cooper River. The modern canal is operated by Santee Cooper as part of the larger hydroelectric project on both rivers; the dam was finished in 1941. Downstream from the reservoir it flows east southeast, forming the northeast boundary of Francis Marion National Forest. 10 miles from its mouth it bifurcates into two channels, called the North Santee and South Santee, that flow parallel and separated by 2 miles, creating Cedar Island. The two channels reach the ocean at Santee Point 15 miles south of Georgetown, not far from the mouth of the Pee Dee River; the river was named by early English settlers after the Santee tribe, which inhabited areas on the middle part of the river. The first European contact was by a Spanish party led by Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526; the Spaniards called the river the Jordan in honor of the Jordan River. After suffering a defeat by the English and their allies during the Yamasee War in 1715–1716, the Santee were relocated.
Many were shipped as slaves to the West Indies, opening up the river for British settlement as part of the Carolina Colony. Most of the Siouan peoples had migrated into the upper Midwest before European encounter. In the late 18th century, the upper river was the site of the homestead of Francis Marion, a patriot of the American Revolutionary War; the original site of his homestead has been flooded by Lake Marion, named in his honor. Construction of the 22-mile -long Santee Canal, linking the river to the Cooper, was begun in 1793 and finished in 1800, it allowed direct water transportation between the Upcountry of central South Carolina and Charleston, at the mouth of the Cooper and the harbor. The canal operated for 50 years before being made obsolete by the introduction of railroads. During the Great Depression, the state of South Carolina created the Santee Cooper power utility; the main source of electric power for the utility came through federal construction during the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt of a hydroelectric project inland from Charleston.
Starting in 1939, the Santee River was dammed, forming lakes Marion and Moultrie, diverting the river's flow into the Cooper River through a hydroelectric plant at Pinopolis. The WPA project was completed in 1941. Though the project succeeded in providing cheap electricity to modernize rural South Carolina, unintended consequences were changes to the character of both the Cooper and Santee rivers below the project. Deprived of most its water flow, the Santee River became more saline and its ecosystem changed below the dam; the Cooper River received more of the freshwater and sediment loads that used to flow into the Santee and carried them downstream. This has resulted in increasing the dredging costs to keep Charleston Harbor operating as a port. In the 1980s, the Army Corps of Engineers built a "rediversion" canal to send most of the water back into the Santee mitigating this problem; this is a partial list of crossings of the Santee River Lake Marion Railroad bridge between Lone Star and Rimini.
Former US 15 and US 301 bridge at Santee Interstate 95, US 15 and US 301 bridge at Santee Lower Santee Highway 52 bridge Railroad bridge near St. Stephen ALT US 17 bridge and adjacent railroad bridge US 17 bridge over North Santee River and South Santee River List of South Carolina rivers South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region South Carolina Dept. of Health and Environmental Control: Santee Basin Santee Nation History Santee Cooper Lake System Old Santee Canal Park Carolina Living: History of the Carolina Lakes Santee Canal U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Santee River
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. It changed the federal legal status of more than 3.5 million enslaved African Americans in the designated areas of the South from slave to free. As soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops, the former slave became free; the rebel surrender liberated and resulted in the proclamation's application to all of the designated former slaves. It did not cover slaves in Union areas, it was issued as a war measure during the American Civil War, directed to all of the areas in rebellion and all segments of the executive branch of the United States. The Proclamation ordered the freedom of all slaves in ten states; because it was issued under the president's authority to suppress rebellion, it excluded areas not in rebellion, but still applied to more than 3.5 million of the 4 million slaves.
The Proclamation was based on the president's constitutional authority as commander in chief of the armed forces. The Proclamation was issued in January 1863 after U. S government issued a series of warnings in the summer of 1862 under the Second Confiscation Act, allowing Southern Confederate supporters 60 days to surrender, or face confiscation of land and slaves; the Proclamation ordered that suitable persons among those freed could be enrolled into the paid service of United States' forces, ordered the Union Army to "recognize and maintain the freedom of" the ex-slaves. The Proclamation did not compensate the owners, did not outlaw slavery, did not grant citizenship to the ex-slaves, it made the eradication of slavery an explicit war goal, in addition to the goal of reuniting the Union. Around 25,000 to 75,000 slaves in regions where the US Army was active were emancipated, it could not be enforced in areas still under rebellion, but, as the Union army took control of Confederate regions, the Proclamation provided the legal framework for freeing more than three and a half million slaves in those regions.
Prior to the Proclamation, in accordance with the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, escaped slaves were either returned to their masters or held in camps as contraband for return. The Proclamation applied only to slaves in Confederate-held lands. Excluded were some regions controlled by the Union army. Emancipation in those places would come after separate state actions or the December 1865 ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, which made slavery and indentured servitude, except for those duly convicted of a crime, illegal everywhere subject to United States jurisdiction. On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued a preliminary warning that he would order the emancipation of all slaves in any state that did not end its rebellion against the Union by January 1, 1863. None of the Confederate states restored themselves to the Union, Lincoln's order was signed and took effect on January 1, 1863; the Emancipation Proclamation outraged white Southerners. It angered some Northern Democrats, energized anti-slavery forces, undermined elements in Europe that wanted to intervene to help the Confederacy.
The Proclamation lifted the spirits of African Americans both slave. It led many slaves to escape from their masters and get to Union lines to obtain their freedom, to join the Union Army; the Emancipation Proclamation broadened the goals of the Civil War. While slavery had been a major issue that led to the war, Lincoln's only mission at the start of the war was to maintain the Union; the Proclamation made freeing the slaves an explicit goal of the Union war effort. Establishing the abolition of slavery as one of the two primary war goals served to deter intervention by Britain and France; the Emancipation Proclamation was never challenged in court. To ensure the abolition of slavery in all of the U. S. Lincoln pushed for passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, insisted that Reconstruction plans for Southern states require abolition in new state constitutions. Congress passed the 13th Amendment by the necessary two-thirds vote on January 31, 1865, it was ratified by the states on December 6, 1865, ending legal slavery.
The United States Constitution of 1787 did not use the word "slavery" but included several provisions about unfree persons. The Three-Fifths Compromise allocated Congressional representation based "on the whole Number of free Persons" and "three fifths of all other Persons". Under the Fugitive Slave Clause, "o person held to service or labour in one state" would be freed by escaping to another. Article I, Section 9 allowed Congress to pass legislation to outlaw the "Importation of Persons", but not until 1808. However, for purposes of the Fifth Amendment—which states that, "No person shall... be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law"—slaves were understood as property. Although abolitionists used the Fifth Amendment to argue against slavery, it became part of the legal basis for treating slaves as property with Dred Scott v. Sandford. So
Civil rights movement
The civil rights movement in the United States was a decades-long struggle with the goal of enforcing constitutional and legal rights for African Americans that other Americans enjoyed. With roots that dated back to the Reconstruction era during the late 19th century, the movement achieved its largest legislative gains in the mid-1960s, after years of direct actions and grassroots protests that were organized from the mid-1950s until 1968. Encompassing strategies, various groups, organized social movements to accomplish the goals of ending legalized racial segregation, disenfranchisement, discrimination in the United States, the movement, using major nonviolent campaigns secured new recognition in federal law and federal protection for all Americans. After the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery in the 1860s, the Reconstruction Amendments to the United States Constitution granted emancipation and constitutional rights of citizenship to all African Americans, most of whom had been enslaved.
For a period, African Americans voted and held political office, but they were deprived of civil rights under Jim Crow laws, subjected to discrimination and sustained violence by whites in the South. Over the following century, various efforts were made by African Americans to secure their legal rights. Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities. Federal and local governments and communities had to respond to these situations, which highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans across the country; the lynching of Chicago teenager Emmett Till in Mississippi, the outrage generated by seeing how he had been abused, when his mother decided to have an open-casket funeral, mobilized the African-American community nationwide. Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott in Alabama. Moderates in the movement worked with Congress to achieve the passage of several significant pieces of federal legislation that overturned discriminatory practices and authorized oversight and enforcement by the federal government.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 expressly banned discrimination based on race, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 restored and protected voting rights for minorities by authorizing federal oversight of registration and elections in areas with historic under-representation of minorities as voters; the Fair Housing Act of 1968 banned discrimination in the rental of housing. African Americans re-entered politics in the South, across the country young people were inspired to take action. From 1964 through 1970, a wave of inner-city riots in black communities undercut support from the white middle class, but increased support from private foundations; the emergence of the Black Power movement, which lasted from about 1965 to 1975, challenged the established black leadership for its cooperative attitude and its practice of nonviolence. Instead, its leaders demanded that, in addition to the new laws gained through the nonviolent movement and economic self-sufficiency had to be developed in the black community.
Many popular representations of the movement are centered on the charismatic leadership and philosophy of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. who won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in non-violent, moral leadership. However, some scholars note that the movement was too diverse to be credited to any one person, organization, or strategy. Before the American Civil War four million blacks were enslaved in the South, only white men of property could vote, the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only. But some free states of the North extended the franchise and other rights of citizenship to African Americans. Following the Civil War, three constitutional amendments were passed, including the 13th Amendment that ended slavery. From 1865 to 1877, the United States underwent a turbulent Reconstruction Era trying to establish free labor and civil rights of freedmen in the South after the end of slavery. Many whites resisted the social changes, leading to insurgent movements such as the Ku Klux Klan, whose members attacked black and white Republicans to maintain white supremacy.
In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant, the U. S. Army, U. S. Attorney General Amos T. Akerman, initiated a campaign to repress the KKK under the Enforcement Acts; some states were reluctant to enforce the federal measures of the act. In addition, by the early 1870s, other white supremacist and insurgent paramilitary groups arose that violently opposed African-American legal equality and suffrage and suppressing black voters, assassinating Republican officeholders. However, if the states failed to implement the acts, the laws allowed the Federal Government to ge
Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island
Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island is an 8,095-acre military installation located within Port Royal, South Carolina 5 miles south of Beaufort, the community, associated with the installation. MCRD Parris Island is used for the training of enlisted Marines. Male recruits living east of the Mississippi River and female recruits from all over the United States report here to receive their initial training. Male recruits living west of the Mississippi River receive their training at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego, but may train at Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island by special request. A French Huguenot expedition, led by Jean Ribault in 1562, was the first European group to attempt to colonize Parris Island. Earlier Spanish expeditions had sighted the area, named it "Punta de Santa Elena", which now remains one of the oldest continuously used European place names in the United States; the French expedition built an outpost named Charlesfort, Ribault left a small garrison as he returned to France for colonists and supplies.
After a long absence, due to Ribault's delay from wars in Europe, Charlesfort was abandoned after the garrison mutinied, built a ship on the island, sailed back to France in April 1563. In 1566 the Spanish, led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founded a settlement named Santa Elena which became the capital of La Florida for the next decade. Spain abandoned Santa Elena in 1587. England took control of the region by the 17th century, Parris Island became home to British plantations after being purchased by Colonel Alexander Parris, treasurer of the South Carolina colony, in 1715. From the 1720s to the Civil War, the island was divided into a number of plantations growing indigo later cotton. During and after the Civil War, the island became home to freed slaves, was a site of freedmen schools taught by abolitionists such as Frances Gage and Clara Barton. Union forces captured Port Royal Sound in 1861, Parris Island became a coaling station for the Navy; this function was taken up again after the war, thanks in large part to the former slave turned Congressman Robert Smalls, who fought for the creation of a new federal military installation on the island.
Marines were first assigned to Parris Island on June 26, 1891, in the form of a small security detachment headed by First Sergeant Richard Donovan, two corporals and 10 privates. This unit was attached to the Port Royal, the forerunner of Parris Island. Donovan's unit was commended for preserving life and property during hurricanes and storm surges that swept over the island in 1891 and 1893. Military buildings and homes constructed between 1891 and World War I form the nucleus of the Parris Island Historic District. At the district center are the commanding general's home, a 19th-century wooden dry dock and a start of the 20th century gazebo—all of which are on the National Register of Historic Places. On November 1, 1915, Parris Island was designated a Marine Corps Recruit Depot and training was continued from on. Prior to 1929, a ferry provided all transportation to and from the island from Port Royal docks to the Recruit Depot docks. In that year the causeway and a bridge over Archer's Creek were completed, thus ending the water transportation era.
The causeway was dedicated as the General E. A. Pollock Memorial Causeway in April 1984. During the fateful December 1941, 5,272 recruits arrived there with 9,206 arriving the following month, making it necessary to add the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Recruit Training Battalions; as the war influx continued, five battalions were sent to New River, North Carolina, to train, the Depot expanded to 13 battalions. From 1941 through 1945, the Marines trained 204,509 recruits here and at the time of the Japanese surrender, the Depot contained more than 20,000 recruits. On February 15, 1949, the Marines activated a separate "command" for the sole purpose of training female recruits; this command was designated the 4th Recruit Training Battalion and it now serves as the only battalion in the Corps for training female recruits, is the only all-female unit in the Department of Defense. The Korean War began in 1950. From until the 1st Marine Division withdrew from Korea, Parris Island drill instructors trained more than 138,000 recruits.
During March 1952, the training load peaked at 24,424 recruits. The recruit tide again flooded during the years of the Vietnam War, reaching a peak training load of 10,979 during March 1966. On the night of April 8, 1956, the Ribbon Creek incident resulted in the drowning of six recruits, led to widespread changes in recruit training policies. Supervision of drill instructors was expanded, such as the introduction of the Series Commander. On October 11, 2002, the Town of Port Royal annexed the entire island, although most visitors still associate the installation with Beaufort, a larger community five miles to the north. On June 17, 2011, Brigadier General Lori Reynolds became the first female commander of the base. At the next change of command on June 20, 2014, Brigadier General Terry Williams became the first African-American commander of the base; the Marines train about 17,000 recruits at Parris Island each year. Recruit training for those enlisted in the United States Marine Corps includes a thirteen-week process during which the recruit becomes cut off from the civilian world and must adapt to a Marine Corps lifestyle.
During training, the drill instructors train recruits in a wide variety of subjects including weapons training, Marine Corps Martial Arts Program, personal hygiene and cleanliness, close order drill, Marine Corps history. The training emphasizes physical fitness and combat effectivene